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ScPO4 · 2H2O
Colourless, light ...
Vitreous, Pearly
3 - 5
After Dr. Friedrich Ludwig Wilhelm Kolbeck (1860-1943), German mineralogist, Mining Academy, Freiberg, Germany.
Metavariscite Group.

Compare also Unnamed (As-analogue of kolbeckite).

A very rare secondary mineral in phosphate deposits and some hydrothermal veins.

Classification of Kolbeckite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

C : Phosphates without additional anions, with H2O
D : With only medium-sized cations, RO4:H2O = 1:2

4 : (AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O

19 : Phosphates
9 : Phosphates of rare earths and Sc

Physical Properties of Kolbeckite

Vitreous, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Colourless, light yellow; when impure: cyan-blue, blue-gray, apple-green
Hardness (Mohs):
3 - 5
On {010}, distinct, on {100} and {001}, poor.
2.36 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.35 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Kolbeckite

Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.572 - 1.575 nβ = 1.590 nγ = 1.598 - 1.601
Measured: 60° , Calculated: 74°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.026
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r < v strong
Only in coloured material.

Chemical Properties of Kolbeckite

ScPO4 · 2H2O
Elements listed in formula:

Crystallography of Kolbeckite

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.442 Å, b = 10.2513 Å, c = 8.9094 Å
β = 90.253°
a:b:c = 0.531 : 1 : 0.869
Unit Cell Volume:
V 497.03 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals commonly short prismatic [001], with prominent {110}, {011}, and less prominent {010}, {101}, and {130}. Platy crystals in radiating aggregates less common.
On {100}, common. May exhibit diagonal sutures on {001}.
Pseudo-orthorhombic; Space group: P21/n

Occurrences of Kolbeckite

Type Occurrence of Kolbeckite

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Mining Academy, Freiberg, Germany: #50268. U.S. National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., USA: #10632.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Relationship of Kolbeckite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
MetavarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
PhosphosideriteFePO4 · 2H2O
UM2005-02-AsO:AlHPScSiScAsO4 · 2H2O
8.CD.CastellaroiteMn32+(AsO4)2 · 4.5H2O
8.CD.05MetavarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
8.CD.05PhosphosideriteFe3+PO4 · 2H2O
8.CD.05UM2005-02-AsO:AlHPScSiScAsO4 · 2H2O
8.CD.10MansfielditeAlAsO4 · 2H2O
8.CD.10ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
8.CD.10StrengiteFe3+PO4 · 2H2O
8.CD.10VarisciteAlPO4 · 2H2O
8.CD.10YanomamiteInAsO4 · 2H2O
8.CD.15ParascoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
8.CD.20LudlamiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 4H2O
8.CD.25SterlinghilliteMn32+(AsO4)2 · 3H2O
8.CD.30RollanditeCu3(AsO4)2 · 4H2O
19.9.2Churchite-(Y)YPO4 · 2H2O
19.9.6Rhabdophane-(Ce)CePO4 · H2O
19.9.7Rhabdophane-(La)LaPO4 · H2O
19.9.8Rhabdophane-(Nd)NdPO4 · H2O

Other Names for Kolbeckite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Other Information:
Decomposed by acids.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Kolbeckite

Reference List:
Schrauf (1879) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 3: 352 (as Eggonite).

Edelmann (1926) Berg.- und hüttenmännisches Sachsen, Jahrbuch: 100: 74A.

Krenner (1929) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 27 (as Sterrettite).

Thurnwald and Benedetti-Pichler (1932) Mikrochem.: 11: 200.

American Mineralogist (1940): 25: 513.
Larsen, E.S. and Arthur Montgomery (1940) American Mineralogist: 25: 513 (as Sterrettite).

Bannister (1941) Mineralogical Magazine: 26:131 (as Sterrettite).

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 965-966 (as Sterrettite), 1015-1016 (as Kolbeckite).

Mrose, M.E. and B. Wappner (1959) New data on the hydrated scandium phosphate minerals: sterrettite, “eggonite”, and kolbeckite. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America: 70: 1648–1649 (abstract).

American Mineralogist (1960): 45: 257.

Hey, M.H., C. Milton, and E.J. Dwornik (1982) Eggonite (kolbeckite, sterrettite), ScPO4 •2H2O. Mineralogical Magazine: 46: 493.

Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR (1992): 322: 1963.

Bull, I., Young, V., Teat, S. J., Peng, L., Grey, C. P. & Parise, J. B. (2003): Hydrothermal Synthesis and structural characterization of four scandium phosphate frameworks. Chemistry of Materials 15, 3818-3825.

Internet Links for Kolbeckite URL:
Please feel free to link to this page.

Localities for Kolbeckite

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
  • New South Wales
    • Northumberland Co.
      • Woy Woy
        • Woy Woy Peninsula
ENGLAND, B. M. & TURNER, K. E. (1988): An Occurrence of Kolbeckite (Eggonite) ScPO4.2H2O from the Central Coast, New South Wales, Australia. Austral. Mineral. 3(4), 151-156.
  • Styria
    • Bad Gleichenberg
      • Klause
Postl, W. (1981): Kolbeckite, a rare hydrated scandium phosphate from a Klause quarry near Gleichenberg, Styria, Austria. Mitteilungsbl. - Abt. Mineral. Landesmus. Joanneum 49, 301-307. (in German); R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
Czech Republic
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Karlovy Vary Region
      • Horní Slavkov (Schlaggenwald)
        • Krásno (Schönfeld)
Sejkora, J., Škoda, R., Ondruš, P., Beran, P. & Susser, C. (2006): Mineralogy of phosphate accumulations in the Huber stock, Krásno ore district, Slavkovský les area, Czech Republic. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 51, 103-147.
          • Vysoký Kámen
Sejkora, J., Ondruš, P., Fikar, M., Veselovský, F., Mach, Z. & Gabašová, A. (2006): New data on mineralogy of the Vysoký Kámen deposits near Krásno, Slavkovský les area, Czech Republic. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 51, 43-55.
    • Plzeň Region
      • Rokycany (Rokitzan; Rokytzan)
Janouš, F.: Minerály z Kněží hory u Těškova (okres Rokycany), Minerál, 1995, roč. 3, č. 6, s. 367-369; Lehrieder, E. and Cerný, P. (1999): Der Steinbruch am Hügel Knezský bei Teskov in Böhmen/Tschechien. Aufschluss 50, 79-95. (in German)
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
  • Katanga (Shaba)
    • Katanga Copper Crescent
      • Shinkolobwe
Mineralogical Record: 20: 287-288.
  • Viti Levu
    • Tavua Gold Field
      • Vatukoula
Birch, W. D. (2015): A note on kolbeckite from the Emperor mine, Viti Levu, Fiji. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 17, 91-93.; Museum Victoria (Australia) collection, no. M40094
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Pleystein
DILL, H.G., MELCHER, F., GERDES, A. and WEBER, B. (2008): The origin and zoning of hypogene and supergene Fe-Mn-Mg-Sc-U-REE-Zn phosphate mineralization from the newly discovered Trutzhofmühle aplite (Hagendorf pegmatite province, Germany). Canadian Mineralogist 46, 1131-1157.; Dill, H. G., Melcher, F., Gerdes, A., & Weber, B. (2008). The origin and zoning of hypogene and supergene Fe–Mn–Mg–Sc–U–REE phosphate mineralization from the newly discovered Trutzhofmühle aplite, Hagendorf pegmatite province, Germany. The Canadian Mineralogist, 46(5), 1131-1157.
      • Waidhaus
Dill, H.G., Weber, B., Füssl, M., Melcher, F. (2006): The origin of the hydrous scandium phosphate, kolbeckite, from the Hagendorf-Pleystein pegmatite province, Germany. Mineralogical Magazine, 70, 281-290.
  • Hesse
    • Wiesbaden
      • Medenbach
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Siegerland
      • Betzdorf
        • Schutzbach
    • Westerwald
      • Wied Iron Spar District
        • Neuwied
          • Dernbach
Belendorff, K. (2012) Neuigkeiten von der Grube Schöne Aussicht bei Dernbach. Mineralienwelt, 23(5), 28-37.
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
      • Schmiedeberg
F. Edelmann (1926): Kolbeckit, ein neues sächsisches Mineral.- Jahrbuch für das Berg- u. Hüttenwesen in Sachsen 100, A73-A74; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1016; Frank Zschäbitz, Walter Hajek, Roland Stenzel (2011): Neufunde von Kolbeckit, Hübnerit und Roscherit aus Sadisdorf, Sachsen. Lapis, 36 (7-8), 37-39.
  • Piedmont
    • Cuneo Province
      • Roburent
        • San Giacomo
          • I Cardin
Palenzona, A. (1993): La kolbeckite di Bric Colmè, CN. Riv. Mineral. Ital., 16, 3 (3-1993), 188-189.
  • Sardinia
    • Cagliari Province
      • Sarroch
Orlandi P., Gelosa M., Bonacina E., Caboni F., Mamberti M., Tanca G.A., Vinci A. (2015): Sette nuove specie mineralogiche della Sardegna. I minerali della mineralizzazione a molibdeno e bismuto di Su Seinargiu (CA). Riv. Mineral. Ital., 39, 2, 84-115.
  • Kyushu Region
    • Kagoshima Prefecture
      • Satsumasendai City
Takahiro Tanaka, Masato Nagahara, Haruo Takahashi, Masahiro Hashimoto, Takashi Yamada, Ritsuro Miyawaki, Koichi Momma, Masako Shigeoka, Akiko Tokumoto, Satoshi Matsubara (2015) Sc phosphate minerals in hydrothermal quartz veins from Satsumasendai City, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan.
(specimens widely distributed in japanese collections since 2015)
  • Coast Province
Liferovich, R.P., Subbotin, V.V., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Lyalina, M.F. (1998) A new type of scandium mineralization in phoscorites and carbonatites of the Kovdor Massif, Russia. The Canadian Mineralogist, 36, 971-980.
  • Guarda District
    • Gouveia
      • Folgosinho
Alves, P (2016). Folgosinho: Fosfatos secundarios de la mina Sitio do Castelo. Revista de Minerales 2015/2, 6-27. (in Spanish).
  • Covasna Co.
Fehér, B., Szakáll, S. & Zajzon, N. (2012): Kolbeckite from Bixad, Romania: The first authentic occurrence in the Carpathians. Acta Mineralogica-Petrographica, Abstract Series, 7, 43.
  • Maramureș Co.
    • Baia Sprie (Felsőbánya)
1-Rădulescu Dan, Dimitrescu Radu, 1966, Mineralogia Topografică a României, Ed. Academiei RSR, 1966, p.322-323.
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Primorskiy Kray
POPOV, V. A. & POPOVA, V. I. (1992): Kolbeckite ScPO4.2H2O. First Discovery in Russia. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 322, 963-965. (in Russian).
  • Arkansas
    • Garland Co.
      • Wilson Springs (Potash Sulfur Springs)
        • Union Carbide Mine
Rocks & Minerals (1995): 70(3): 154-170.
    • Hot Spring Co.
      • Magnet Cove
Min News (1998) 14:4 pp 1,2,5; Henry Barwood - unpublished (2010)
Rocks & Min.: 63:109.
  • Utah
    • Utah Co.
      • Oquirrh Mts
        • Fairfield
Liferovich, R.P., Subbotin, V.V., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Lyalina, M.F. (1998) A new type of scandium mineralization in phoscorites and carbonatites of the Kovdor Massif, Russia. The Canadian Mineralogist, 36, 971-980.;
Rocks & Minerals (1970): 45(11): 667-674.;Wilson, W. (2010): The Clay Canyon Variscite Mine, Fairfield Utah. Mineralogical Record. 41:321-349.
  • Wisconsin
    • Rusk Co.
      • Ladysmith
Jones, C., J. Jones & G. LaBerge, G. (1999) The Flambeau Mine, Ladysmith, Wisconsin. Mineralogical Record, 30 (2), 107-131
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