SUPPORT US. If is important to you, click here to donate to our Fall 2019 fundraiser!
Log InRegister
Home PageAbout MindatThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusWho We AreContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatCorporate SponsorshipSponsor a PageSponsored PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
Learning CenterWhat is a mineral?The most common minerals on earthInformation for EducatorsMindat ArticlesThe ElementsBooks & Magazines
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralRandom LocalitySearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
Mining CompaniesStatisticsUsersMineral MuseumsMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day GalleryMineral Photography


This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Hide all sections | Show all sections

About LaihuniteHide

Dark brown
Crystal System:
Member of:
After the type locality, Laihe Fe deposit, near Laihe village, Qianshan District, Anshan Prefecture, Liaoning Province, China.
Olivine Group.
Corresponds to a strongly oxidised, vacancy-bearing fayalite.
The "polytypes" 1M, 2M and 3M seem to be distinct intermediate phases (between laihunite and fayalite) with defined stoichiometries (Xu et al., 2014): 2M has a 1:1 ratio and 3M a 1:0.5 ratio.

Classification of LaihuniteHide


9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
C : Nesosilicates without additional anions; cations in octahedral [6] coordination

51 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
3 : Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
19 : Silicates of Fe

Physical Properties of LaihuniteHide

Dark brown
Brown, light

Chemical Properties of LaihuniteHide

IMA Formula:
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of LaihuniteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M)
Space Group:
Space Group Setting:
Cell Parameters:
Unit Cell Volume (calc):
Fe2+1 Fe3+21(SiO4)2  
2/m - Prismatic  
a = 4.80 Å, b = 10.20 Å, c = 5.80 Å
α = 91.39°

a:b:c = 0.471 : 1 : 0.569  

Warning: deg2rad() expects parameter 1 to be float, string given in /home/mindat/www/include.php on line 9237
V 0.00 ų
(Calculated from Unit Cell)

Type Occurrence of LaihuniteHide

Synonyms of LaihuniteHide

Other Language Names for LaihuniteHide

Relationship of Laihunite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
AsimowiteFe2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Imma
Calcio-olivineCa2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
FayaliteFe2+2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
ForsteriteMg2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
GlaucochroiteCaMn2+SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
KirschsteiniteCaFe2+SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
LarniteCa2SiO4Mon. 2/m
OlivineEquivalent to Fayalite-Forsterite Series; usually a more or less Fe-bearing forsterite.Orth.
Roepperite (of Brush)(Fe2+2,Mn,Zn)SiO4
TephroiteMn2+2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
6 photos of Laihunite associated with FayaliteFe2+2SiO4

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.AC.AhrensiteSiFe2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
9.AC.05FayaliteFe2+2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AC.05ForsteriteMg2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AC.05GlaucochroiteCaMn2+SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AC.05KirschsteiniteCaFe2+SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
9.AC.05TephroiteMn2+2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AC.15BrunogeieriteGe4+Fe2+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
9.AC.15Ringwoodite(Mg,Fe2+)2SiO4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.AC.20ChesnokoviteNa2[SiO2(OH)2] · 8H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Ibca

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m),Mg)2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.19.1FayaliteFe2+2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
14.19.2FerrosiliteFeSiO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
14.19.7CronstedtiteFe2+2Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4Trig. 3m : P3 1m
14.19.8HisingeriteFe3+2(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2OMon.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for LaihuniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Laihunite Research Group, Guiyang Institute of Geochemistry, Academia Sinica and 101 Geological Team of Liaoning, Metallurgical and Geological Prospecting Company (1976): Laihunite - a new iron silicate mineral. Geochimica 1976(2), 95-103 (in Chinese with English abstract). - American Mineralogist (1977), 62, 1058 (abstract).
X-ray Laboratory, Guiyang Institute of Geochemistry, Academica Sinica (1976): The crystal structure of laihunite. Geochimica 1976(2), 104-6 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Shen Buming, Osamu Tamada, Masao Kitamura, and Nobuo Morimoto (1982): Superstructure of laihunite Fe(2+)0.5Fe(3+)1.0SiO4. Scientia Geologica Sinica 1982(3), 341-42 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Tamada, O., Shen, B., Morimoto, N. (1983): The crystal structure of laihunite (◻0.40Fe2+0.80Fe3+0.80SiO4) - nonstoichiometric olivine-type mineral. Mineralogical Journal 11, 382-391.
Kitamura, M., Shen, B., Banno, S., Morimoto, N. (1984): Fine textures of laihunite, a nonstoichiometric distorted olivine-type mineral. American Mineralogist 69, 154-160.
Kondoh, S., Kitamura, M., Morimoto, N. (1985): Synthetic laihunite (◻xFe2+2-3xFe3+2xSiO4), an oxidation product of olivine. American Mineralogist 70, 737-746.
Sueno, S., Matsuura, S., Prewiit, C. T. (1985): Fe-deficient olivine structure type minerals from Colorado, U.S.A. and Japan. Mineralogical Journal 12, 376-92.
Zou Bensan and Guo Kexin (1986): HREM study of Laihenite. Acta Mineralogica Sinica 6(3), 217-19 (in Chinese with English abstract).- American Mineralogist (1986), 71, 1455-1460 (abstract).
Shen, B., Tamada, O., Kitamura, M., Morimoto, N. (1986) Superstructure of laihunite-3M (◻0.40Fe2+0.80Fe3+0.80SiO4), American Mineralogist 71, 1455-1460.
Dyar, M. D., Delaney, J. S., Sutton, S. R., Schaefer, M. W. (1998): Fe3+ distribution in oxidized olivine: a synchrotron micro-XANES study. American Mineralogist 83, 1361-1365.
Khisina, N. R., Khramov, D. A., Kleschev, A. A., Langer, K. (1998): Laihunitization as a mechanism of olivine oxidation. European Journal of Mineralogy 10, 229-238.
Naotaka TOMIOKA, Andreas MORLOK, Chiyoe KOIKE, Melanie KÖHLER, Monica GRADY (2012): Laihunite in planetary materials: An FTIR and TEM study of oxidized synthetic and meteoritic Fe-rich olivine. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences 106, 157-166.
Xu, H., Shen, Z., Konishi, H., Fu, P., Szlufarska, I. (2014): Crystal structures of laihunite and intermediate phases between laihunite-1M and fayalite: Z-contrast imaging and ab initio study. American Mineralogist, 99, 881-889.

Internet Links for LaihuniteHide

Localities for LaihuniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Queen Maud Land
      • Queen Fabiola Mts (Yamato Mts)
Gyollai, I., Kereszturi, A., Chatzitheodoridis, E. (2016): Analysis of altered mineral phases in Yamato 593 Martian meteorite. 47th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference: pdf no. 1911
    • Transantarctic Mts
      • Miller Range
Ling, Z., & Wang, A. (2015). Spatial distributions of secondary minerals in the Martian meteorite MIL 03346, 168 determined by Raman spectroscopic imaging. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, 120(6), 1141-1159.
  • Salzburg
    • Hohe Tauern
      • Kaprun valley
        • Kaprun
Kolitsch, U. & Brandstätter, F. (2012): 1750) Anglesit, Apatit, Azurit, Fayalit, Humboldtin, Laihunit, Magnetit, Vonsenit und eine Cu-S-Si-O-H-Phase aus einer Kupferschlacke vom Lechnerberg bei Kaprun, Salzburg. Pp. 153-155 in Niedermayr, G. et al. (2012): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXI. Carinthia II, 202./122., 123-180.
China (TL)
  • Liaoning
    • Anshan
      • Qianshan District
Laihunite Research Group, Guiyang Institute of Geochemistry, Academia Sinica and 101 Geological Team of Liaoning, Metallurgical and Geological Prospecting Company (1976). Laihunite - a new iron silicate mineral. Geochimica 1976(2), 95-103.
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Puy-de-Dôme
      • Châtelguyon
        • Charbonnières-les-Varennes
C. Lemanski, Jr. (re-entry of lost Mindat data).
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Mayen-Koblenz
      • Mayen
        • Ettringen
          • Bellerberg volcano
Blass, G., Graf, H.W., Neufunde von bekannten Fundorten (14), Mineralien-Welt 6/4, 37, 1995
  • Fukushima
    • Kawamata
      • Iizaka Village (Iisaka)
Sueno, S., Matsuura, S., Bunno, M., & Kurosawa, M. (2002). Occurrence and crystal chemical features of protoferro-anthophyllite and protomangano-ferro-anthophyllite from Cheyenne Canyon and Cheyenne Mountain, USA and Hirukawa-mura, Suisho-yama, and Yokone-yama, Japan. Journal of mineralogical and petrological sciences, 97(4), 127-136.
  • Gifu
    • Nakatsugawa City
Sueno, S., Matsuura, S., Bunno, M., & Kurosawa, M. (2002). Occurrence and crystal chemical features of protoferro-anthophyllite and protomangano-ferro-anthophyllite from Cheyenne Canyon and Cheyenne Mountain, USA and Hirukawa-mura, Suisho-yama, and Yokone-yama, Japan. Journal of mineralogical and petrological sciences, 97(4), 127-136.
  • Kanagawa
Kondo et al (1984) Koubutsu-Gakkai Kou’en-Youshi, 136.
  • Shizuoka
    • Atami City
Knut Eldjarn collection
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
  • Colorado
    • El Paso Co.
      • Cheyenne Mining District (St. Peters Dome Mining District)
"Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 14, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
[AmMin 84:196]
      • Crystal Park
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
  • Oregon
    • Lane Co.
      • McKenzie Pass
        • North Sister Mountain
Microprobe Vol 9 #4, November 2001, Minerals of Obsidian Cliffs, McKenzie Pass, Lane Co, Oregon; Martin, A.M.,Médard, M.,Devouard, B., Keller, L. P., Righter, K., Devidal, J-L., and Rahman, Z. (2015): Fayalite oxidation processes in Obsidian Cliffs rhyolite flow, Oregon. American Mineralogist: 100: 1153–1164.
Mineral and/or Locality is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization. Public Relations by Blytheweigh.
Copyright © and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2019, except where stated. Most political location boundaries are © OpenStreetMap contributors. relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: September 20, 2019 00:08:30 Page generated: September 11, 2019 03:26:23
Go to top of page