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Langite

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Viktor von Lang (1838 – 1921)
Formula:
Cu4SO4(OH)6 · 2H2O
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Blue, greenish-blue
Lustre:
Vitreous, Silky
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Name:
Named by Nevil Story-Maskelyne in 1864 in honor of Victor von Lang (2 March 1838, Vienna, Austrian Empire - 3 July 1921, Vienna, Austria), physicist and crystallographer, Professor of Physics, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. At the time of the mineral's discovery von Lang was employed at the British Museum (1862-1864). He became a pioneer of crystal physics.
Dimorph of:
A secondary copper mineral formed from the oxidation of copper sulphides.
Often forms pseudohexagonal twins. Some habits are easily confused with posnjakite and wroewolfeite.

May be altered to brochantite.


Classification of Langite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:
1864
7.DD.10

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
D : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, with H2O
D : With only medium-sized cations; sheets of edge-sharing octahedra
31.4.3.1

31 : HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
4 : (AB)4(XO4)Zq·xH2O
25.2.9

25 : Sulphates
2 : Sulphates of Cu and Ag

Physical Properties of Langite

Vitreous, Silky
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent
Comment:
Crusts somewhat silky.
Colour:
Blue, greenish-blue
Hardness (Mohs):
2½ - 3
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
On {001} and {010}.
Density:
3.48 - 3.5 g/cm3 (Measured)    
Comment:
Measured values on Cornwall material.

Optical Data of Langite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.708 nβ = 1.760 nγ = 1.798
2V:
Measured: 65° , Calculated: 78°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.090
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
r > v weak
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X = c = Light yellowish green
Y = b = Blue-green
Z = a = Sky-blue

Chemical Properties of Langite

IMA Formula:
Cu4SO4(OH)6 · 2H2O
Elements listed in formula:

Crystallography of Langite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
m - Domatic
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.118 Å, b = 6.031 Å, c = 11.209 Å
β = 90°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.18 : 1 : 1.859
Unit Cell Volume:
V 481.19 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Crystals small; equant or elongated [100]; lath-like, scales; fibro-lamellar crusts; earthy.
Twinning:
Common on {110}. Repeated in part as aggregates flattened {001} rendering star-shaped twins.
Comment:
Space group Pc; metrically pseudo-orthorhombic

Crystallographic forms of Langite

Crystal Atlas:
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Langite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Langite no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Langite no.3 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
7.063 (10)
3.567 (9)
2.662 (7)
2.616 (7)
2.493 (8)
2.134 (9)
1.773 (7)

Occurrences of Langite

Paragenetic Mode(s):

Type Occurrence of Langite

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Natural History Museum, Vienna, Austria, A.a.4353.

Relationship of Langite to other Species

7.DD.05FelsőbányaiteAl4(SO4)(OH)10 · 4H2O
7.DD.10PosnjakiteCu4SO4(OH)6 · H2O
7.DD.10WroewolfeiteCu4SO4(OH)6 · 2H2O
7.DD.15SpangoliteCu6AlSO4(OH)12Cl · 3H2O
7.DD.20Ktenasite(Cu,Zn)5(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2O
7.DD.25ChristeliteZn3Cu2(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2O
7.DD.30CampigliaiteCu4Mn2+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2O
7.DD.30DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
7.DD.30OrthoserpieriteCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
7.DD.30SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
7.DD.30NiedermayriteCu4Cd(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2O
7.DD.30EdwardsiteCu3Cd2(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2O
7.DD.35Carrboydite(Ni1-xAlx)(SO4)x/2(OH)2 · nH2O (x<0.5, n>3x/2)
7.DD.35GlaucoceriniteZn1-xAlx(SO4)x/2(OH)2 · nH2O (x<0.5, n>3x/2)
7.DD.35Honessite(Ni1-xFex3+)(SO4)x/2(OH)2 · nH2O (x < 0.5, n < 3x/2)
7.DD.35Hydrohonessite(Ni1-xFex3+)(SO4)x/2(OH)2 · nH2O (x < 0.5, n > 3x/2)
7.DD.35Motukoreaite[Mg6Al3(OH)18][Na0.6(SO4,CO3)2 · 12H2O]
7.DD.35MountkeithiteMg11Fe33+(SO4)3.5(OH)24 · 11H2O
7.DD.35ShigaiteNaAl3Mn62+(SO4)2(OH)18 · 12H2O
7.DD.35WermlanditeMg8Al2(OH)18(SO4)2 · 12H2O
7.DD.35Woodwardite(Cu,Al)9(SO4)2(OH)18 · nH2O
7.DD.35Zincaluminite(Zn,Al)9(SO4)2(OH)18 · nH2O
7.DD.35Hydrowoodwardite(Cu1-xAlx)(SO4)x/2(OH)2 · nH2O (x < 0.5, n > 3x/2)
7.DD.35ZincowoodwarditeZn1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2O (x=0.32-0.50)
7.DD.35NatroglaucoceriniteZn8-xAlx(OH)16(SO4)x/2+y/2Nay(H2O)6
7.DD.35NikischeriteNaFe62+Al3(SO4)2(OH)18(H2O)12
7.DD.40LawsonbaueriteMn92+Zn4(SO4)2(OH)22 · 8H2O
7.DD.40TorreyiteMg9Zn4(SO4)2(OH)22 · 8H2O
7.DD.45MooreiteMg15(SO4)2(OH)26 · 8H2O
7.DD.50NamuwiteZn4SO4(OH)6 · 4H2O
7.DD.55BechereriteZn7Cu(OH)13[SiO(OH)3SO4]
7.DD.60RamsbeckiteCu15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2O
7.DD.65VonbezingiteCa6Cu3(SO4)3(OH)12 · 2H2O
7.DD.70RedgilliteCu6SO4(OH)10 · H2O
7.DD.75ChalcoalumiteCuAl4SO4(OH)12 · 3H2O
7.DD.75Nickelalumite(Ni,Cu)Al4(SO4,(NO3)2)(OH)12 · 3H2O
7.DD.75KyrgyzstaniteZnAl4SO4(OH)12 · 3H2O
7.DD.80GuarinoiteZn6SO4(OH)10 · 5H2O
7.DD.80Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
7.DD.80ThérèsemagnaniteNaCo4(SO4)(OH)6Cl · 6H2O
7.DD.80UM1992-30-SO:CCuHZn(Zn,Cu)7(SO4,CO3)2(OH)10 · 3H2O
7.DD.85MontetrisaiteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · 2H2O
25.2.1ChalcocyaniteCuSO4
25.2.2BonattiteCuSO4 · 3H2O
25.2.3ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
25.2.4BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2O
25.2.5DolerophaniteCu2OSO4
25.2.6AntleriteCu32+SO4(OH)4
25.2.7BrochantiteCu4SO4(OH)6
25.2.8PosnjakiteCu4SO4(OH)6 · H2O
25.2.10WroewolfeiteCu4SO4(OH)6 · 2H2O
25.2.11KröhnkiteNa2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2O
25.2.12NatrochalciteNaCu2(SO4)2(OH) · H2O
25.2.13PiypiteK4Cu4O2(SO4)4 · (Na,Cu)Cl
25.2.14FedotoviteK2Cu3O(SO4)3
25.2.15CyanochroiteK2Cu(SO4)2 · 6H2O
25.2.16EuchlorineKNaCu3O(SO4)3
25.2.17DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2O
25.2.18LeightoniteK2Ca2Cu(SO4)4 · 2H2O
25.2.19ChalcoalumiteCuAl4SO4(OH)12 · 3H2O
25.2.20CyanotrichiteCu4Al2SO4(OH)12 · 2H2O
25.2.21Woodwardite(Cu,Al)9(SO4)2(OH)18 · nH2O
25.2.22CampigliaiteCu4Mn2+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2O
25.2.23GuilditeCuFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 4H2O
25.2.24RansomiteCuFe23+(SO4)4 · 6H2O
25.2.26KlyuchevskiteK3Cu3Fe3+O2(SO4)4
25.2.27PoiteviniteCuSO4 · H2O
25.2.28ArgentojarositeAgFe33+(SO4)2(OH)6

Other Names for Langite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Langit
Russian:Лангит
Simplified Chinese:蓝铜矾
Spanish:Langita
Traditional Chinese:藍銅礬

Other Information

Other Information:
Insoluble in water. Readily soluble in acids or ammonia.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Langite

Reference List:
Field (1862) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 24: 123.

Maskelyne, N.S. (1864) Notices of recent discoveries. New Cornish mineral ('Langite'). The Geological Magazine: 1: 48-48.

Maskelyne, N.S. (1864) New British mineral. Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 27: 316.

Pisani, M. (1864) Analysis of langite, a new mineral from Cornwall. The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 28: 403-404.

Maskelyne, N.S. in: Pisani, M. (1864) Minéralogie. - Analyse de la langite, nouveau minéral du Cornouailles. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences: 59: 633.

Church, A.H. (1865) On some hydrated cupric oxysulphates from Cornwall. Journal of the Chemical Society, London: 18: 83-88.

Maskelyne, N.S. (1865) On new Cornish minerals of the brochantite group. The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 24: 473-476.

Brezina (1879) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 3: 374.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 961.

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 5: 116.

Hintze, C. (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 4385.

Koritnig (1941) Zentralblatt für Mineralogie: 154.

Meixner, H. (1941) Langit aus Cornwall und von Eschach (Schladminger Tauern), Steiermark. Zentralblatt für Mineralogie: 11.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 583-585.

Galy, J., Jaud, J., Pulou, R., Sempère, R. (1984) Structure cristalline de la langite, Cu4[SO4(OH)6H2O]·H2O. Bulletin de Minéralogie: 107: 641-648.

Gentsch, M., Weber, K. (1984) Structure of langite, Cu4[(OH)6| SO4].2H2O. Acta Crystallographica: C40: 1309-1311.

Martens, W., Frost, R.L., Kloprogge, J.T., Williams, P.A. (2003) Raman spectroscopic study of the basic copper sulphates - implications for copper corrosion and ‘bronze disease’. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy: 34: 145-151.

Frost, R.L. (2003) Raman spectroscopy of selected copper minerals of significance in corrosion. Spectrochimica Acta Part A-Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy: 59: 1195-1204.

Frost, R.L., Williams, P.A., Martens, W., Leverett, P., Kloprogge, J.T. (2004) Raman spectroscopy of basic copper (II) and some complex copper (II) sulfate minerals: Implications for hydrogen bonding. American Mineralogist: 89: 1130-1137.

Internet Links for Langite

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Specimens:
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Localities for Langite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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