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Viktor von Lang (1838 – 1921)
Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
Blue, greenish-blue
Vitreous, Silky
2½ - 3
Specific Gravity:
3.48 - 3.5
Crystal System:
Named by Nevil Story-Maskelyne in 1864 in honor of Victor von Lang (2 March 1838, Vienna, Austrian Empire - 3 July 1921, Vienna, Austria), physicist and crystallographer, Professor of Physics, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria. At the time of the mineral's discovery von Lang was employed at the British Museum (1862-1864). He became a pioneer of crystal physics.
Dimorph of:
A secondary copper mineral formed from the oxidation of copper sulphides.
Often forms pseudohexagonal twins. Some habits are easily confused with posnjakite and wroewolfeite.

May be altered to brochantite.

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Classification of LangiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
D : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, with H2O
D : With only medium-sized cations; sheets of edge-sharing octahedra

4 : (AB)4(XO4)Zq·xH2O

25 : Sulphates
2 : Sulphates of Cu and Ag

Physical Properties of LangiteHide

Vitreous, Silky
Crusts somewhat silky.
Blue, greenish-blue
2½ - 3 on Mohs scale
On {001} and {010}.
3.48 - 3.5 g/cm3 (Measured)    
Measured values on Cornwall material.

Optical Data of LangiteHide

Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.708 nβ = 1.760 nγ = 1.798
Measured: 65° , Calculated: 78°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.090
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r > v weak
X = c = Light yellowish green
Y = b = Blue-green
Z = a = Sky-blue

Chemical Properties of LangiteHide

Cu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
IMA Formula:
Cu4SO4(OH)6 · 2H2O

Crystallography of LangiteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
m - Domatic
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.118 Å, b = 6.031 Å, c = 11.209 Å
β = 90°
a:b:c = 1.18 : 1 : 1.859
Unit Cell V:
481.19 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals small; equant or elongated [100]; lath-like, scales; fibro-lamellar crusts; earthy.
Common on {110}. Repeated in part as aggregates flattened {001} rendering star-shaped twins.
Space group Pc; metrically pseudo-orthorhombic

Crystallographic forms of LangiteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Langite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Langite no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Langite no.3 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by

Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
7.063 (10)
3.567 (9)
2.662 (7)
2.616 (7)
2.493 (8)
2.134 (9)
1.773 (7)

Occurrences of LangiteHide

Paragenetic Mode(s):

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Type Occurrence of LangiteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Natural History Museum, Vienna, Austria, A.a.4353.

Other Language Names for LangiteHide

Simplified Chinese:蓝铜矾
Traditional Chinese:藍銅礬

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Malachite57 photos of Langite associated with Malachite on
Brochantite48 photos of Langite associated with Brochantite on
Posnjakite27 photos of Langite associated with Posnjakite on
Linarite18 photos of Langite associated with Linarite on
Cerussite14 photos of Langite associated with Cerussite on
Devilline14 photos of Langite associated with Devilline on
Connellite13 photos of Langite associated with Connellite on
Cuprite9 photos of Langite associated with Cuprite on
Anglesite9 photos of Langite associated with Anglesite on
Redgillite8 photos of Langite associated with Redgillite on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.DD.05FelsőbányaiteAl4(SO4)(OH)10 · 4H2OMon. 2 : P21
7.DD.10PosnjakiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2OMon. m : Pm
7.DD.10WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2OMon. m : Pm
7.DD.15SpangoliteCu6Al(SO4)(OH)12Cl · 3H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
7.DD.20KtenasiteZn(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2OMon.
7.DD.25ChristeliteCu2Zn3(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2OTric.
7.DD.30CampigliaiteMn2+Cu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2OMon.
7.DD.30DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.DD.30OrthoserpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2OOrth. mm2 : Pca21
7.DD.30SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.DD.30NiedermayriteCdCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.DD.30EdwardsiteCu3Cd2(SO4)2(OH)6·4H2O Mon. 2/m : P21/b
7.DD.35Carrboydite[(Ni1-xAlx)(OH)2][SO4]x/2 · nH2OHex.
7.DD.35Glaucocerinite(Zn1-xAlx)(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2OHex.
7.DD.35Honessite(Ni1-xFe3+x)(OH)2[SO4]x/2 · nH2OTrig.
7.DD.35Hydrohonessite(Ni1-xFe3+x)(OH)2[SO4]x/2 · nH2OHex.
7.DD.35MotukoreaiteMg6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6][SO4]2 · 6H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.DD.35Mountkeithite[(Mg1-xFe3+x)(OH)2][SO4]x/2 · nH2OHex.
7.DD.35ShigaiteMn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6][SO4]2 · 6H2OTrig.
7.DD.35WermlanditeMg7Al2(OH)18[Ca(H2O)6][SO4]2 · 6H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3c1
7.DD.35WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2[SO4]x/2 · nH2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.DD.35ZincaluminiteZn6Al6(SO4)2(OH)16 · 5H2O
7.DD.35Hydrowoodwardite(Cu1-xAlx)(OH)2[SO4]x/2 · nH2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.DD.35ZincowoodwarditeZn1-xAlx(OH)2[SO4]x/2 · nH2OTrig.
7.DD.35NikischeriteFe2+6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6][SO4]2 · 6H2OTrig.
7.DD.40Lawsonbauerite(Mn2+,Mg)9Zn4(SO4)2(OH)22 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.DD.40Torreyite(Mg,Mn2+)72Mn2+2Zn4(SO4)2(OH)22 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.DD.45MooreiteMg92Mn2Zn4(SO4)2(OH)26 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
7.DD.50NamuwiteZn4(SO4)(OH)6 · 4H2OTrig. 3 : P3
7.DD.55BechereriteZn7Cu(OH)13[(SiO(OH)3(SO4)]Trig. 3 : P3
7.DD.60Ramsbeckite(Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2OMon. 2/m
7.DD.65VonbezingiteCa6Cu3(SO4)3(OH)12 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.DD.70RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.DD.75ChalcoalumiteCuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2OMon. 2 : P21
7.DD.75Nickelalumite(Ni,Cu)Al4(SO4,(NO3)2)(OH)12 · 3H2OMon.
7.DD.80GuarinoiteZn6(SO4)(OH)10 · 5H2OHex.
7.DD.80Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2OTrig.
7.DD.80UM1992-30-SO:CCuHZn(Zn,Cu)7(SO4,CO3)2(OH)10 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : P3
7.DD.85MontetrisaiteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · 2H2OOrth. mm2 : Cmc21

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.2.1ChalcocyaniteCuSO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
25.2.2BonattiteCuSO4 · 3H2OMon.
25.2.3ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2OTric. 1 : P1
25.2.4BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2OMon.
25.2.5DolerophaniteCu2(SO4)OMon. 2/m : B2/m
25.2.6AntleriteCu3(SO4)(OH)4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
25.2.7BrochantiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6Mon. 2/m : P21/b
25.2.8PosnjakiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2OMon. m : Pm
25.2.10WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2OMon. m : Pm
25.2.11KröhnkiteNa2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.2.12NatrochalciteNaCu2(SO4)2(OH) · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
25.2.13PiypiteK4Cu4O2(SO4)4 · (Na,Cu)ClTet.
25.2.14FedotoviteK2Cu3(SO4)3OMon. 2/m : B2/b
25.2.15CyanochroiteK2Cu(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m
25.2.17DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.2.18LeightoniteK2Ca2Cu(SO4)4 · 2H2OTric.
25.2.19ChalcoalumiteCuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2OMon. 2 : P21
25.2.20CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2OOrth.
25.2.21WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2[SO4]x/2 · nH2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
25.2.22CampigliaiteMn2+Cu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2OMon.
25.2.23GuilditeCuFe3+(SO4)2(OH) · 4H2OMon.
25.2.24RansomiteCuFe2(SO4)4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.2.27Poitevinite(Cu,Fe,Zn)SO4 · H2OTric.
25.2.28ArgentojarositeAgFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m

Other InformationHide

Insoluble in water. Readily soluble in acids or ammonia.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for LangiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Field (1862) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 24: 123.
Maskelyne, N.S. (1864) Notices of recent discoveries. New Cornish mineral ('Langite'). The Geological Magazine: 1: 48-48.
Maskelyne, N.S. (1864) New British mineral. Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 27: 316.
Pisani, M. (1864) Analysis of langite, a new mineral from Cornwall. The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 28: 403-404.
Maskelyne, N.S. in: Pisani, M. (1864) Minéralogie. - Analyse de la langite, nouveau minéral du Cornouailles. Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Séances de l’Académie des Sciences: 59: 633.
Church, A.H. (1865) On some hydrated cupric oxysulphates from Cornwall. Journal of the Chemical Society, London: 18: 83-88.
Maskelyne, N.S. (1865) On new Cornish minerals of the brochantite group. The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 24: 473-476.
Brezina (1879) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 3: 374.
Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 961.
Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 5: 116.
Hintze, C. (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 4385.
Koritnig (1941) Zentralblatt für Mineralogie: 154.
Meixner, H. (1941) Langit aus Cornwall und von Eschach (Schladminger Tauern), Steiermark. Zentralblatt für Mineralogie: 11.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 583-585.
Galy, J., Jaud, J., Pulou, R., Sempère, R. (1984) Structure cristalline de la langite, Cu4[SO4(OH)6H2O]·H2O. Bulletin de Minéralogie: 107: 641-648.
Gentsch, M., Weber, K. (1984) Structure of langite, Cu4[(OH)6| SO4].2H2O. Acta Crystallographica: C40: 1309-1311.
Martens, W., Frost, R.L., Kloprogge, J.T., Williams, P.A. (2003) Raman spectroscopic study of the basic copper sulphates - implications for copper corrosion and ‘bronze disease’. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy: 34: 145-151.
Frost, R.L. (2003) Raman spectroscopy of selected copper minerals of significance in corrosion. Spectrochimica Acta Part A-Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy: 59: 1195-1204.
Frost, R.L., Williams, P.A., Martens, W., Leverett, P., Kloprogge, J.T. (2004) Raman spectroscopy of basic copper (II) and some complex copper (II) sulfate minerals: Implications for hydrogen bonding. American Mineralogist: 89: 1130-1137.

Internet Links for LangiteHide

Localities for LangiteHide

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Locality ListShow

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