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About LansforditeHide

MgCO3 · 5H2O
Colorless (fresh), white (exposed); colourless in transmitted light.
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
After the town of Lansford, Pennsylvania, USA, near where it was initially found.
Stable for several months at RT (Nestola et al., 2017), but may slowly dehydrate, ultimately altering to nesquehonite.

Classification of LansforditeHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

C : Carbonates without additional anions, with H2O
A : With medium-sized cations

1 : A(XO3)·xH2O

11 : Carbonates
3 : Carbonates of Mg

Physical Properties of LansforditeHide

Colorless (fresh), white (exposed); colourless in transmitted light.
2½ on Mohs scale
Hardness Data:
On {001}, on {100} less perfect.
1.6 g/cm3 (Measured)    1.7 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of LansforditeHide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.465 nβ = 1.468 nγ = 1.507
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.042
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r > v strong

Chemical Properties of LansforditeHide

MgCO3 · 5H2O
IMA Formula:
Mg(CO3) · 5H2O

Crystallography of LansforditeHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.3458 Å, b = 7.6232 Å, c = 12.4737 Å
β = 101.722°
a:b:c = 0.964 : 1 : 1.636
Unit Cell V:
683.81 ų
Minute short-prismatic crystals [001]; also stalactitic.

Type Occurrence of LansforditeHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Small stalactites attached to carbonaceous shale.
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Harvard University
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Anthracite coal mine underground workings.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for LansforditeHide

Common AssociatesHide

HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
NesquehoniteMgCO3 · 3H2O
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Nesquehonite1 photo of Lansfordite associated with Nesquehonite on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

5.CA.05NesquehoniteMgCO3 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
5.CA.15BarringtoniteMgCO3 · 2H2OTric.
5.CA.20HellyeriteNiCO3 · 5.5H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

11.3.1MagnesiteMgCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
11.3.2BarringtoniteMgCO3 · 2H2OTric.
11.3.3NesquehoniteMgCO3 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
11.3.6ArtiniteMg2(CO3)(OH)2 · 3H2OMon.
11.3.7HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
11.3.8GiorgiositeMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 5-6H2O
11.3.9DypingiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 5H2OMon.

Other InformationHide

Effloresces readily, altering to nesquehonite. Soluble in dilute acids with effervescence.
Special Storage/
Display Requirements:
Slowly effloresces at room temperature, altering to nesquehonite.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for LansforditeHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Genth (1888) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 14: 255.
Genth and Penfield (1890) American Journal of Science: 39: 121.
Cesàro (1910) Académie royale des sciences de Belgique, Cl. sc., Bull., Brussels: 4: 234.
Leitmeier (1910) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 47: 104.
Poitevin (1924) American Mineralogist: 9: 225.
Fenoglio, M. (1933) Sulla lansfordite delle miniere d Cogne in Val D'Aosta. Periodico di Mineralogia: 4: 443.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 228-230.
Mineralogical Magazine (1982): 46: 341, 455.
Nestola, F., Kasatkin, A.V., Potapov, S.A., Chervyatsova, O.Ya., Lanza, A. (2017): First crystal-structure determination of natural lansfordite, MgCO3·5H2O. Mineralogical Magazine, 81, 767-775.

Internet Links for LansforditeHide

Localities for LansforditeHide

ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Styria
    • Leoben
      • Kraubath an der Mur
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
      • St Stefan ob Leoben
Offenbacher (1983)
Meixner, H. (1950): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 2(3), 195-209.
J.Taucher (2001)
  • Upper Austria
    • Gmunden
      • Hallstatt
        • Obertraun
Journal "Die Höhle"
  • British Columbia
    • Atlin Mining Division
American Mineralogist (1924): 9: 224; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 230.
  • Yukon
    • Dawson mining district
Wilson, S.A., Raudsepp, M. & Dipple, G.M. (2006) Verifying and quantifying carbon fixation in minerals from serpentine-rich mine tailings using the Rietveld method with X-ray powder diffraction data. American Mineralogist 91, 1331-1341.
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium; Lavreotiki Municipality)
      • Lavrion District Mines
        • Sounion area
          • Sounion Mines
Kolitsch, U., Rieck, B., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fabritz, K. H., Blaß, G. & Gröbner, J. (2014): Neufunde aus dem altem Bergbau und den Schlacken von Lavrion (I). Mineralien-Welt 25 (1), 60-75 (in German).
  • Aosta Valley
    • Cogne Valley
      • Cogne
Fenoglio, M. (1933) Sulla lansfordite delle miniere di Cogne in Val D'Aosta. Periodico di Mineralogia: 4: 443. Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 230. Gramaccioli, C.M. (1975) Minerali alpini e Prealpini-Edizioni Atlas Bergamo.
  • Piedmont
    • Torino Province
      • Lanzo Valleys
        • Viù Valley
          • Viù
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
  • Møre og Romsdal
    • Sunndal
      • Litjdalen
Taagvold, H. (2015): Verket kromgruve i Sunndal kommune, Møre og Romsdal. Stein. 42 (1), 4-6.
  • Trøndelag
    • Røros
Moore, A. C. & Hultin, I. (1980): Petrology, mineralogy, and origin of the Feragen ultramafic body, Sør-Trøndelag, Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 60, 235-254
  • Upper Silesia (Śląskie)
Warchulski, R., Gawęda, A., Szopa, K. (2014): Secondary phases from the Zn-Pb smelting slags from Katowice – Piekary Śląskie area, Upper Silesia, Poland: a SEM – XRD overview. Mineralogia Special Papers: 42: 110-111
  • Bratislava Region
    • Pezinok Co.
      • Pezinok
Majzlan J., Števko M., Lánczoš T. (2016): Soluble secondary minerals of antimony in Pezinok and Kremnica (Slovakia) and the question of mobility or immobility of antimony in mine waters. Environmental Chemistry, 13, 6, 927-935.
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Zermatt - Saas Fee area
      • Matt Valley
        • Zermatt
Lapis 32 (11) 12 (ad)
  • Arizona
Garvie, L. A. (2003). Decay-induced biomineralization of the saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea). American Mineralogist, 88(11-12), 1879-1888.
Corbett, R.G., Hanner, B.M., and Quick, T.J. (1989) Seeps and efflorescent minerals in the Grand Canyon: Predicted vs. identified phases [abs.]: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 21, no. 4, p. 8. Grant, Raymond W., Bideaux, R.A., and Williams, S.A. (2006) Minerals Added to the Arizona List 1995-2005: 5; Garvie, L.A.J. (2003) Decay-induced biomineralization of the saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantean). American Mineralogist: 88: 1879-1888.
  • Colorado
    • Jefferson Co.
      • Clear Creek pegmatite Province
        • Robinson Gulch pegmatite
Minerals of Colorado (1997), Eckel, E. B.
  • Pennsylvania
    • Carbon Co.
      • Lansford
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 230.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 226; The Mineralogy of Pennsylvania 1922-1965, A Montgomery. pgs 64-65. ref.2) The Mineralogy of Pennsylvania (1874-1922); S. Gordon pg. 68; Genth F A, Penfield S L (1890) On lansfordite, nesquehonite, a new mineral, and pseudomorphs of nesquehonite after lansfordite, The American Journal of Science, 139, 121-137
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