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Anhydrite

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Formula:
CaSO4
Colour:
Colourless, bluish, blue-grey, violet, burgundy-red, white, rose-pink, brownish, reddish, grey, dark grey; colourless in transmitted light
Lustre:
Vitreous, Greasy, Pearly
Hardness:
3 - 3½
Specific Gravity:
2.98
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Named in 1804 by Abraham Gottlob Werner from the Greek άνυδρος ("anhydros") meaning "without water", in allusion to the lack of water in its composition, in contrast to gypsum, which contains water.
Isostructural with Ferruccite; isostructural and isomorphous with α-BaSO4 and α-SrSO4.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Anhydrite.


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Classification of AnhydriteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
7.AD.30

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
A : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, without H2O
D : With only large cations
28.3.2.1

28 : ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
3 : AXO4
25.4.1

25 : Sulphates
4 : Sulphates of Ca, Sr and Ba

Pronounciation of AnhydriteHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of AnhydriteHide

Vitreous, Greasy, Pearly
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Comment:
Pearly on {010}
Colour:
Colourless, bluish, blue-grey, violet, burgundy-red, white, rose-pink, brownish, reddish, grey, dark grey; colourless in transmitted light
Streak:
White, off-white, greyish
Hardness:
3 - 3½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {010} perfect; on {100} nearly perfect; on {001} good to imperfect.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Splintery
Density:
2.98(1) g/cm3 (Measured)    2.95 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of AnhydriteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.567 - 1.574 nβ = 1.574 - 1.579 nγ = 1.609 - 1.618
2V:
Measured: 36° to 45°, Calculated: 44°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.042 - 0.044
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
Strong r < v
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
Violet coloured material: X = colourless to very light yellow or rose; Y = light violet or rose; Z = violet.

Chemical Properties of AnhydriteHide

Formula:
CaSO4
Common Impurities:
Sr,Ba,H2O

Crystallography of AnhydriteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.245(1) Å, b = 6.995(2) Å, c = 6.993(2) Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.893 : 1 : 1
Unit Cell V:
305.48 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals equant, or nearly so, with large pinacoidal faces. Also thick tabular on {010}, {100}, or {001}; elongated [100] or [001]. Massive. Fine granular to scaly; fibrous (either parallel, radiated or plumose) and frequently curved. Contorted concretionary forms (bowel stone).
Twinning:
1.) On {011} as contact twins and polysynthetic lamellae (may be produced by heating or pressure); 2.) On {120} as contact twins, rare.

Crystallographic forms of AnhydriteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Anhydrite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Anhydrite no.6 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Anhydrite no.19 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Anhydrite no.28 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Anhydrite no.32 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Anhydrite no.37 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.499 (100)
2.849 (29)
2.3282 (20)
2.2090 (20)
1.8692 (16)
1.7500 (11)
1.6483 (15)
(

Type Occurrence of AnhydriteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Mining Academy, Freiberg, Germany 16538

Synonyms of AnhydriteHide

Other Language Names for AnhydriteHide

Varieties of AnhydriteHide

AngeliteA trade name for a semi-transparent light blue-grey fine grained Anhydrite marketed as a gem material from Peru. The local little lapidary factories in Lima made it into balls, eggs, "wands", animal carvings etc. The name first appeared as a new age/metap...
Bowel StoneA variety of anhydrite distinguished by the pattern of formation, which resembles the recurring folds of a bowel.
VulpiniteA granular variety of Anhydrite. [Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index"']
Originally reported from Costa Volpino, Camonica Valley, Lombardy, Italy.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Calcite77 photos of Anhydrite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Quartz44 photos of Anhydrite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Fluorite21 photos of Anhydrite associated with Fluorite on mindat.org.
Pyrite20 photos of Anhydrite associated with Pyrite on mindat.org.
Dolomite18 photos of Anhydrite associated with Dolomite on mindat.org.
Gypsum18 photos of Anhydrite associated with Gypsum on mindat.org.
Halite9 photos of Anhydrite associated with Halite on mindat.org.
Rhodochrosite9 photos of Anhydrite associated with Rhodochrosite on mindat.org.
Boracite8 photos of Anhydrite associated with Boracite on mindat.org.
Galena8 photos of Anhydrite associated with Galena on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.AD.CalciolangbeiniteK2Ca2(SO4)3 Iso. 2 3 : P21 3
7.AD.05ArcaniteK2SO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.AD.05Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.AD.10MercalliteKHSO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.AD.15MiseniteK8H6(SO4)7Mon.
7.AD.20Letovicite(NH4)3H(SO4)2Tric.
7.AD.25GlauberiteNa2Ca(SO4)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
7.AD.35AnglesitePbSO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.AD.35BaryteBaSO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.AD.35CelestineSrSO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.AD.35OlsacheritePb2(SeO4)(SO4)Orth.
7.AD.40KalistrontiteK2Sr(SO4)2Trig.
7.AD.40Palmierite(K,Na)2Pb(SO4)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.4.2BassaniteCaSO4 · 0.5H2OMon. 2 : B2
25.4.3GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2OMon. 2/m
25.4.4GlauberiteNa2Ca(SO4)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
25.4.5CesaniteNa3Ca2(SO4)3(OH)Hex.
25.4.6EugsteriteNa4Ca(SO4)3 · 2H2OMon.
25.4.7HydroglauberiteNa10Ca3(SO4)8 · 6H2OMon.
25.4.8SyngeniteK2Ca(SO4)2 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
25.4.9GörgeyiteK2Ca5(SO4)6 · H2OMon.
25.4.10PolyhaliteK2Ca2Mg(SO4)4 · 2H2OTric. 1
25.4.11Koktaite(NH4)2Ca(SO4)2 · H2OMon.
25.4.12Ye'elimiteCa4Al6(SO4)O12Iso.
25.4.13EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
25.4.14BentoriteCa6(Cr3+,Al)2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
25.4.15CelestineSrSO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
25.4.16KalistrontiteK2Sr(SO4)2Trig.
25.4.17BaryteBaSO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma

Other InformationHide

Thermal Behaviour:
Inverts to α-CaSO4 at 1193°C. Melting Point = ~ 1450°C.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Anhydrite in petrologyHide

An essential component of (items highlighted in red)

References for AnhydriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
von Fichtel, J.E. (1794) Vom Lilalith. Mineralogische Aufsätze, Wien: 226-236. [as salzsaurer Kalk, Muriazit, schuppiger Gypsstein, footnote on p. 228 refering to Abbé Nicolaus Poda von Neuhaus].
Poda, A.N. (1794) Vom Lilalith. in: Mineralogische Aufsätze, Mathias Andreas Schmidt (Wein) 226-236.
Werner (1800). [as Würfelspath].
Haüy, R.J. (1801) Traité de minéralogie. First edition: in 4 volumes with atlas in fol.: 2. [as Soude muriatée gypsifère (of Hall); from Klaproth's analysis in Beiträge: 1: 307 (1795)].
Haüy, R.J. (1801) Chaux sulfatée anhydre, c'est-à-dire, privée d'eau. Traité de minéralogie. First edition: in 4 volumes with atlas in fol.: 4: 348-353. [as Chaux sulfatée anhydre (from Bex) Vauquelin].
Klaproth, M.H. (1803) Chemische Untersuchung des Muriacit. Neues Allgemeines Journal der Chemie: 1: 355-362.
Ludwig, C.F. (1803) Handbuch der Mineralogie nach A.G. Werner. 2 volumes, Leipzig: 1: 51, 166. [as Cube Spar].
Werner (1803). [as Anhydrit].
Flurl, M. (1804) Einige Bemerkungen über den wasserfreyen Gyps (Anhydrit) und den Muriacit oder Würfelspath. Physikalische Abhandlungen der Königlich - Baierischen Akademie der Wissenschaften: 2: 128-140.
Ludwig, C.F. (1804) A. G. Werners Mineral - System, Erste Klasse Erdige Fossilien, VI. Kalk - Geschlecht. Handbuch der Mineralogie nach A.G. Werner. 2 volumes, Leipzig: 2: 169,170. [as Kieselgyps; Vulpinit, Würfelgyps].
Klaproth, M.H. (1807) Chemische Untersuchung des Anhydrits. in: Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, vol. 4: 231. [as Anhydrit; Pierre de tripes].
Hausmann, J.F.L. (1813) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen. Second edition: 880. [as Karstenit].
Schrauf (1860) Königliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Sitzungsberichte, Vienna: 39: 887.
Hessenberg (1872) Senck. Ges. Frankfurt, Abh.: 8: 1.
Mügge (1883) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: II: 258.
Danker (1886) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, Beil.-Bd., Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 4: 272.
Goldschmidt, V. (1886) Index der Krystallformen der Mineralien. 3 volumes: vol. 1, 601pp.: 211.
Mülheims (1888) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie: 14: 228.
Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 910.
Zimányi (1893) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie: 22: 341.
Mügge (1898) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 71.
Vater (1899) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie: 31: 571.
Sommerfeldt (1907) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: I: 139 (as Metanhydrit).
Sommerfeldt (1909) Zentralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, Stuttgart: 22: 189 (as Metanhydrit).
Kolb (1911) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographieg: 49: 14: 25.
Goldschmidt, V. (1913) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 1: 56.
Emerson (1916) American Journal of Science: 42: 233.
Butler (1919) Economic Geology: 14: 581.
Veit (1922) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Beil.-Bd., Stuttgart: 45: 133.
Kinoshita (1925) Journal of the Geological Society of Tokyo: 32: 9.
Basche and Mark (1926) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie: 64: 22.
Dickson and Binks (1926) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 2: 114.
Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 (3B): 3735, 3780.
Schaller (1932) USGS Bulletin 832.
Berek and Strieder (1933) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie: 86: 212.
Tertsch (1934) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie: 87: 326.
Przibram (1936) Kali: 30: 61.
Posnjak (1940) American Journal of Science: 238: 559.
Engelhardt (1945) Chemie der Erde: 15: 424.
Zimmer, P.W. (1947) Anhydrite and gypsum in the Lyon Mountain magnetite deposit of the northeastern Adirondacks. American Mineralogist: 32: 647.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 407, 424-428.
Groves, A.W. (1958) Gypsum and Anhydrite, 108 p. Overseas Geological Surveys, London.
Höhne, E. (1962) A more accurate determination of the crystal structure of anhydrite, CaSO4. Soviet Physics - Crystallography: 7: 559-569.
Hardie, L.A. (1967) The gypsum-anhydrite equilibrium at one atmosphere pressure. American Mineralogist: 52: 171-200.
Hawthorne, F.C., Ferguson, R.B. (1975) Anhydrous sulphates. II. Refinement of the crystal structure of anhydrite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 13: 289-292.
Ramboz, C., Oudin, E., Thisse, Y. (1988) Geyser-type discharge in the Atlantis II Deep, Red Sea: evidence of boiling from fluid inclusions in epigenetic anhydrite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 26: 765-786.
Sarma, L.P., Prasad, P.S.R., Ravikumar, N. (1998) Raman spectroscopic study of phase transitions in natural gypsum. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy: 29: 851-856.
Majzlan, J., Navrotsky, A., Neil, J.M. (2002) Energetics of anhydrite, barite, celestine, and anglesite: a high-temperature and differential scanning calorimetry study. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 66: 1839-1850.
Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 25.
Freyer, D., Voigt, W. (2003) Crystallization and phase stability of CaSO4 and CaSO4-based salts. Monatshefte für Chemie: 134: 693-719.
Zimbelman, D.R., Rye, R.O., Breit, G.N. (2005) Origin of secondary sulfate minerals on active andesitic stratovolcanoes. Chemical Geology: 215: 37:60.
Walter, F. (2005) Anhydrit als Einschluß in alpinen Quarzen der Ostalpen. Carinthia II: 195./115., 85-96.
Walter, F., Ettinger, K. (2005) The origin of hollow tubes in Alpine quartz crystals. 3rd Symposion of the Hohe Tauern National Park for Research in Protected Areas, 245-249.
Lane, M.D. (2007) Mid-infrared emission spectroscopy of sulfate and sulfate-bearing minerals. American Mineralogist: 92: 1-18.
Christensen, A.N., Olesen, M., Cerenius, Y., Jensen, T.R. (2008) Formation and transformation of five different phases in the CaSO4-H2O system: Crystal structure of the subhydrate β-CaSO4·0.5H2O and soluble anhydrite CaSO4. Chemistry of Materials: 20: 2124-2132.
Walter, F. (2008) Anhydrit in Quarzkristallen aus den Ostalpen. Schweizer Strahler: 3: 10-14.
Bishop, J.L., Lane, M.D., Dyar, M.D., King, S.J., Brown, A.J., Swayze, G.A. (2014) Spectral properties of Ca-sulfates: gypsum, bassanite, and anhydrite. American Mineralogist: 99: 2105-2115.
Ossorio, M., Van Driessche, A.E.S., Pérez, P., García-Ruiz, J.M. (2014) The gypsum-anhydrite paradox revisited. Chemical Geology: 386: 16-21.
Huang, R., Keppler, H. (2015) Anhydrite stability and the effect of Ca on the behavior of sulfur in felsic magmas. American Mineralogist: 100: 257-266.
Nowak, M. (2015) Anhydrite: an important sulfur binder limiting the climatic impact of subaerial volcanic eruptions. American Mineralogist: 100: 341-342.

Internet Links for AnhydriteHide

Localities for AnhydriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow