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Laurionite

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Formula:
PbCl(OH)
Colour:
Colourless, white
Lustre:
Adamantine
Hardness:
3 - 3½
Specific Gravity:
6.241
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Named in 1887 by Rudolf Ignatz Koechlin after the type locality at Laurion, Greece. (Note that the type material consists of a piece of oxidised galena ore, not a slag.)
Dimorph of:

Classification of Laurionite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
3.DC.05

3 : HALIDES
D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
C : With Pb (As,Sb,Bi), without Cu
10.2.2.1

10 : OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
2 : A(O,OH)Xq
8.8.7

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
8 : Halides of Pb

Physical Properties of Laurionite

Adamantine
Transparency:
Transparent
Comment:
pearly on {100}
Colour:
Colourless, white
Hardness:
3 - 3½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Flexible
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
On {101}.
Density:
6.241 g/cm3 (Measured)    6.212 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Laurionite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 2.077 nβ = 2.116 nγ = 2.158
2V:
Measured: 70° , Calculated: 90°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.081
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
r < v strong

Chemical Properties of Laurionite

Formula:
PbCl(OH)

Crystallography of Laurionite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.111 Å, b = 9.6987 Å, c = 4.0203 Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.733 : 1 : 0.415
Unit Cell V:
277.27 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals elongated [010] thick to thin tabular {100}. Often sword-shaped morphology. {100} striated [021] at times. Significant form {812} is generally replaced, or accompanied, by vicinal faces. Also lenticular.

Crystallographic forms of Laurionite

Crystal Atlas:
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Laurionite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Laurionite no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Laurionite no.5 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Type Occurrence of Laurionite

Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of Laurionite

Other Language Names for Laurionite

Relationship of Laurionite to other Species

Other Members of this group:

Common Associates

AnglesitePbSO4
CerussitePbCO3
FiedleritePb3FCl4(OH) · H2O
ParalaurionitePbCl(OH)
PenfielditePb2Cl3(OH)
PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Nealite5 photos of Laurionite associated with Nealite on mindat.org.
Langite5 photos of Laurionite associated with Langite on mindat.org.
Phosgenite4 photos of Laurionite associated with Phosgenite on mindat.org.
Cumengeite3 photos of Laurionite associated with Cumengeite on mindat.org.
Botallackite2 photos of Laurionite associated with Botallackite on mindat.org.
Galena2 photos of Laurionite associated with Galena on mindat.org.
Anglesite2 photos of Laurionite associated with Anglesite on mindat.org.
Gypsum2 photos of Laurionite associated with Gypsum on mindat.org.
Kapellasite2 photos of Laurionite associated with Kapellasite on mindat.org.
Mimetite1 photo of Laurionite associated with Mimetite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping

3.DC.05ParalaurionitePbCl(OH)
3.DC.10FiedleritePb3FCl4(OH) · H2O
3.DC.15PenfielditePb2Cl3(OH)
3.DC.20LaurelitePb7F12Cl2
3.DC.25Bismoclite(BiO)Cl
3.DC.25Daubréeite(BiO)(OH,Cl)
3.DC.25MatlockitePbFCl
3.DC.25RorisiteCaFCl
3.DC.25Zavaritskite(BiO)F
3.DC.25ZhangpeishaniteBaFCl
3.DC.30NadoritePbSbClO2
3.DC.30PeritePbBiClO2
3.DC.35AravaipaitePb3AlF9 · H2O
3.DC.37CalcioaravaipaitePbCa2AlF9
3.DC.40ThorikositePb3Cl2(OH)(SbO3,AsO3)
3.DC.45MereheaditePb47Cl25(OH)13O24(CO3)(BO3)2
3.DC.50BlixitePb2(O,OH)2Cl
3.DC.55PinalitePb3WO5Cl2
3.DC.60SymesitePb10(SO4)O7Cl4 · H2O
3.DC.65EcdemitePb6Cl4(As2O7)
3.DC.65HeliophyllitePb6Cl4(As2O7)
3.DC.70MendipitePb3Cl2O2
3.DC.75DamaraitePb3Cl(OH)O2
3.DC.80OnoratoiteSb8Cl2O11
3.DC.85CotunnitePbCl2
3.DC.90PseudocotunniteK2PbCl4
3.DC.95BarstowitePb4Cl6(CO3) · H2O

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals Grouping

8.8.1AbhuriteSn21Cl16(OH)14O6
8.8.2MatlockitePbFCl
8.8.3LaurelitePb7F12Cl2
8.8.4CotunnitePbCl2
8.8.5MendipitePb3Cl2O2
8.8.6DamaraitePb3Cl(OH)O2
8.8.8ParalaurionitePbCl(OH)
8.8.9PenfielditePb2Cl3(OH)
8.8.10FiedleritePb3FCl4(OH) · H2O
8.8.11BlixitePb2(O,OH)2Cl
8.8.12PseudocotunniteK2PbCl4
8.8.13DiaboleitePb2CuCl2(OH)4
8.8.14PseudoboleitePb31Cu24Cl62(OH)48
8.8.15ChloroxiphitePb3CuO2Cl2(OH)2
8.8.17BideauxitePb2AgCl3(F,OH)2
8.8.18BoleiteKPb26Ag9Cu24(OH)48Cl62
8.8.19AravaipaitePb3AlF9 · H2O
8.8.20YedlinitePb6Cr3+Cl6(O,OH,H2O)8
8.8.21KolaritePbTeCl2
8.8.22HematophanitePb4Fe3O8(OH,Cl)

Other Information

Notes:
Slightly soluble in cold water, more soluble in warm water. Soluble in nitric acid.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Laurionite

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Köchlin, R. (1887): Ueber Phosgenit und ein muthmasslich neues Mineral vom Laurion. Annalen des K.K. Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums, 2, 185-190.
vom Rath (1887) Berichte Niederrheinische Gesellschaft für Natur und Heilkunde, Bonn: 102: 149.
Koechlin (1889) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 17: 112.
Hintze, Carl (1889) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [2B]: 2632.
Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 171.
Smith (1899) Mineralogical Magazine: 12: 106.
Ktenas (1910) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 33: 173.
Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 5: 124.
Palache, C. (1934). The form relations of the lead oxychlorides, laurionite, paralaurionite, and fiedlerite. Mineralogical Magazine 23, 573-586.
Goldsztaub (1937) Comptes rendu de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 208: 1234.
Brasseur (1940) Bulletin soc. roy. sc. Liége: 9: 166.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 62-64.
Cannillo E., Giuseppetti G., Tadini C. (1968) - Riesame della struttura della laurionite PbOHCl. Periodico di mineralogia – Roma, pp. 395-402.
Zeitschrift für Kristallographie (1975): 141: 246.
Merlino S., Pasero M., Perchiazzi N. (1993): Crystal structure of paralaurionite and its OD relationships with laurionite. Mineralogical Magazine 57, 323-328.
Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume III. Halides, Hydroxides, Oxides. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 628pp.: 307.

Internet Links for Laurionite

mindat.org URL:
https://www.mindat.org/min-2343.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Localities for Laurionite

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Robinson Co.
      • Cobar
Chapman, J. & Scott, K. (2005): Supergene minerals from the oxidised zone of the Elura (Endeavor) lead-zinc-silver deposit. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 11, 83-90. ; Leverett, P., McKinnon, A. R., & Williams, P. A. (2005). Supergene geochemistry of the Endeavor ore body, Cobar, NSW, and relationships to other deposits in the Cobar basin. Regolith 2005–Ten Years of CRC LEME, 191-194.
  • Tasmania
    • Central Coast municipality
http://www.crocoite.com/locationbulletins/part1/zeolites.pdf
Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
  • Western Australia
    • Ashburton Shire
Nickel, E.H., Gartrell, B.J. (1993) Secondary Minerals of Ashburton Downs Western Australia, Mineralogical Record (May-June 1993) 24:3: 203-218.
Nickel, E., Gartrell, B(1993): Secondary Minerals from Ashburton Downs Western Australia, Mineralogical Record (May-June 1993): 24:3:203-218
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Friesach - Hüttenberg area
      • Hüttenberg
        • Waitschach
U. Kolitsch and H. Pristacz (2009): An orthorhombic dimorph of barstowite, Pb4Cl6(CO3)•H2O, from slags at Maria Waitschach, Austria, and Lavrion, Greece. Poster, Joint MinPet 2009 and 4th MSCC, Budapest, Hungary, September 7-11; abstract in Mitt. Österr. Mineral. Ges. 155, 83.; Kolitsch, U., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fink, R. & Auer, C. (2013): Die Mineralogie der weltweit einzigartigen Schlacken von Waitschach, Kärnten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A, 115, 19-87 (in German).
Canada
 
  • Québec
    • Estrie
      • Les Sources RCM
        • Asbestos
HORVÁTH, L., PFENNINGER-HORVÁTH, E. and SPERTINI, F. (2013) The Jeffrey mine, Asbestos, Québec, Canada: A mineralogical review. Mineralogical Record, 44, 375-417.
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Central Bohemia Region
      • Příbram
RÜSENBERG, K. A. & PAULIŠ, P. (1996): Umbildungen und Neubildungen in den Schlackehalden der Blei- und Silberhütte von Příbram/ČR. Aufschluss 47, 267-287 (in German).
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • Moravia-Silesia Region
      • Karviná
        • Orlová
          • ČSA Mine
Jirásek J., Matýsek D., Osovský M., Sivek M.: Almandine-rich layers in the clastic sediments of the Saddle Member (Czech part of the Upper Silesian Basin). Bulletin mineralogicko-petrologického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 2016, 24, 2, 205-216.
France
 
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Loire
      • La Pacaudière
        • Le Crozet
Vernay, R. (1997): Le Crozet (Loire, France). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, no. 1, 9-22
  • Brittany
    • Côtes-d'Armor
      • Callac
        • Carnoët
          • Menez-Plom
P. Le Roch collection
    • Finistère
      • Poullaouen
Germain C., Leydet J-C., Saget Ph. (1990), Les minéraux de néoformation de Huelgoat (Finistère), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°3, 3-16
Germany
 
  • Hesse
    • Richelsdorf District
      • Nentershausen
        • Süß
          • Richelsdorf Smelter
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • Goslar
        • Astfeld
van den Berg, W. & van Loon, C. (1990): Slag Minerals from the Rammelsberg, Harz Mountains, Germany. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 8, 18-23.
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Eifel
      • Mechernich
        • Kall
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    • Ruhr Coal Mining area
      • Essen
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
      • Marl
        • Marl-Hüls
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Lahn valley
      • Bad Ems District
        • Braubach
Schnorrer, G. (1993): Mineralogische Notizen VI. Aufschluss, 44, 44-58.
Greece (TL)
 
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
Köchlin, R. (1887): Ueber Phosgenit und ein muthmasslich neues Mineral vom Laurion. Annalen des K.K. Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums, 2, 185-190
Smith, G. F. H. (1899): On some lead minerals from Laurium, namely, laurionite, phosgenite, fiedlerite, and (new species) paralaurionite. Mineralogical Magazine, 12, 102-110; Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Rewitzer, C., Standfuss, L. & Standfuss, K. (1988): Weitere Neufunde aus Lavrions antiken Schlacken. Lapis 13 (2), 11-14; Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996): Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags.; Grolig, H. & Grolig, E. (1978): Lavrion in Attika. Lapis, 3 (5), 16-25; 40 (in German).
        • Agios Nikolaos [St Nicholas] area
Fritz Schreiber collection (SXRD-analysed by Uwe Kolitsch)
        • Lavrion (Laurion; Laurium)
No reference listed
        • Oxygon area
No reference listed
        • Panormos area
No reference listed
        • Passa Limani area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Sounion area
van Kalmthout, P. (2012): De slakkenmineralen van Lavrion (Gr.) - Ontwikkelingen na 1996, inclusief een archeologische ontdekking. GEA, 45 (1), 14-19 (in Dutch); Fritz Schreiber Collection
van Kalmthout, P. (2012): De slakkenmineralen van Lavrion (Gr.) - Ontwikkelingen na 1996, inclusief een archeologische ontdekking. GEA, 45 (1), 14-19 (in Dutch).
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Thorikos area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Tourkolimanon area
No reference listed
        • Vrissaki area
Lacroix, A. & De Schulten, A. (1908): Note sur des minéraux plombifères des scories athéniennes du Laurion. Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie, 31, 79-90 (in French).; Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Israel
 
  • Negev
    • Makhtesh Ramon area (Ramon crater area)
Itamar, A. (1993): Hydrothermal alteration of quartz syenite in Shen Ramon, Israel: mineralogy, petrography and economic evaluation. Proc. Quadrenn. IAGOD Symp., 8th, 823-834.
Italy
 
  • Latium
    • Rome Province
      • Anzio
Marco Bonifazi Collection
  • Liguria
    • Genova Province
      • Genova
        • Varenna Valley
Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 2 (Avril/Juin), 175-188.
  • Lombardy
    • Lecco Province
      • Valsassina
        • Cortabbio
Luigi Possenti Collection
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Campigliese (Campiglia Mountains; Campiglia Ridge)
        • Campiglia Marittima
          • Madonna di Fucinaia (Madonna della Fucinaia) slag heaps
http://www.comune.pisa.it/apsn/Articoli/Scorie/Capattoli.htm
        • Sassetta
          • Canina Valley
Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
      • Piombino
Cerutti, G. and Preite, D. (1995): Mineralien der etruskischen Schlacken von Baratti, Toskana. Lapis, 20 (4), 13-18; 50 (in German).
South Africa
 
  • Mpumalanga Province
    • Nkangala District
      • Delmas
        • Argent
Minerals of South Africa
Tunisia
 
  • Mahdia Governorate
    • Mahdia
Kutzke, H., Barbier, B., Becker, P. & Eggert, G. (1997): Barstowite as a corrosion product on a lead object from the Mahdia shipwreck. Studies in Conservation 42, 176-180.
Turkmenistan
 
  • Balkan Province
    • Cheleken Peninsula
Lebedev, L.M., Nikitina, J.B. (1983): The Cheleken ore forming system. Russ. Acad. Sci., Moscow (in Russian.)
UK
 
  • England
    • Bristol
      • Westbury on Trym
BMS Database
    • Cornwall
      • Mount's Bay District
        • Porthleven
Russell, A and Hutchinson, A. (1927): On laurionite and associated minerals from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, 21, 221-228.; Dines, H.G. (1956): The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, pp. 241-242.
        • St Hilary
[UKJMM 20:7-37]
      • St Agnes District
        • Crantock
BMS Newsletter 79, March 2010 (http://britishmicromountsociety.homestead.com/Gannell-Smelter.html)
      • Wendron & Falmouth District
        • Feock
          • Penpol
Chollet Pascal collection
    • Somerset
      • Cranmore
Turner, R.W. and Rumsey, M.S. (2010): Mineral Relationships in the Mendip Hills. Journal of the Russell Society, vol 13, pp 3-46.
  • Wales
    • Ceredigion
      • Ceulanymaesmawr
        • Talybont
          • Nant-y-Moch Reservoir area
UKJMM
USA
 
  • California
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Silver Lake District
        • Soda Mts
          • Baker
            • Otto Mountain
Collected by Chuck Adan. EDS confirmed by Bob Housley.
  • New Mexico
    • Eddy Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Vietnam
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2011)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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