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About LaurioniteHide

Colourless, white
3 - 3½
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named in 1887 by Rudolf Ignatz Koechlin after the type locality at Laurion, Greece. (Note that the type material consists of a piece of oxidised galena ore, not a slag.)
Dimorph of:

Classification of LaurioniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First published:

D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
C : With Pb (As,Sb,Bi), without Cu

2 : A(O,OH)Xq

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
8 : Halides of Pb

Pronounciation of LaurioniteHide

PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of LaurioniteHide

pearly on {100}
Colourless, white
3 - 3½ on Mohs scale
On {101}.
6.241 g/cm3 (Measured)    6.212 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of LaurioniteHide

Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 2.077 nβ = 2.116 nγ = 2.158
Measured: 70° , Calculated: 90°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.081
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
r < v strong

Chemical Properties of LaurioniteHide


Crystallography of LaurioniteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.111 Å, b = 9.6987 Å, c = 4.0203 Å
a:b:c = 0.733 : 1 : 0.415
Unit Cell V:
277.27 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals elongated [010] thick to thin tabular {100}. Often sword-shaped morphology. {100} striated [021] at times. Significant form {812} is generally replaced, or accompanied, by vicinal faces. Also lenticular.

Crystallographic forms of LaurioniteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Laurionite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Laurionite no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Laurionite no.5 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
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Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0010776LaurioniteVenetopoulos C C, Rentzeperis P J (1975) The crystal structure of laurionite, Pb(OH)Cl Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie 141 246-25919750293
0011877LaurioniteWyckoff R W G (1963) Second edition. Interscience Publishers, New York, New York Crystal Structures 1 298-30619630293
0017980LaurioniteBrasseur H (1940) Etude roentgenographique de la laurionite Pb Cl (O H) _cod_database_code 1011083 Bulletin de la Societe Royal des Sciences de Liege 9 166-16919400293
0017924LaurioniteGoldsztaub S (1937) Structure cristalline de la laurionite _cod_database_code 1011017 Comptes Rendus Hebdomadaires des Seances de l'Academie des Sciences 204 702-70319370293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Saline water acting on lead slags. Oxidation zone in lead deposits.

Type Occurrence of LaurioniteHide

Associated Minerals at Type Locality:
Köchlin, R. (1887) Ueber Phosgenit und ein muthmasslich neues Mineral vom Laurion. Annalen des K.K. Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums: 2: 185-190.

Synonyms of LaurioniteHide

Other Language Names for LaurioniteHide

Relationship of Laurionite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
BismocliteBiOClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
DaubréeiteBiO(OH)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
MatlockitePbFClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
ParalaurionitePbCl(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/m

Common AssociatesHide

FiedleritePb3FCl4(OH) · H2O
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
5 photos of Laurionite associated with NealitePb4Fe2+(As3+O3)2Cl4 · 2H2O
5 photos of Laurionite associated with LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2O
4 photos of Laurionite associated with PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2
3 photos of Laurionite associated with CumengeitePb21Cu20Cl42(OH)40 · 6H2O
2 photos of Laurionite associated with BotallackiteCu2(OH)3Cl
2 photos of Laurionite associated with GalenaPbS
2 photos of Laurionite associated with AnglesitePbSO4
2 photos of Laurionite associated with GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
2 photos of Laurionite associated with KapellasiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2
1 photo of Laurionite associated with MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

3.DC.05ParalaurionitePbCl(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
3.DC.10FiedleritePb3FCl4(OH) · H2OMon. 2/m
3.DC.15PenfielditePb2Cl3(OH)Hex. 6 : P6
3.DC.20LaurelitePb7F12Cl2Hex. 6 : P6
3.DC.25BismocliteBiOClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
3.DC.25DaubréeiteBiO(OH)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
3.DC.25MatlockitePbFClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
3.DC.25ZhangpeishaniteBaFClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
3.DC.30NadoritePbSbClO2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
3.DC.30PeritePbBiClO2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
3.DC.35AravaipaitePb3AlF9 · H2OTric.
3.DC.37CalcioaravaipaitePbCa2AlF9Tric. 1
3.DC.40ThorikositePb3Cl2(OH)(SbO3,AsO3)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mmm
3.DC.45MereheaditePb47Cl25(OH)13O24(CO3)(BO3)2Mon. m
3.DC.60SymesitePb10(SO4)O7Cl4 · H2OTric. 1 : P1
3.DC.65EcdemitePb6Cl4(As2O7)Mon. 2 : P21
3.DC.70MendipitePb3Cl2O2Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
3.DC.75DamaraitePb3Cl(OH)O2Orth. mm2 : Pmc21
3.DC.80OnoratoiteSb8Cl2O11Tric. 1 : P1
3.DC.85CotunnitePbCl2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.DC.95BarstowitePb4Cl6(CO3) · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

8.8.2MatlockitePbFClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
8.8.3LaurelitePb7F12Cl2Hex. 6 : P6
8.8.4CotunnitePbCl2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
8.8.5MendipitePb3Cl2O2Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
8.8.6DamaraitePb3Cl(OH)O2Orth. mm2 : Pmc21
8.8.8ParalaurionitePbCl(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
8.8.9PenfielditePb2Cl3(OH)Hex. 6 : P6
8.8.10FiedleritePb3FCl4(OH) · H2OMon. 2/m
8.8.13DiaboleitePb2CuCl2(OH)4Tet. 4mm : P4mm
8.8.14PseudoboleitePb31Cu24Cl62(OH)48Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mmm
8.8.15ChloroxiphitePb3CuO2Cl2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
8.8.17BideauxitePb2AgCl3(F,OH)2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
8.8.18BoleiteKPb26Ag9Cu24(OH)48Cl62Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Pm3m
8.8.19AravaipaitePb3AlF9 · H2OTric.
8.8.20YedlinitePb6Cr3+Cl6(O,OH,H2O)8Trig. 3 : R3
8.8.22HematophanitePb4Fe3O8(OH,Cl)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)

Other InformationHide

Slightly soluble in cold water, more soluble in warm water. Soluble in nitric acid.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for LaurioniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Köchlin, R. (1887) Ueber Phosgenit und ein muthmasslich neues Mineral vom Laurion. Annalen des K.K. Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums: 2: 185-190.
vom Rath, G. (1887) Berichte Niederrheinische Gesellschaft für Natur und Heilkunde, Bonn: 102: 149.
De Schulten, M.A. (1897) Sur la production artificielle de la laurionite et de composes isomorphes avec celli-ci. Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie: 20: 186-191.
Köchlin (1889) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 17: 112.
Hintze, C. (1889) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [2B]: 2632.
Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 171.
Smith, G.F.H. and Prior, G.T. (1899) On some lead minerals from Laurium, namely, laurionite, phosgenite, fiedlerite, and (new species) paralaurionite. Mineralogical Magazine: 12(55): 102-110.
Ktenas, C.A. (1910) Sur les relations cristallographiques entre la laurionite et la paralaurionite. Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 33: 173.
Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 5: 124.
Russell, A. and Hutchinson, A. (1928) On laurionite and associated minerals from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine: 21(116): 221-228.
Palache, C. (1934) The form relations of the lead oxychlorides, laurionite, paralaurionite, and fiedlerite. Mineralogical Magazine: 23(146): 573-586.
Goldsztaub, S. (1937) Structure cristalline de la laurionite. Comptes rendu de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 204: 702-703.
Goldsztaub, S. (1939) Arrangement des atoms dans la laurionite PbOHCl. Comptes rendu de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 208: 1234-1235.
Brasseur, H. (1940) Etude roentgenographique de la laurionite PBOHCl. Bulletin de la Société Royale des Sciences de Liège: 9: 166-169.
Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 62-64.
Strunz, H. and Tennyson, C. (1956) Isotypie laurionit-contunnit. Rend. Soc. Min. Ital.: 12: 214-215.
Badikov, V.V. (1966) On the synthesis of laurionite under hydrothermal conditions. 169: 656-659.
Cannillo, E., Giuseppetti, G., and Tadini, C. (1969) Riesame della struttura della laurionite PbOHCl. Periodico di mineralogia – Roma: 395-402.
Venetopoulos, C.C. and Rentzeperis, P.J. (1975) The crystal structure of laurionite, Pb(OH)Cl. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 141: 246-259.
Merlino, S., Pasero, M., and Perchiazzi, N. (1993) Crystal structure of paralaurionite and its OD relationships with laurionite. Mineralogical Magazine: 57(387): 323-328.
Lutz, H.D., Beckenkamp, K., Kellersohn, T., Möller, H., Peter, S. (1996) Neutron and X-ray structure determination of laurionite-type Pb{O(H,D)}X, with X=Cl, Br, and I, Hydrogen Bonds to Lead (II) Ions as a Hydrogen-Bond Acceptor. Journal of Solid State Chemistry: 124: 156-161.
Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume III. Halides, Hydroxides, Oxides. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 628pp.: 307.

Internet Links for LaurioniteHide

Localities for LaurioniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • New South Wales
    • Robinson Co.
      • Cobar
Chapman, J. & Scott, K. (2005): Supergene minerals from the oxidised zone of the Elura (Endeavor) lead-zinc-silver deposit. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 11, 83-90. ; Leverett, P., McKinnon, A. R., & Williams, P. A. (2005). Supergene geochemistry of the Endeavor ore body, Cobar, NSW, and relationships to other deposits in the Cobar basin. Regolith 2005–Ten Years of CRC LEME, 191-194.
  • South Australia
    • Eyre Peninsula
      • Kimba
Paul, M. W., Cook, N. J., Ciobanu, C. L., Anderson, J., & Murray, J. (2015) Preliminary Mineralogical Investigations of the Paris Silver Deposit, Northern Eyre Peninsula, South Australia. Mineral Resources in a Sustainable World • 13th SGA Biennial Meeting 2015. Proceedings, Volume 1
    • Flinders Ranges
      • North Flinders Ranges
        • Mount Lyndhurst station
Toma, J. (2017): Mineral news from South Australia. Australian Journal of Mineralogy 18 (1), 68.
  • Tasmania
    • Central Coast municipality
Bottrill, R.S., Baker, W.E. (2008) A Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. Geological Survey Tasmania Bulletin 73, 254 pages.
  • Western Australia
    • Ashburton Shire
Nickel, E.H., Gartrell, B.J. (1993) Secondary Minerals of Ashburton Downs Western Australia, Mineralogical Record (May-June 1993) 24:3: 203-218.
Nickel, E., Gartrell, B(1993): Secondary Minerals from Ashburton Downs Western Australia, Mineralogical Record (May-June 1993): 24:3:203-218
  • Carinthia
    • Sankt Veit an der Glan District
      • Guttaring
        • Waitschach
U. Kolitsch and H. Pristacz (2009): An orthorhombic dimorph of barstowite, Pb4Cl6(CO3)•H2O, from slags at Maria Waitschach, Austria, and Lavrion, Greece. Poster, Joint MinPet 2009 and 4th MSCC, Budapest, Hungary, September 7-11; abstract in Mitt. Österr. Mineral. Ges. 155, 83.; Kolitsch, U., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fink, R. & Auer, C. (2013): Die Mineralogie der weltweit einzigartigen Schlacken von Waitschach, Kärnten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A, 115, 19-87 (in German).
  • Québec
    • Estrie
      • Les Sources RCM
        • Val-des-Sources
HORVÁTH, L., PFENNINGER-HORVÁTH, E. and SPERTINI, F. (2013) The Jeffrey mine, Asbestos, Québec, Canada: A mineralogical review. Mineralogical Record, 44, 375-417.
Czech Republic
  • Central Bohemian Region
    • Příbram District
      • Lhota u Příbramě
RÜSENBERG, K. A. & PAULIŠ, P. (1996): Umbildungen und Neubildungen in den Schlackehalden der Blei- und Silberhütte von Příbram/ČR. Aufschluss 47, 267-287 (in German).
  • Moravian-Silesian Region
    • Karviná District
      • Orlová
        • ČSA Mine
Jirásek J., Matýsek D., Osovský M., Sivek M.: Almandine-rich layers in the clastic sediments of the Saddle Member (Czech part of the Upper Silesian Basin). Bulletin mineralogicko-petrologického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 2016, 24, 2, 205-216.
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Loire
      • Roanne
        • Le Crozet
Vernay, R. (1997): Le Crozet (Loire, France). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, no. 1, 9-22
  • Brittany
    • Côtes-d'Armor
      • Guingamp
        • Carnoët
          • Menez-Plom
P. Le Roch collection
    • Finistère
      • Châteaulin
        • Poullaouen
Germain C., Leydet J-C., Saget Ph. (1990), Les minéraux de néoformation de Huelgoat (Finistère), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°3, 3-16
  • Hesse
    • Kassel Region
      • Hersfeld-Rotenburg
        • Nentershausen
          • Süß
            • Richelsdorf Smelter
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Lower Saxony
    • Goslar District
      • Langelsheim
        • Astfeld
van den Berg, W. & van Loon, C. (1990): Slag Minerals from the Rammelsberg, Harz Mountains, Germany. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 8, 18-23.
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Cologne
      • Euskirchen
        • Mechernich
          • Kall
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    • The Ruhr
      • Essen
Weiss, S. (1990) Mineralfundstellen Atlas, Deutschland West. Weise Verlag, München, 320 pages.
      • Marl
        • Marl-Hüls
Weiss, S. (1990) Mineralfundstellen Atlas, Deutschland West. Weise Verlag, München, 320 pages.
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Rhein-Lahn District
      • Loreley
        • Braubach
Schnorrer, G. (1993): Mineralogische Notizen VI. Aufschluss, 44, 44-58.
Greece (TL)
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
Köchlin, R. (1887): Ueber Phosgenit und ein muthmasslich neues Mineral vom Laurion. Annalen des K.K. Naturhistorischen Hofmuseums, 2, 185-190
Smith, G. F. H. (1899): On some lead minerals from Laurium, namely, laurionite, phosgenite, fiedlerite, and (new species) paralaurionite. Mineralogical Magazine, 12, 102-110; Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Rewitzer, C., Standfuss, L. & Standfuss, K. (1988): Weitere Neufunde aus Lavrions antiken Schlacken. Lapis 13 (2), 11-14; Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996): Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags.; Grolig, H. & Grolig, E. (1978): Lavrion in Attika. Lapis, 3 (5), 16-25; 40 (in German).
          • Agios Nikolaos area
Fritz Schreiber collection (SXRD-analysed by Uwe Kolitsch)
          • Lavrion (Laurion; Laurium)
No reference listed
          • Oxygon area
No reference listed
          • Panormos area
No reference listed
          • Passa Limani area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Sounion area
van Kalmthout, P. (2012): De slakkenmineralen van Lavrion (Gr.) - Ontwikkelingen na 1996, inclusief een archeologische ontdekking. GEA, 45 (1), 14-19 (in Dutch); Fritz Schreiber Collection
van Kalmthout, P. (2012): De slakkenmineralen van Lavrion (Gr.) - Ontwikkelingen na 1996, inclusief een archeologische ontdekking. GEA, 45 (1), 14-19 (in Dutch).
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Thorikos area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Tourkolimanon area
No reference listed
          • Vrissaki area
Lacroix, A. & De Schulten, A. (1908): Note sur des minéraux plombifères des scories athéniennes du Laurion. Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie, 31, 79-90 (in French).; Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
  • Southern District (HaDarom District)
    • Ramat Negev Regional Council
      • Makhtesh Ramon (Ramon crater)
Itamar, A. (1993): Hydrothermal alteration of quartz syenite in Shen Ramon, Israel: mineralogy, petrography and economic evaluation. Proc. Quadrenn. IAGOD Symp., 8th, 823-834.
  • Lazio
    • Metropolitan City of Rome Capital
      • Anzio
Marco Bonifazi Collection
  • Liguria
    • Genoa
      • Genoa
        • Varenna Valley
Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 2 (Avril/Juin), 175-188.
  • Lombardy
    • Lecco Province
      • Primaluna
        • Cortabbio
Luigi Possenti Collection
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Campiglia Marittima
        • Madonna di Fucinaia (Madonna della Fucinaia) slag heaps
      • Piombino
Franzini, M., Perchiazzi, N. (1992): I minerali delle scorie ferrifere etrusche di Baratti (Livorno). Atti della Società Toscana di Scienze Naturali, Memorie, Serie A, 99, 43-77; Franzini, M., Perchiazzi, N., Bartoli, M.L., Chiappino, L. (1992): Baratti (LI): una nuova località mineralogica italiana analoga al Laurion. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 15, 2 (2-1992), 67-75 [2a parte]; Cerutti, G., Preite, D. (1995): Mineralien der etruskischen Schlacken von Baratti, Toskana. Lapis, 20, 4, 13-18 and 50.
      • Sassetta
        • Canina Valley
Jansen, H. & van den Berg, W. (1998): Slakkenmineralen in Toscane (Italië). Gea, no. 4, 109-117 (in Dutch).
  • Nampula Province
    • Monapo
Hurai, V. (2015) Fluid inclusions in apatite indicate low-temperature, metasomatic-infiltration origin of the Evate carbonatite deposit (Mozambique). European Current Research On Fluid Inclusions (ECROFI-XXIII), Leeds - UK, 27 - 29 June, 2015, Extended Abstracts’ Volume
  • Nordland
    • Narvik
Husdal, T. (2019) Nyfunn av mineraler fra Tysfjord-pegmatittene, Nordland. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2019: 31-46
South Africa
  • Mpumalanga
    • Nkangala District
      • Delmas
        • Argent
Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa.
  • Mahdia
    • Mahdia
Kutzke, H., Barbier, B., Becker, P. & Eggert, G. (1997): Barstowite as a corrosion product on a lead object from the Mahdia shipwreck. Studies in Conservation 42, 176-180.
  • Balkan Province
    • Cheleken Peninsula
Lebedev, L.M., Nikitina, J.B. (1983): The Cheleken ore forming system. Russ. Acad. Sci., Moscow (in Russian.)
  • England
    • Bristol
      • Westbury on Trym
BMS Database
    • Cornwall
      • Crantock
BMS Newsletter 79, March 2010 (
      • Feock
        • Penpol
Chollet Pascal collection
      • Porthleven
Russell, A. and Hutchinson, A. (1927) On laurionite and associated minerals from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 21, n° 116, 221-228.; Dines, H.G. (1956) The metalliferous mining region of south-west England. HMSO Publications (London), Vol. 1, pp. 241-242.
      • St Hilary
Betterton, J. (2000) Famous Mineral Localities: Penberthy Croft Mine, St. Hilary, Cornwall, England. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, 20, 7-37.
    • County Durham
      • Healeyfield
Norman Wilson collection.
      • Stanhope
Norman Wilson collection
    • Somerset
      • Mendip
        • Cranmore
Turner, R.W. and Rumsey, M.S. (2010): Mineral Relationships in the Mendip Hills. Journal of the Russell Society, vol 13, pp 3-46.
  • Wales
    • Ceredigion
      • Ceulanymaesmawr
        • Talybont
  • California
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Silver Lake Mining District
        • Soda Mountains
          • Baker
            • Otto Mountain
Collected by Chuck Adan. EDS confirmed by Bob Housley.
  • Minnesota
    • St. Louis Co.
      • Ely-Hoyt Lakes Area
McSwiggen, P. L. (1999) Platinum-palladium group minerals, gold, silver, and cobalt in the Minnamax copper-nickel sulfide deposit, Duluth Complex, northeastern Minnesota. Minnesota Geological Survey Report of Investigations 54
  • New Mexico
    • Eddy Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2011)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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