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Lazurite

This page kindly sponsored by Richard Felicioni
Formula:
Na6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2, S3,Cl,OH)2
Often there is minor K substituting for Na.
The IMA takes the ideal formula with S as the dominant anion and not sulfate, from Hassan et al. 1985, but even that reference indicates that sulfate is dominant, making Lazurite either a sulfide rich variety of Hauyne or just a theoretical endmember of a series with hauyne.
System:
Isometric
Colour:
ultramarine, midnight ...
Lustre:
Resinous
Hardness:
5 - 5½
Name:
From the Persian "Lazhward" for "blue." Also for its dark blue color resemblance to "azurite." Both Lazurite and azurite derive from "Lazhward".

Dana (System of Mineralogy, 1868) considered lapis-lazuli to be the dark blue mineral in the lazulite-calcite rock of the same name, but these were renamed lazurite in 1891 Brögger W C, Bäckström H 1891.
Lazurite is the blue component of the 'gemstone' (or, more usually, decorative rock) Lapis Lazuli, which is a lazurite-calcite-pyrite rock that has been mined as a gem material for some 9,000 years. Dana (System of Mineralogy, 1868) actually considered lapis-lazuli to be the dark blue crystals in this rock, but these were renamed lazurite in 1891 Brögger W C, Bäckström H 1891.

However, all lazurites analysed to date represent only sulfide-rich varieties of Hauyne and not a separate species.Moore & Woodside, 2014 It probably needs redefining via the IMA; until then it formally remains as a hypothetical sulphide rich endmember of a series with hauyne, and all existing specimens labelled as sulphide-rich hauyne.

It is an ultramarine- to midnight-blue, opaque, and non-fluorescent mineral with a bright blue streak.

Some blue green and green "lazurites" (hauynes) have a small unit-cell edge. Since S is smaller than SO^4, these were mistakenly thought to be probably dominant in sulfur. These "lazurites" are translucent and fluorescent under long-wave UV and have a white streak just as hauyne has. The name lazurite should not be applied to the small-cell green hauynes.

Lazurite and hauyne are members of the Sodalite Group, in the feldspathoid family. The two sodalite cages in lazurite contain (Na,Ca)4(SO4,S3,S2). The situation is analogous to Hackmanite which is a sulfide-rich variety of sodalite.

It is difficult to determine the oxidation state of sulfur in a sodalite cage. S, S2, S3, S4,SO3, and SO4 have been suggested.Tauson et al. 2003]] ,[[4.

A possible triclinic dimorph (?) is known: UM1976-26-SiOSO:AlCaClHNa.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Lazurite.


Classification of Lazurite

'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
Approval History:
Based on Brögger W C, Bäckström H 1891]] the name lazurite was grandfathered by the IMA who later gave it Hassan's ideal formula, Na3Ca(Si3Al3)O12S [[2. The data used by Hassan all came from hauynes with approximately Na6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,Cl,OH)2 as no sulfide-dominant mineral required by Hassan's formula has been observed to date.

The situation is similar to sodalite and hackmanite. In sodalite Cl is the dominant cage filler and an ideal hackmanite would have S as the cage filler. Though S readily substitutes for Cl in sodalite, no sulfide-dominant species has ever been on observed. On that basis hackmanite never was approved, avoiding the approval of a hypothetical mineral. The situation has been reversed with lazurite and hauyne. What has been commonly called lazurite all has dominant SO4 and is sulfide-rich hauyne, just as all hackmanites are sulfide-rich sodalites.
9.FB.10

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
F : Tektosilicates without zeolitic H2O
B : Tektosilicates with additional anions
76.2.3.4

76 : TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
2 : Al-Si Framework Feldspathoids and related species
17.9.1

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
9 : Silicates with sulphide or sulphite

Physical Properties of Lazurite

Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent, Opaque
Colour:
ultramarine, midnight blue, bluish green, green
Comment:
Ultramarine to midnight blue are the usual gem colours. Modulated translucent blue and green small cell hauyne with a white streak has been called Lazurite
Streak:
Bright blue for Lazurite, White for the small cell Hauynes
Hardness (Mohs):
5 - 5½
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Imperfect/Fair
Imperfect on {110}
Fracture:
Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
2.38 - 2.45 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.4(1) g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Variable density results from varible sodalite cage contents

Optical Data of Lazurite

Type:
Isotropic
RI values:
n = 1.502 - 1.522
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.000 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:
Low
Comments:
Anomalously anisotropic.

Chemical Properties of Lazurite

Formula:
Na6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S,S2, S3,Cl,OH)2

Often there is minor K substituting for Na.
The IMA takes the ideal formula with S as the dominant anion and not sulfate, from Hassan et al. 1985, but even that reference indicates that sulfate is dominant, making Lazurite either a sulfide rich variety of Hauyne or just a theoretical endmember of a series with hauyne.
Idealised Formula:
Na3Ca(Si3Al3)O12S
Elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Fe,Mg,K,H2O

Crystallography of Lazurite

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
4 3m - Hextetrahedral
Space Group:
P4 3n
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.09Å
Unit Cell Volume:
V 751.09 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
1
Morphology:
Dodecahedrons, cubes, granular, disseminated, massive.
Twinning:
None observed
Comment:
Has monoclinic and triclinic polymorphs and modulated structures. Modulated green Lazurite from Baffin Island ( Hassan et al (1985)) and Ladjuar Medan ( F. Camara ( 2009) Priv. Comm.) both have a cell edge of 9.05 A.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Occurrences of Lazurite

Paragenetic Mode(s):

First Recorded Occurrence of Lazurite

Geological Setting of First Recorded Material:
In calcic skarns and marbles at Sar-e-Sang.

Relationship of Lazurite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
Haüyne(Na,K)3(Ca,Na)(Al3Si3O12)(SO4,S,Cl)
NoseanNa8(Al6Si6O24)(SO4) · H2O
SodaliteNa8(Al6Si6O24)Cl2
Tsaregorodtsevite(N(CH3)4)(AlSi5O12)
VladimirivanoviteNa6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)(SO4,S3,S2,Cl)2 · H2O
9.FB.05AfghaniteNa22Ca10(Si24Al24)O96(SO4)6Cl6
9.FB.05Bystrite(Na,K)7Ca(Si6Al6)O24(S3)1.5 · H2O
9.FB.05Cancrinite(Na,Ca,◻)8(Al6Si6)O24(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
9.FB.05CancrisiliteNa7(Si7Al5)O24(CO3) · 3H2O
9.FB.05Davyne(Na,K)6Ca2(Si6Al6)O24Cl3(SO4)0.5
9.FB.05Franzinite(Na,K)30Ca10(Si30Al30)O120(SO4)10 · 2H2O
9.FB.05GiuseppettiteNa42K16Ca6Si48Al48O192(SO4)10Cl2 · 5H2O
9.FB.05Hydroxycancrinite(Na,Ca,K)8(Al6Si6O24)(OH,CO3)2 · 2H2O
9.FB.05LiottiteNa16Ca8Si18Al18O72(SO4)5Cl4
9.FB.05MicrosommiteNa4K2Ca2(SO4)(Si6Al6O24)Cl2
9.FB.05PitiglianoiteK2Na6(Si6Al6)O24(SO4) · 2H2O
9.FB.05QuadridavyneNa6Ca2Si6Al6O24Cl4
9.FB.05Sacrofanite(Na,Ca)9(Si,Al)12O24(OH,SO4,CO3,Cl)4 · nH2O
9.FB.05Tounkite(Na,Ca,K)8(Si6Al6)O24(SO4)2Cl · 0.5H2O
9.FB.05VishneviteNa8(Al6Si6)O24(SO4) · 2H2O
9.FB.05MarinelliteNa42Ca6Al36Si36O144(SO4)8Cl2 · 6H2O
9.FB.05FarneseiteNa46Ca10(Si42Al42O168)(SO4)12 · 6H2O
9.FB.05Alloriite(Na,K,Ca)24(Na,Ca)4Ca4(Si,Al)48O96(SO4)4(SO3,CO3)2(OH,Cl)2 · 4(H2O,OH)
9.FB.05Fantappièite[Na82.5Ca33K16.5]Σ=132(Si99Al99O396)(SO4)33 · 6H2O
9.FB.05KyanoxaliteNa7(Al5-6Si6-7O24)(C2O4)0.5-1.0 · 5H2O
9.FB.05Balliranoite(Na,K)6Ca2(Si6Al6O24)Cl2(CO3)
9.FB.05CarbobystriteNa8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3) · 4H2O
9.FB.05DepmeieriteNa8(Al6Si6O24)(PO4,CO3)1-x · 3H2O; (x<0.5)
9.FB.05Kircherite(Na5Ca2K)(Si6Al6O24)(SO4)2 · 0.33H2O
9.FB.10BicchuliteCa2Al2SiO6(OH)2
9.FB.10DanaliteBe3Fe42+(SiO4)3S
9.FB.10GenthelviteBe3Zn4(SiO4)3S
9.FB.10HaüyneNa3Ca(Si3Al3)O12(SO4)
9.FB.10HelvineBe3Mn42+(SiO4)3S
9.FB.10KamaishiliteCa2(SiAl2)O6(OH)2
9.FB.10NoseanNa8(Si6Al6)O24(SO4) · H2O
9.FB.10SodaliteNa4Si3Al3O12Cl
9.FB.10TsaregorodtseviteN(CH3)4Si4(SiAl)O12
9.FB.10TugtupiteNa4BeAlSi4O12Cl
9.FB.15MarialiteNa4Al3Si9O24Cl
9.FB.15Meionite(Ca,Na)4(Si,Al)12O24(CO3,SO4,Cl)
9.FB.15SilvialiteCa4Al6Si6O24(SO4)
17.9.2JasmunditeCa11O2(SiO4)4S
17.9.3GenthelviteBe3Zn4(SiO4)3S
17.9.4HelvineBe3Mn42+(SiO4)3S
17.9.5DanaliteBe3Fe42+(SiO4)3S

Other Names for Lazurite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Lazurit
Norwegian (Bokmål):Lasuritt
Spanish:Lazurita

Other Information

The opaque ultramarine and midnight blue varieties are not fluorescent. The translucent green and blue hauynes have an orange brown fluorescence under Long Wave UV.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Lazurite in petrology

An essential component of (items highlighted in red)

References for Lazurite

Reference List:
Fischer, H. (1869) [Resultate seiner microscopisch-mineralogischen studien]. Neues Jahrbuch fuer Mineralogie 1869, 344-347.

Zirkel, Ferdinand (1873) Die mikroskopische Beschaffenheit der Mineralien und Gesteine. Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig, page 165.

Vogelsang, Hermann (1873) Über die natürlichen ultramarin-verbindungen, Med. Akad., Amsterdam, v. 7, page 161. (See also Über die natürlichen ultramarin-verbindungen, Max Cohen & Sohn, Bonn, pp. 39.

Brögger W C, Bäckström H (1891) Die mineralien der Granatgruppe. Zeitschrift für Krystallographie und Mineralogie, 18, 209-276.

Voskoboinikova, N. (1938) The mineralogy of the Slyudyanka deposits of lazurite. Zapiski Vserossiyskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva: 67: 601-622 (in Russian).

Hogarth, D.D. and Griffin, W.L. (1976) New data on lazurite. Lithos: 9: 39-54.

Hassan, I., Peterson, R. C., and Grundy, H. D. (1985) The structure of lazurite, ideally Na6Ca2(Al6Si6O24)S2, a member of the sodalite group. Acta Crystallographica: C41: 827-832.

American Mineralogist (1991): 76: 1734.

American Mineralogist (1993): 78: 849.

Tauson, V.L. and Sapozhnikov, A.N. (2003) Nature of lazurite coloration. Zapiski Vserossiyskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva: 132(5): 102-107.

Fleet, M. E., Liu, X., Harmer, S. L. and Nesbitt, H. W. (2005) Chemical state of sulfur in natural and synthetic lazurite by S K-edge XANES and X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy. Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 1589-1603.

Moore, T.P., Woodside, R. W. M. (2014) The Sar-e-Sang Lapis Mines. Mineralogical Record 45(3): 281-336.

Internet Links for Lazurite

mindat.org URL:
http://www.mindat.org/min-2357.html
Please feel free to link to this page.
Specimens:
The following Lazurite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Lazurite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Afghanistan
 
  • Badakhshan Province (Badakshan Province; Badahsan Province)
    • Jurm District
      • Koksha Valley (Kokscha Valley; Kokcha Valley)
        • Jurm (Firghamu; Firgamu)
RWMW Collection
    • Khash & Kuran Wa Munjan Districts
      • Koksha Valley (Kokscha Valley; Kokcha Valley)
Mountain Minerals specimen
John Attard PXRD
Dudley Blauwet priv. comm.(2008), RWMW collection
        • Sar-e Sang (Sar Sang; Sary Sang)
Mineralogical Record (2001) 32:253; Canadian Mineralogist (1979) 17:47-52 Moore, T.P.,Woodside, R.M.W. (2014): The Sar-e-Sang Lapis Mines, Kuran Wa Munjan district, Badakhshan Province, Afghanistan. Mineralogical Record 45 (3), 280-336
RWMW collection
Canada
 
  • Nova Scotia
    • Cumberland Co.
N.R. Goodman, "Gypsum in Nova Scotia and its Associated Minerals," Geology of Canadian Industrial Mineral Deposits, 1957.
  • Nunavut
    • Baffin Island
Canadian Mineralogist (1979) 17:47-52; D.D. Hogarth, W.L. Griffin, Lapis lazuli from Baffin island — a precambrian meta-evaporite, Lithos, Volume 11, Issue 1, 15 January 1978, Pages 37-60
  • Ontario
    • Carleton Co.
      • Gloucester Township
Analysis by Canadian Museum of Nature
    • Hastings Co.
      • Wollaston Township
Identified by Mineral Associates Inc. See message thread in external links for this locality.
Chile
 
  • Coquimbo Region
    • Limarí Province
      • Monte Patria
        • El Polvo
Maksaev, V., Townley, B., Palacios, C., and Camus, F. (2007): Metallic ore deposits. In: Moreno, T., and Gibbons, W. (editors): The Geology of Chile. The Geological Society (London), pp. 414.
      • Ovalle
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
British Natural History Museum online catalogue 2007
Italy
 
  • Basilicata
    • Potenza Province
Stoppa, F., and Liu, Y. (1995): European Journal of Mineralogy 7(2), 391-402
  • Campania
    • Naples Province
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
vom Rath, G., (1869): Krystallinischer Lasurstein vom Vesuv, Annalen der Physik und Chemie, Vol. 214, 491
          • Ercolano
Russo, M., Punzo, I. (2004): I Minerali del Somma-Vesuvio, AMI
            • San Vito
Russo, M., Punzo, I. (2004): I minerali del Somma-Vesuvio, AMI
        • Mt Vesuvius
          • Terzigno
Luigi Chiappino data
  • Latium
    • Rome Province
Federico, M., Peccerillo, A., (2002): Mineral chemistry and petrogenesis of granular ejecta from the Alban Hills volcano, Mineralogy and Petrology, Vol 74, 223-252
        • Ariccia
Christof Schäfer
Myanmar
 
  • Mandalay Region (Mandalay Division)
    • Pyin-Oo-Lwin District
      • Mogok Township
        • Mogok Valley
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
        • Pein-Pyit (Painpyit; Pyan Pyit)
Pavel M. Kartashov data
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Irkutskaya Oblast'
        • Lake Baikal area
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
            • Malaya Bystraya River Valley
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Pavel M. Kartashov data; Aleksandrov, S. M., & Senin, V. G. (2006). Genesis and composition of lazurite in magnesian skarns. Geochemistry International, 44(10), 976-988.
Slovakia
 
  • Žilina Region
    • Turčianske Teplice Co.
Koděra et all.,1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, I-III, 1590p
Sweden
 
  • Småland
    • Vetlanda
      • Alseda
The Swedish Museum of Natural History, Bergskollegium collection # 18577211
Tajikistan
 
  • Viloyati Mukhtori Gorno-Badakhshan (Viloyati Badakhshoni Kuni)
    • Pamir Mts
      • Khorog Region
        • Shakhdara range
          • Badom-Dara
P.M. Kartashov data; Canadian Mineralogist (1979) 17:47-52
USA
 
  • Alabama
    • Tallapoosa Co.
Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
  • Arkansas
    • Pulaski Co.
      • Little Rock
Rocks and Minerals, (1989) 64:314-322
Henry Barwood - unpublished (2010)
  • California
    • Los Angeles Co.
      • San Gabriel Mts
        • San Antonio Canyon
          • San Antonio Creek
Rogers, Austin Flint (1912), Notes on rare minerals from California: Columbia University, School of Mines Quarterly: 33: 377; Surr, Gordon (1913), Lapis lazuli in southern California: Mining and Engineering World: Dec 27, 39: 1153-1154; Rogers, Austin Flint (1938b), Lapis lazuli from San Bernardino County, California: American Mineralogist: 23: 111-114; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 367-368.
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • San Gabriel Mts
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
        • Stoddard Peak
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
Rogers, Austin Flint (1912b), Notes on rare minerals from California: Columbia University, School of Mines Quarterly: 33: 377; Surr, Gordon (1913), Lapis lazuli in southern California: Mining and Engineering World: Dec 27, 39: 1153-1154; Rogers, Austin Flint (1938b), Lapis lazuli from San Bernardino County, California: American Mineralogist: 23: 111-114; Sharp, W.E. (1959) Minerals from Los Angeles County, California. Printed privately, Los Angeles, California: 43; Sinkankas, J. (1976) Gemstones of North America II. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York: 323; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 367-368.
  • Colorado
    • Gunnison Co.
      • Dorchester District
        • Taylor Park
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
  • Nevada
    • Clark Co.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New York
    • St. Lawrence Co.
      • Balmat-Edwards Zinc District
        • Balmat
George Robinson & Steven Chamberlain (2007) Gazetteer of major New York State mineral localities. Rocks & Minerals, 82, #6, 472-483.
George Robinson & Steven Chamberlain (2007) Gazetteer of major New York State mineral localities. Rocks & Minerals, 82, #6, 472-483.
Rocks & Minerals 82:472-483
        • Edwards
Canadian Mineralogist (1979) 17:47-52
  • North Carolina
Genth,F.A and Kerr,W.C,1881,Minerals and Mineral Localities of North Carolina,Geologic Survey
  • Wyoming
    • Sweetwater Co.
      • Green River Formation
Am Min 49:778-781
Mineral and/or Locality  
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