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About LeoniteHide

K2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O
Colourless, pale yellow; colourless (transmitted light).
Vitreous, Waxy
2½ - 3
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Member of:
Named in honor of Leo Balthasar Leberecht Strippelmann (26 July 1826, Kassel, Germany - 17 June 1892, Bad Oeynhausen, Germany), Director of the salt works at Westeregeln, Germany.
The magnesium analogue of Mereiterite.
May occur as a dehydration product of Picromerite.

Classification of LeoniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
C : With medium-sized and large cations

3 : A2B(XO4)2·xH2O

25 : Sulphates
3 : Sulphates of Mg

Physical Properties of LeoniteHide

Vitreous, Waxy
Colourless, pale yellow; colourless (transmitted light).
2½ - 3 on Mohs scale
2.201 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Optical Data of LeoniteHide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.479 nβ = 1.482 nγ = 1.487
Measured: 90° , Calculated: 76°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.008
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of LeoniteHide

K2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O

Crystallography of LeoniteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:
a = 11.78 Å, b = 9.53 Å, c = 9.88 Å
β = 95.4°
a:b:c = 1.236 : 1 : 1.037
Unit Cell V:
1,104.24 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals tabular {100} and elongated [001]. Usually anhedral.
On {100} - artificial crystals. Lamellar twinning observable under magnification.

Type Occurrence of LeoniteHide

Synonyms of LeoniteHide

Other Language Names for LeoniteHide

Relationship of Leonite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
MereiteriteK2Fe(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Halite20 photos of Leonite associated with Halite on mindat.org.
Sylvite1 photo of Leonite associated with Sylvite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.CC.CobaltoblöditeNa2Co(SO4)2•4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.AndychristyitePbCu2+Te6+O5(H2O)Tric. 1 : P1
7.CC.Ammoniovoltaite(NH4)2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12(H2O)18Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
7.CC.05KrausiteKFe(SO4)2 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.CC.10TamarugiteNaAl(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m
7.CC.15KaliniteKAl(SO4)2 · 11H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CC.15MendoziteNaAl(SO4)2 · 11H2OMon. 2/m
7.CC.20Lonecreekite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 12H2OIso.
7.CC.20Alum-(K)KAl(SO4)2 · 12H2OIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
7.CC.20Alum-(Na)NaAl(SO4)2 · 12H2O
7.CC.20Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2OIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
7.CC.20LanmuchangiteTl+Al(SO4)2 · 12H2OIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
7.CC.25VoltaiteK2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
7.CC.25ZincovoltaiteK2Zn5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
7.CC.25PertlikiteK2(Fe2+,Mg)2Mg4Fe3+2Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
7.CC.25Ammoniomagnesiovoltaite(NH4)2Mg2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3c
7.CC.30KröhnkiteNa2Cu(SO4)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.35FerrinatriteNa3Fe(SO4)3 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : P3
7.CC.40GoldichiteKFe(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.45LöweiteNa12Mg7(SO4)13 · 15H2OTrig.
7.CC.50BlöditeNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
7.CC.50NickelblöditeNa2(Ni,Mg)(SO4)2 · 4H2O
7.CC.50ChangoiteNa2Zn(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.55MereiteriteK2Fe(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon.
7.CC.60Boussingaultite(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.60CyanochroiteK2Cu(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m
7.CC.60Mohrite(NH4)2Fe(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.60Nickelboussingaultite(NH4)2Ni(SO4)2 · 6H2O
7.CC.60PicromeriteK2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m
7.CC.65PolyhaliteK2Ca2Mg(SO4)4 · 2H2OTric. 1
7.CC.70LeightoniteK2Ca2Cu(SO4)4 · 2H2OTric.
7.CC.75AmarilliteNaFe(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CC.80KonyaiteNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CC.85WattevilleiteNa2Ca(SO4)2 · 4H2O (?)Orth.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)HideöditeNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/möditeNa2(Ni,Mg)(SO4)2 · 4H2O

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.3.1KieseriteMgSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m
25.3.2SanderiteMgSO4 · 2H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
25.3.3StarkeyiteMgSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.3.4PentahydriteMgSO4 · 5H2OTric.
25.3.5HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
25.3.6EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
25.3.7CaminiteMg7(SO4)5(OH)4 · H2OTet.
25.3.8VanthoffiteNa6Mg(SO4)4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
25.3.9BlöditeNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
25.3.10KonyaiteNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.3.11LöweiteNa12Mg7(SO4)13 · 15H2OTrig.
25.3.12UklonskoviteNaMg(SO4)F · 2H2OMon.
25.3.13LangbeiniteK2Mg2(SO4)3Iso. 2 3 : P21 3
25.3.15PicromeriteK2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m
25.3.17Boussingaultite(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.3.18PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b

Other InformationHide

Thermal Behaviour:
dehydration occurs at 410-420 K and leads to langeinite and arcanite
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for LeoniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
van der Heide (1893) Berichte deutsche chemische Gesellschaft: 26: 414 (as Kalium-Astrakanit).
Naupert and Wense (1893) Berichte deutsche chemische Gesellschaft: 26: 873 (as Kaliastrakanit).
Tenne (1896) Zeitschrift der Deutsche geologische Gesellschaft, Berlin: 48: 632 (as Kalium-Blödit, Leonit).
Strandmark (1902) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 36: 461.
Görgey (1910) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 29: 207.
Schaller and Henderson (1932) USGS Bull. 833: 44.
Anspach (1939) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 39: 101.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 450.
Zeitschrift für Kristallographie (1985): 173: 75-79.
Hertweck, B. & Libowitzky, E. (2002): Vibrational spectroscopy of phase transitions in leonite-type minerals. European Journal of Mineralogy 14, 1009-1017.
Hertweck, B.; Armbruster, T.; Libowitzky, E. (2002): Multiple phase transitions of leonite-type compounds: optical, calorimetric, and X-ray data. Mineralogy and Petrology 75, 245-259.
Hertweck, B., Libowitzky, E. and Schultz, A. J. (2003): The hydrogen bond system of Mn-leonite: neutron diffraction results in comparison with IR spectroscopic data. Zeitschrift fuer Kristallographie 218, 403-412.
Ishigami, H.; Sumita, M.; Shiro, M.; Hikita, T.; Sato, S.; Tanimoto, M. (2003): Phase transition in K2Fe(SO4)2.4H2O. Ferroelectrics 285, 133-137.
Balić-Žunić, T., Birkedal, R., Katerinopoulou, A., Comodi, P. (2016): Dehydration of blödite, Na2Mg(SO4)2(H2O)4, and leonite, K2Mg(SO4)2(H2O)4. European Journal of Mineralogy: 28(1): 33-42

Internet Links for LeoniteHide

Localities for LeoniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • South Australia
    • Flinders Ranges
      • North Flinders Ranges
        • Wooltana homestead area
Snow, M.R., Pring, A., Allen, N. (2014) Minerals of the Wooltana Cave, Flinders Ranges, South Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, 138:2, 214-230.
  • Upper Austria
    • Gmunden
      • Hallstatt
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
  • Antofagasta
    • El Loa Province
      • San Pedro de Atacama
        • Cordillera de la Sal
De Waele, J., Carbone, C., Sanna, L., Vattano, M., Galli, E., & Forti, P. (2017). Secondary minerals from halite caves in the Atacama Desert (Chile). In 17th International Congress of Speleology (No. I, pp. 242-246). Australian Speleological Federation Inc.
De Waele, J., Carbone, C., Sanna, L., Vattano, M., Galli, E., & Forti, P. (2017). Secondary minerals from halite caves in the Atacama Desert (Chile). In 17th International Congress of Speleology (No. I, pp. 242-246). Australian Speleological Federation Inc.
  • Qinghai
    • Haixi
      • Mangnai Co. (Mangya Co.)
Mily Wang, Yijie Wang, Chenglin Liu, and Yongzhi Chen (1993): Acta Geoscientica Sinica 15(1)
  • Xinjiang
    • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Ruoqiang Co. (Qakilik Co.; Chaqiliq Co.)
Xiaohong Sun, Chenglin Liu, and Zhiqiang Xuan (2010): Mineral Deposits 29(4), 631-639
    • Tulufan Prefecture (Turfan Prefecture; Turpan Prefecture)
      • Tulufan Co. (Turfan Co.; Turpan Co.)
        • Turfan basin (Turpan basin)
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55
  • Hesse
    • Fulda
      • Neuhof
Krah, O., (1988): Beobachtungen beim Durchbruch eines Basaltganges durch das Kalilager vom Werk Neuhof-Ellers, Der Aufschluss Vol. 39 (2), 103-113
    • Hersfeld-Rotenburg
      • Phillippsthal
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Werra-Meißner
      • Heringen
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Lower Saxony
    • Celle
      • Hänigsen
Bode "Mineralien und Fundstellen BRD" from 1989 ISBN 3-925094-24-5 Pg.9
      • Wathlingen
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Schwarmstedt
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Stassfurt Potash deposit
      • Egeln
        • Tarthun
No reference listed
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 451.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 451.
  • Thuringia
    • Merkers-Kieselbach
W.I. Borrisenkow (1968) Zeitschr. für angewandte Geologie 14, 7-10
  • Kerman
    • Rafsanjan County
      • Pariz
Khorasanipour, M. (2015). Environmental mineralogy of Cu-porphyry mine tailings, a case study of semi-arid climate conditions, Sarcheshmeh mine, SE Iran. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 153, 40-52.
  • Sicily
    • Enna Province
      • Enna (Castrogiovanni)
Mariani, P., Scaini, G. (1978) I minerali d'Italia. Compagnia Generale Editoriale, Milano, 574 pp.
  • Atyrau Region
    • Inder
Pekov, I. V. & Abramov, D. V. (1993): Boron deposit of the Inder and its minerals. World of Stones, 1, 23-30.
  • Hardap Region
    • Daweb
Bowell, R. J., & Davies, A. A. (2017). Assessment of supergene uranium-vanadium anomalies, Meob Bay deposit, Namibia. Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, 17(2), 101-112.
  • Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
    • Swabi District
M. Qasim Jan, P.S.B. Colback & Masood Ahmad , (1985) Low-temperature Secondary Minerals from Tarbela. Geol. Bull. Univ. Peshawar, 18:189-197
  • Bistrița-Năsăud
    • Rodna Mtn (Rodnei Mtn)
Mineralogical Magazine: 65(1): 1-7.
  • New Mexico
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 451; Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. rev. ed. (1996)
    • Eddy Co.
      • Carlsbad Potash District
SIMMONS, P.S. (2013)The Carlsbad Potash Basin, Carlsbad, New Mexico. Mineralogical Record, 44 (1), 13-49.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 451; Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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