ALMOST THERE!. Help us with a final push needed to keep mindat.org running. Click here to help.
Catawiki are hosting a mindat.org benefit auction. All proceeds to mindat.org! BID NOW
Log InRegister
Home PageAbout MindatThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusWho We AreContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatCorporate SponsorshipSponsor a PageSponsored PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
Learning CenterWhat is a mineral?The most common minerals on earthInformation for EducatorsMindat Articles
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralRandom LocalitySearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
Keyword(s):
 
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
Mining CompaniesStatisticsThe ElementsUsersBooks & MagazinesMineral MuseumsMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery

Liebigite

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Hide all sections | Show all sections

About LiebigiteHide

Justus von Liebig
Formula:
Ca2(UO2)(CO3)3 · 11H2O
Colour:
Green to yellowish-green
Lustre:
Vitreous, Pearly
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Specific Gravity:
2.41
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
For German chemist Justus von Liebig (1803-1873), founder of analytical chemistry.
A secondary uranium mineral.


Classification of LiebigiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
5.ED.20

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
E : Uranyl Carbonates
D : UO2:CO3 = 1:3
15.3.2.1

15 : HYDRATED NORMAL CARBONATES
3 : AmBn(XO3)p·xH2O, with (m+n):p = 1:1

Physical Properties of LiebigiteHide

Vitreous, Pearly
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Comment:
Pearly on cleavage {100}
Colour:
Green to yellowish-green
Hardness:
2½ - 3 on Mohs scale
Cleavage:
Imperfect/Fair
On {100}.
Density:
2.41 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.43 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of LiebigiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.497 nβ = 1.502 nγ = 1.539
2V:
Measured: 37° to 42°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.042
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
moderate r > v
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X = Nearly colourless
Y = Light yellowish green
Z = Light yellowish green

Chemical Properties of LiebigiteHide

Formula:
Ca2(UO2)(CO3)3 · 11H2O

Crystallography of LiebigiteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mm2 - Pyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 16.699 Å, b = 17.557 Å, c = 13.697 Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.951 : 1 : 0.78
Unit Cell V:
4,015.75 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
8
Morphology:
Crystals equant or short prismatic [001], normally indistinct with rounded edges and convex or vicinal faces. Commonly granular or scaly aggregates and thin crusts; botryoidal.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of LiebigiteHide

Synonyms of LiebigiteHide

Other Language Names for LiebigiteHide

Common AssociatesHide

AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
CarnotiteK2(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 3H2O
SchröckingeriteNaCa3(UO2)(CO3)3(SO4)F · 10H2O
UraniniteUO2
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Voglite8 photos of Liebigite associated with Voglite on mindat.org.
Gypsum3 photos of Liebigite associated with Gypsum on mindat.org.
Nickeline3 photos of Liebigite associated with Nickeline on mindat.org.
Bismuth3 photos of Liebigite associated with Bismuth on mindat.org.
Bayleyite2 photos of Liebigite associated with Bayleyite on mindat.org.
Rabbittite2 photos of Liebigite associated with Rabbittite on mindat.org.
Zellerite1 photo of Liebigite associated with Zellerite on mindat.org.
Uranopilite1 photo of Liebigite associated with Uranopilite on mindat.org.
Schröckingerite1 photo of Liebigite associated with Schröckingerite on mindat.org.
Uraninite1 photo of Liebigite associated with Uraninite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

5.ED.05BayleyiteMg2(UO2)(CO3)3 · 18H2OMon.
5.ED.10SwartziteMgCa(UO2)(CO3)3 · 12H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
5.ED.15AlbrechtschraufiteCa4Mg(UO2)2(CO3)6F2 · 17-18H2OTric. 1 : P1
5.ED.25RabbittiteCa3Mg3(UO2)2(CO3)6(OH)4 · 18H2OMon.
5.ED.30AndersoniteNa2Ca(UO2)(CO3)3 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
5.ED.35GrimseliteK3Na(UO2)(CO3)3 · H2OHex.
5.ED.40WidenmannitePb2(OH)2[(UO2)(CO3)2]Orth.
5.ED.45ZnucaliteZn12Ca(UO2)(CO3)3(OH)22 · 4H2OOrth.
5.ED.50ČejkaiteNa4(UO2)(CO3)3Tric.
5.ED.50AgricolaiteK4(UO2)(CO3)3Mon. 2/m : B2/b

Fluorescence of LiebigiteHide

Green to blue green fluorescence (LW & SWUV).

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Soluble in H2SO4 with effervescence.
Special Storage/
Display Requirements:
Liebigite loses 10 of its 11 water molecules in the range between 25 and 150°C (Vochten et al., 1993).
Health Risks:
Radioactive

References for LiebigiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Smith (1848) American Journal of Science: 5: 336.
Smith (1851) American Journal of Science: 11: 259.
Vogl (1853) Jahrbuch Geol. Reichsanst., Vienna: 4: 221 (as Kalk-Uran-carbonate).
Lindacker analysis in: Vogl (1856) Gangverh. Mineralreich. Joachimsthal, Teplitz.
Weisbach, Albin (1875) Synopsis mineralogical, systematische Übersicht des Mineralreiches. 78 pp., Freiberg: 48 (as Flutherite).
Schrauf (1882) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 6: 410 (as Uranothallite).
Brezina (1890) Annalen des kaiserlich-königlichen naturhistorischen Hofmuseums Wien: 5: 495.
Esper S. Larsen (1917) The probable identity of uranothallite and liebigite. American Mineralogist, 2, #7, 87.
Meixner (1940) Zentralblatt Mineralien: 145.
Evans and Frondel (1950) American Mineralogist: 35: 251.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 240-241.
Mereiter, K. (1982) The crystal structure of liebigite, Ca2UO2(CO3)3·11H2O. Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen 30: 277-288.
Vochten, R., Van Haverbeke, L., Van Springel, K. (1993) Synthesis of liebigite and andersonite, and study of their thermal behavior and luminescence. The Canadian Mineralogist 31, 167-171.
Vochten, R., Van Haverbeke, L., Van Springel, K. (1994) The structure and physicochemical characteristics of a synthetic phase compositionally intermediate between liebigite and andersonite. The Canadian Mineralogist 32, 553-561.
Burns, P.C. (2005) U 6+ minerals and inorganic compounds: insights into an expanded structural hierarchy of crystal structures. Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 1839-1894.

Internet Links for LiebigiteHide

Localities for LiebigiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Argentina
 
  • Mendoza
    • San Rafael Department
      • Sierra Pintada
Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry
Australia
 
  • South Australia
    • Flinders Ranges
      • North Flinders Ranges
        • Leigh Creek
          • Lyndhurst
            • Nichol Nob
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Hohe Tauern
      • Malta valley
MEIXNER, H. & K. WALENTA (1979): Liebigit, ein für Österreich neues Urancarbonatmineral von der Kölnbreinsperre, Maltatal, Kärnten. Der Karinthin, 81, 152-153.; G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
  • Salzburg
    • Hohe Tauern
      • Gastein valley
        • Anlauf valley
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
        • Bad Gastein
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
        • Siglitz - Bockhart area
          • Siglitz - Bockhart gold mining district
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
Canada
 
  • Northwest Territories
    • Mackenzie District
      • Great Bear Lake
Rod Tyson, The Port Radium District, Northwest Territories, Canada Mineralogical Record (1989) vol.20. #3, pp 201-208 .
China
 
  • Shaanxi
    • Xi'an
      • Lantian Co.
Zhang Jianguo, Chen Shaoqing, Rao Sun and Qi Jing (2004). In: IAEA Technical Document 1419
Czech Republic
 
  • Central Bohemian Region
Pauliš P., Kopecký S., Černý P. 2007: Uranové minerály České Republiky a jejich naleziště. 1. část. (Kutna Hora, issue 1)
      • Háje
Plášil, J. et al.: Supergenní mineralizace z haldy šachty č. 16 Příbram - Háje. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 2008, vol. 16, 1, 43-55.
Plášil J., Sejkora J., Čejka J., Škácha P., Goliáš V., Pavlíček R., Hofman P. (2008): Supergenní mineralizace z haldy šachty č. 16 Příbram - Háje. - Bull. mineral.-petrolog. Odd. Nár. Muz. (Praha) 16/1, 43-55. ISSN: 1211-0329.
  • Karlovy Vary Region
Pauliš P., Kopecký S., Černý P. 2007: Uranové minerály České Republiky a jejich naleziště. 1. část. (Kutna Hora, issue 1)
Plašil J, Sejkora J, Ondruš P, Veselovský F, Beran P, Goliáš V (2006): Supergene minerals in the Horní Slavkov uranium ore district, Czech Republic. Journal of the Czech Geological Society 51, 149-158. ; Sejkora, J. & Plasil, J. (2009): Mineralien aus dem Uranrevier Horni Slavkov. Lapis 34 (7-8), 63-67; 70 (in German).
    • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
      • Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal)
        • Jáchymov (St Joachimsthal)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 237.
Lapis 2002(7/8), 58
Plášil, J., Čejka, J., Sejkora, J., Hloušek, J., Škoda, R., Novák, M., Dušek, M., Císařová, I., Němec, I., Ederová, J. (2017) Línekite, K2Ca3[(UO2)(CO3)3]2.8H2O, a new uranyl carbonate mineral from Jáchymov, Czech Republic. Journal of Geosciences: 62: 201–213.
Specimen from Jakub Plasil. In the collection of Brent Thorne
  • Liberec Region
    • Harrachov (Harrachsdorf)
Bradna, J., Šita, F.: Nálezy minerál na Rýžovišti u Harrachova. Opera Corcontica, 1968, 5, s. 246-247.
  • Olomouc Region
    • Javorník (Jauernig)
Sejkora, J., Pauliš, P., Škoda, R.: Uranové ložisko Zálesí v Rychlebských horách. Minerál, 2007, roč. 15, č. 4, s. 305-238.
  • Plzeň Region
    • Klatovy (Klattau)
      • Nalžovské Hory
Pauliš P., Kopecký S., Černý P. 2007: Uranové minerály České Republiky a jejich naleziště. 1. část. (Kutna Hora, issue 1)
  • Ústí Region
    • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
      • Dubí (Eichwald)
Sejkora, J.: Minerály ložiska Moldava v Krušných horách. Bulletin Mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1994, roč. 2, s. 110-116.
  • Vysočina Region
    • Žďár nad Sázavou District
      • Nové Město na Moravě
Pauliš P., Kopecký S., Černý P. 2007: Uranové minerály České Republiky a jejich naleziště. 1. část. (Kutna Hora, issue 1)
      • Rožná
Pauliš P., Kopecký S., Černý P. 2007: Uranové minerály České Republiky a jejich naleziště. 1. část. (Kutna Hora, issue 1)
Petr Pauliš, Stanislav Kopecký, Pavel Černý: Uranové minerály České republiky a jejich lokality. (2007)
Pauliš P., Kopecký S., Černý P. 2007: Uranové minerály České Republiky a jejich naleziště. 1. část. (Kutna Hora, issue 1)
Democratic Republic of the Congo
 
  • Katanga (Shaba)
    • Kambove District
      • Shinkolobwe
M. Deliens
France
 
  • Occitanie
    • Hérault
      • Le Bosc
        • Saint-Martin-du-Bosc
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV, 1998
      • Le Puech
[Le Règne Minéral 1997, 13, p.5-18]; Dal Bo, F., Hatert, F., & Philippo, S. (2018). Supergene Uranyl Mineralization of the Rabejac Deposit, Lodève, France. Minerals, 8(9), 414.
    • Lozère
      • Marvejols
        • St Léger-de-Peyre
Le Règne Minéral, Hors Série IV, 1998
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Baden-Baden
        • Müllenbach U deposit
K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
  • Bavaria
    • Franconia
      • Hösbach
        • Sailauf
          • Hartkoppe
No reference listed
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Mähring
        • Uranium deposit
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
      • Miltach
        • Altrandsberg
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Mansfeld Basin
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 241.
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge District
      • Johanngeorgenstadt District
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 241.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 241.
      • Schneeberg
Lapis 30(7/8):41-70 (2005)
        • Neustädtel
          • Weißer Hirsch Mine (Shaft 3)
Lapis 30(7/8):41-70 (2005)
  • Thuringia
    • Gera
      • Ronneburg U deposit
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
Hungary
 
  • Baranya Co.
    • Mecsek Mts
Szakáll & Jánosi: minerals of hungary, 1995
Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary, 1995
Italy
 
  • Trentino-South Tyrol
    • Trento
      • Giudicarie Valleys
        • Chiese Valley
          • Daone
            • Daone Valley
              • Limes
Campostrini, I., Demartin, F., Gramaccioli, C.M. (2005): Val Daone. Minerali secondari del giacimento uranifero presso Limes, Daone (TN). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2005, 228-240.
Japan
 
  • Gifu
    • Mizunami City
      • Tsukiyoshi uranium ore deposits
Matsubara (1976) Bulletin of the National Science Museum, 2, 111-114
  • Tottori
K. Watanabe (1976) Journal of the Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 11, 53-113 (in japanese with english summary)
    • Tohgoh-cho
S. Matsubara & R. Miyawaki (2006) Catalogue of Japanese Minerals.
Namibia
 
  • Erongo Region
    • Arandis
Schreiber, U. (2005) Uranium mineralization in Namibia (poster), Namibia Geological Survey.
Norway
 
  • Buskerud
    • Krødsherad
      • Krøderen Lake
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 103
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesia
Mochnacka, K., Banaś, M. (2000): Occurrence and genetic relationships of uranium and thorium mineralization in the Karkonosze-Izera Block (The Sudety Mts, SW Poland). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae: 70: 137-150
Portugal
 
  • Coimbra
    • Figueira da Foz
      • Vila Verde
Museu Alfredo Bensaude, Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisboa.
Sweden
 
  • Jämtland
No reference listed
  • Örebro
    • Lindesberg
No reference listed
Turkey (TL)
 
  • Marmara Region
    • Edirne Province
Smith, J.L. (1848) American Journal of Science: 5: 336; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 241..
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Carn Brea
        • Carnkie
          • Basset Mines
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 241.; Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Apache & Navajo Cos.
      • Colorado Plateau
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 277.
    • Yavapai Co.
      • Date Creek Mts
        • Martinez District
          • Congress
MRDS database Dep. ID #10027544, MRDS ID #M003323.
  • Colorado
    • Eagle Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
      • Vail Pass
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
    • Garfield Co.
      • East Rifle Creek area
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
    • Jefferson Co.
      • Ralston Buttes District
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • Moffat Co.
      • Maybell District
        • Maybell Mines
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • Saguache Co.
      • Marshall Pass District
http://www.minsocam.org/msa/AmMin/TOC/Articles_Free/2004/Catalano_p1004-1021_04.pdf
  • Montana
    • Carbon Co.
Anita Moore-Nall and David R. Lageson (2015) Elevated REE in Ore Minerals of the Pryor Mountain Mining District, South Central Montana. 2015 Mining and Mineral Symposium, Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology pp47-49.
Anita Moore-Nall and David R. Lageson (2015) Elevated REE in Ore Minerals of the Pryor Mountain Mining District, South Central Montana. 2015 Mining and Mineral Symposium, Montana Bureau of Mines and Geology pp47-49.
  • New Mexico
    • McKinley Co.
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
        • Ambrosia Lake Sub-district
NMBMMR Memoir 15 Geology and Technology of the Grants Uranium Region
    • Sandoval Co.
      • Nacimiento Mountains District
NMBMMR Memoir 38 Geology and Technology of the Grants Uranium Region 1979; USGS Open-File Report 79-1510
Leonard S.Wiener and Sigrid Ballew,1995, Updated by Kenny Gay,2006, A Listing Of North Carolina Minerals,Geologic Note No.4
  • Pennsylvania
    • Carbon Co.
      • Jim Thorpe (Mauch Chunk)
Lapham & Geyer, 1965. Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania
  • Utah
    • Grand Co.
Van King
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    • San Juan Co.
      • Big Indian District (Big Indian Wash - Lisbon Valley Area)
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • White Canyon District
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
        • White Canyon
          • Fry Mesa
  • Washington
    • Stevens Co.
      • Wellpinit
Cannon, B. (1975): Minerals of Washington, p.53; George E. Becraft and Paul L. Weis (1963) Geology and mineral deposits of the Turtle Lake quadrangle, Washington. USGS Bulletin 1131
  • Wyoming
    • Campbell Co.
      • Pumpkin Buttes District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Carbon Co.
      • Baggs-Poison Basin District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Converse Co.
Rocks & Minerals 76:385
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Fremont Co.
Rocks & Minerals 76:386
Rocks & Minerals 76:386
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Am Min 51:1567-1578; Page, L. R.; Stocking, H. E.; Smith, H. B. (1956) Contributions to the geology of uranium and thorium by the United States Geological Survey and Atomic Energy Commission for the United Nations International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Switzerland, 1955. USGS Professional Paper 300 pp361-370.
    • Natrona Co.
      • Gas Hills District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2018, except where stated. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: December 12, 2018 23:50:23 Page generated: December 4, 2018 18:20:19
Go to top of page