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Annaberg in 1650
Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Green, light grey to ...
Sub-Adamantine, Sub-Vitreous, Pearly, Earthy
1½ - 2½
Member of:
Named by Henry J. Brooke and William Hallowes Miller in 1852 after one of the co-type localities, Annaberg, Saxony, Germany.
Vivianite Group, Annabergite-Erythrite Series.

Annabergite is the nickel analogue of Erythrite.

It is often found as a green alteration coating on other nickel minerals.

Classification of Annabergite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

C : Phosphates without additional anions, with H2O
E : With only medium-sized cations, RO4:H2O about 1:2.5
Dana 7th ed.:

3 : A3(XO4)2·xH2O

20 : Arsenates (also arsenates with phosphate, but without other anions)
10 : Arsenates of Co and Ni

Physical Properties of Annabergite

Sub-Adamantine, Sub-Vitreous, Pearly, Earthy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Pearly on {010} cleavage, dull when massive.
Green, light grey to light apple green, white; pale rose red when rich in cobalt.
Color may be light pink or light rose at Co:Ni ~ 1:1 (50-50 rule), then becomes white or gray, pale green, and apple-green in the Annabergite end of the series.
Pale green to white (paler than the mineral color).
Hardness (Mohs):
1½ - 2½
Softest on {010}.
Perfect on {010}, indistinct on {100}, {102}.
Translation gliding:
T{010}, t[001].
Flexible in thin {010} laminae
3.07 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.146 g/cm3 (Calculated)
3.0 (artificial material).

Optical Data of Annabergite

Biaxial (+/-)
RI values:
nα = 1.622 nβ = 1.658 nγ = 1.687
Measured: 84° , Calculated: 82°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.065
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
relatively weak r > v
Optical Extinction:
X=b, Z^c=36°
Usually biaxial positive, may be biaxial negative

Chemical Properties of Annabergite

Ni3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of Annabergite

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
Space Group Setting:
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.179(2) Å, b = 13.309(3) Å, c = 4.725(1) Å
β = 105.00(1)°
a:b:c = 0.765 : 1 : 0.355
Unit Cell Volume:
V 618.30 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals usually rare and of poor quality, prismatic to acicular [001] and flattened {010}. Crystals are deeply striated or furrowed [001], also striated on {010} parallel to {h)l} or {_h0l}. Commonly as fine crystalline coatings or earthy.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
7.82 (25)
6.58 (100)
4.33 (20)
3.18 (26)
2.98 (30)
2.71 (18)
2.67 (14)
ICDD 11-625

Occurrences of Annabergite

Type Occurrence of Annabergite

General Appearance of Type Material:
Green bladed crystals and green coatings
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Oxide zone in a nickel-bearing sulfide deposit
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Relationship of Annabergite to other Species

Forms a series with Erythrite (see here)
Member of:
Other Members of Group:
ArupiteNi3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
BabánekiteCu3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Barićite(Mg,Fe)3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
HörnesiteMg3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
KöttigiteZn3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
Manganohörnesite(Mn,Mg)3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
PakhomovskyiteCo3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
ParasymplesiteFe32+(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
8.CE.XBabánekiteCu3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
8.CE.05Chudobaite(Mg,Zn)5(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 10H2O
8.CE.05GeigeriteMn52+(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 10H2O
8.CE.10NewberyiteMg(HPO4) · 3H2O
8.CE.15BrassiteMg(HAsO4) · 4H2O
8.CE.20PhosphorrössleriteMg(HPO4) · 7H2O
8.CE.20RößleriteMg(HAsO4) · 7H2O
8.CE.25MetaswitzeriteMn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
8.CE.25Switzerite(Mn,Fe)3(PO4)2 · 7H2O
8.CE.30LindackeriteCuCu4(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 9H2O
8.CE.30OndrušiteCaCu4(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 10H2O
8.CE.30VeselovskýiteZnCu4(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 9H2O
8.CE.30PradetiteCoCu4(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 9H2O
8.CE.30KlajiteMnCu4(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 9-10H2O
8.CE.35BobierriteMg3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
8.CE.40ArupiteNi3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
8.CE.40Barićite(Mg,Fe)3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
8.CE.40ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
8.CE.40FerrisymplesiteFe33+(AsO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
8.CE.40HörnesiteMg3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
8.CE.40KöttigiteZn3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
8.CE.40Manganohörnesite(Mn,Mg)3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
8.CE.40ParasymplesiteFe32+(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
8.CE.40VivianiteFe32+(PO4)2 · 8H2O
8.CE.40PakhomovskyiteCo3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
8.CE.45SymplesiteFe32+(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
8.CE.50CattiiteMg3(PO4)2 · 22H2O
8.CE.55KoninckiteFe3+PO4 · 3H2O
8.CE.60KaňkiteFeAsO4 · 3.5H2O
8.CE.65SteigeriteAl(VO4) · 3H2O
8.CE.70MetaschoderiteAl2(PO4)(VO4) · 6H2O
8.CE.70SchoderiteAl2(PO4)(VO4) · 8H2O
8.CE.75MalhmooditeFeZr(PO4)2 · 4H2O
8.CE.75ZigrasiteMgZr(PO4)2 · 4H2O
8.CE.75Unnamed (Ca-analogue of Zigrasite)CaZr[PO4]2 · 4H2O
8.CE.80SantabarbaraiteFe33+(PO4)2(OH)3 · 5H2O
8.CE.85Metaköttigite(Zn,Fe,Fe)3(AsO4)2 · 8(H2O,OH)
20.10.1ErythriteCo3(AsO4)2 · 8H2O
20.10.3RoseliteCa2(Co2+,Mg)(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
20.10.4β-RoseliteCa2(Co2+,Mg)(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
20.10.5WendwilsoniteCa2Mg(AsO4)2 · 2H2O
20.10.6Cobaltkoritnigite(Co,Zn)(HAsO4) · H2O
20.10.10SmolyaninoviteCo3Fe23+(AsO4)4 · 11H2O
20.10.11NickelaustiniteCaNi(AsO4)(OH) · 8H2O

Other Names for Annabergite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Annabergite

Reference List:
Cronstedt A. (1758) Mineralogie; eller Mineral-Rikets Upstallning. 12mo, Stockholm: 218 (as Ochra Niccoli & Niccolum calciforme).

Phillips, W., Brooke, H.J., Miller, W.H. (1852) Annabergite. in: An Elementary Introduction to Mineralogy, Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, London: 503-504.

Brezina (1872) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 19.

Mügge (1884) Jahrbuch für Mineralogie: I: 53.

Heddle (1889) Mineralogical Magazine: 8: 200.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 817.

Mügge (1898) Jahrbuch für Mineralogie: I: 74.

de Schulten (1904) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 136: 1444.

Sachs (1906) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 198.

Shannon, Green (1910) Transactions of the Canadian Institute, Toronto: 8: 443.

Lincio (1914) Sitzbereicht Heidelberg Ak. Wiss., Math-phys. Kl., Abh.: 15.

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 5: 33.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 40: 72.

Ulrich (1926) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 64: 143.

Hintze, C. (1933) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 1261, 1264.

Larsen, E.S., Berman, H. (1934) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, Second edition, USGS Bulletin 848: 120, 178.

Barth, T.F.W. (1937) Crystallographic studies in the vivianite group. American Mineralogist: 22: 325.

Wolfe, C.W. (1940) Classification of minerals of the type A3(XO4)2·nH2O. American Mineralogist: 25: 738-753.

Wolfe, C.W. (1940) Classification of minerals of the type A3(XO4)2·nH2O (concluded). American Mineralogist: 25: 787-809.

Sinkler, H. (1942) Geology and ore deposits of the Dillon nickel prospect, southwestern Montana. Economic Geology: 37: 136-152.

Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 746.

Jambor, J.L., Dutrizac, J.E. (1995) Solid solutions in the annabergite - erythrite - hörnesite synthetic system. The Canadian Mineralogist: 33: 1063-1071.

Wildner, M., Giester, G., Lengauer, C.L., McCammon, C.A. (1996) Structure and crystal chemistry of vivianite-type compounds; crystal structures of erythrite and annabergite with a Moessbauer study of erythrite. European Journal of Mineralogy: 8: 187-192.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., Nichols, M.C. (2000) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume IV. Arsenates, Phosphates, Vanadates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 680pp.: 20.

Frost, R.L., Martens, W., Williams, P.A., Kloprogge, J.T. (2003) Raman spectroscopic study of the vivianite arsenate minerals. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy: 34: 751-759.

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