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About LivingstoniteHide

David Livingstone
Adamantine, Metallic
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named by Mariano Barcena in 1874 in honor of David Livingstone (19 March 1813, Blantyre, South Lanarkshire, Scotland - 1 May 1873, Chief Chitambo's Village, Zambia), the African explorer and missionary. Livingstone had died the year before the mineral was described and Barcena noted that 'the benefactors of humanity belong to all nations, and that all humanity must honor their memory.'
This page provides mineralogical data about Livingstonite.

Classification of LivingstoniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First published:

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
J : Sulfosalts of PbS archetype
A : Galena derivatives with little or no Pb

7 : ø = 2

5 : Sulphosalts - Sulpharsenites and Sulphobismuthites (those containing Sn, Ge,or V are in Section 6)
4 : Sulpharsenites etc. of Zn and Hg

Physical Properties of LivingstoniteHide

Adamantine, Metallic
Translucent, Opaque
VHN100=96 - 125 kg/mm2 - Vickers
{001} perfect, {010}, and {100} poor.
4.88(2) g/cm3 (Measured)    5.013 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of LivingstoniteHide

Biaxial (-)
relatively strong
Colour in reflected light:
Internal Reflections:
Deep red

Chemical Properties of LivingstoniteHide

IMA Formula:

Crystallography of LivingstoniteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 30.1543(10) Å, b = 3.9953(2) Å, c = 21.4262(13) Å
β = 104.265(1)°
a:b:c = 7.547 : 1 : 5.363
Unit Cell V:
2501.7 ų
Minute needles elongated [010]. Columnar to fibrous massive; in globular masses of interlaced needles.

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0010580LivingstoniteNiizeki N, Buerger M J (1957) The crystal structure of livingstonite, HgSb4S8 Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie 109 129-1571957Guerrido, Mexico0293
0010773LivingstoniteSrikrishnan T, Nowacki W (1975) A redetermination of the crystal structure of livingstonite, HgSb4S8 Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie 141 174-1921975Huitzuco, Guerrero, Mexico0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Low temperature hydrothermal veins

Type Occurrence of LivingstoniteHide

Other Language Names for LivingstoniteHide

Simplified Chinese:硫锑汞矿

Common AssociatesHide

GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
7 photos of Livingstonite associated with CinnabarHgS
2 photos of Livingstonite associated with StibniteSb2S3

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.JA.05eBenjaminiteAg3Bi7S12Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05aCupropavoniteCu0.9Ag0.5Pb0.6Bi2.5S5Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05dMakovickyiteCu1.12Ag0.81Pb0.27Bi5.35S9Mon. 2/m
2.JA.05aPavoniteAgBi3S5Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05bGrumipluciteHgBi2S4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05dCupromakovickyiteCu4AgPb2Bi9S18Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05cKudriavite(Cd,Pb)Bi2S4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05aCupromakopavoniteAg3Cu8Pb4Bi19S38Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05DantopaiteAg5Bi13S22Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.10aCuprobismutiteCu8AgBi13S24Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.10cHodrušiteCu8Bi12S22Mon. 2/m
2.JA.10dPizgrischite(Cu,Fe)Cu14PbBi17S35Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.10bKupčíkiteCu3.4Fe0.6Bi5S10Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.15CuboargyriteAgSbS2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
2.JA.20BohdanowicziteAgBiSe2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
2.JA.20MatilditeAgBiS2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

5.4.1NowackiiteCu6Zn3As4S12Trig. 3 : R3
5.4.2Florensovite(Cu,Zn)Cr1.5Sb0.5S4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
5.4.3AktashiteCu6Hg3As4S12Trig. 3 : R3
5.4.5Galkhaite(Cs,Tl)(Hg,Cu,Zn)6(As,Sb)4S12Iso. 4 3m : I4 3m
5.4.8TvalchrelidzeiteHg3SbAsS3Mon. 2/m
5.4.9Hakite-(Hg)Cu6(Cu4Hg2)Sb4Se12SeIso. 4 3m : I4 3m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for LivingstoniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Barcena, M. (1874) Naturaleza: 3: 35.
Barcena, M. (1874) On livingstonite, a new mineral. American Journal of Science: 108: 145-146.
Barcena, M. (1875) American Journal of Science: 9: 64.
Barcena, M. (1879) Naturaleza: 4: 268.
Richmond, W.E. (1936) Crystallography of livingstonite. American Mineralogist: 21: 719-720.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 485-486.
Niizeki, N., Buerger, M.J. (1957) The crystal structure of livingstonite, HgSb4S8. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 109: 129-157.
Srikrishnan, T., W. Nowacki (1975) A redetermination of the crystal structure of livingstonite, HgSb4S8. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 141: 174–192.
Borisov, S.V., Pervukhina, N.V., Magarill, S.A., Kuratieva, N.V., Vasil’ev, V.I. (2010) Crystallographic analysis of the structure of livingstonite HgSb4S8 from refined data. Crystallography Reports: 55: 224-228.
Tunell, G., Learned, R. E., Lawrence, E. F. (1976) On the origin of the livingstonite deposits at Huitzuco, Guerrero, Mexico. Mineralium Deposita, 11 (1). 71-82 doi:10.1007/bf00203095

Internet Links for LivingstoniteHide

Localities for LivingstoniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • New South Wales
    • Yancowinna Co.
      • Broken Hill district
G. Nottes & U. Heidtke (1986) Aufschluss 37, 31-36
  • Qinghai
    • Hainan
      • Xinghai County
Zhengjiang Ding, Fengyue Sun, Bile Li, Shijin Li, Junwei Zhao, Hui Zhao, and Li Wang (2010): Geology and Exploration 46(2), 198-206
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Karlsruhe Region
      • Rhein-Neckar-Kreis
        • Wiesloch
Weiss, S. (1990) Mineralfundstellen Atlas, Deutschland West. Weise Verlag, München, 320 pages.
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Donnersberg District
      • Nordpfälzer Land
        • Obermoschel
Lapis 2001(6), 13-40
  • Tuscany
    • Massa-Carrara Province
Pellecchia, M. and Passarino, G. (2018) Tesori nascosti nelle collezioni. Livingstonite tra i minerali su marmo di Carrara di Francesco Bedogné. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 42 (3), 176-184.
        • Miseglia quarrying basin (Miseglia-Fantiscritti quarrying basin; Fantiscritti quarrying basin)
          • Fantiscritti
Pellecchia, M., and Passarino, G. (2018) Tesori nascosti nelle collezioni. Livingstonite tra i minerali su marmo di Carrara di Francesco Bedogné. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 42, 3 (3-2018), 176-184; Biagioni, C., Orlandi, P., Camarda, S., Chinellato, M., Appiani, R., Del Chiaro, L., and Sanguineti, G. (2019) Minerals from marbles of Carrara and the Apuan Alps. LoGisma editore, Vicchio (Firenze) - Musumeci S.p.A., Quart (Aosta), 144 pp.
  • Iwate Prefecture
    • Hachimantai City
Mineralogical Journal, Spec. 1, 157-159 (1971)
  • Batken Region
[Lapis 1993:11 p11-24]
[Lapis 11:11-24]; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Mexico (TL)
  • Guerrero
    • Huitzuco de los Figueroa Municipality
Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, 141, 174(1957)
Panczner (1987): 254.
Panczner (1987): 254.
New Zealand
  • Northland Region
    • Whangarei District
Mineralogical Magazine; February 2004; v. 68; no. 1; p. 191-198
Hampton, W.A., White, G.P., Hoskin, P.W.O., Browne, P.R.L., Rodgers , K.A. (2004) Cinnabar, livingstonite, stibnite and pyrite in Pliocene silica sinter from Northland, New Zealand. Mineralogical Magazine 68:1, 191-198.
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
    • Plastovsky District
      • Plast
        • Kochkar' District
Vikent'eva, O., & Vikentev, I. (2016, April). Occurrence modes of As, Sb, Te, Bi, Ag in sulfide assemblages of gold deposits of the Urals. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 123, No. 1, p. 012028). IOP Publishing.; Vikent'eva, O., & Vikentev, I. (2016, April). Occurrence modes of As, Sb, Te, Bi, Ag in sulfide assemblages of gold deposits of the Urals. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 123, No. 1, p. 012028). IOP Publishing.
  • Sverdlovsk Oblast
    • Beryozovsky
Vikent'eva, O., & Vikentev, I. (2016, April). Occurrence modes of As, Sb, Te, Bi, Ag in sulfide assemblages of gold deposits of the Urals. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 123, No. 1, p. 012028). IOP Publishing.
  • Castile and Leon
    • León
      • Crémenes
Crespo, J. L., Moro, M. C., Fadón, O., Cabrera, R., & Fernández, A. (2000). The Salamón gold deposit (León, Spain). Journal of Geochemical Exploration,71(2), 191-208.
      • Maraña
        • Boicibacar
- Luque, C., Garcia, J. and García, P. (1989): Características Geoquimicas de los Cinabrios de la Cordillera Cantábrica (NW de España): Utilidad en prospección. Trabajos de Geología Universidad de Oviedo(18) pp. 1-11
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
  • Arkansas
J. Michael Howard (2007) Mineral Species of Arkansas ; Arkansas Geological Commission Bulletin 23
    • Howard Co.
U.S. Geological Survey,2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S Geological Survey,Reston, Virginia
    • Pike Co.
Roberts, A.C. et al (2003), The Canadian Mineralogist: 41(3): 721-725.
U.S. Geological Survey,2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S Geological Survey,Reston, Virginia
  • Nevada
    • Nye Co.
      • Hot Creek Range
        • Tybo Mining District
NBMG Bull 99B Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Nye County, Nevada
    • Pershing Co.
      • Antelope Springs Mining District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Mineral and/or Locality  
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