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Livingstonite

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David Livingstone
Formula:
HgSb4S6(S2)
Colour:
Blackish-gray
Lustre:
Adamantine, Metallic
Hardness:
2
Specific Gravity:
4.88
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
Named by Mariano Barcena in 1874 in honor of David Livingston (19 March 1813, Blantyre, South Lanarkshire, Scotland - 1 May 1873, Chief Chitambo's Village, Zambia), the African explorer and missionary.
This page provides mineralogical data about Livingstonite.


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Classification of LivingstoniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:
1874
2.JA.05i

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
J : Sulfosalts of PbS archetype
A : Galena derivatives with little or no Pb
3.7.11.1

3 : SULFOSALTS
7 : ø = 2
5.4.6

5 : Sulphosalts - Sulpharsenites and Sulphobismuthites (those containing Sn, Ge,or V are in Section 6)
4 : Sulpharsenites etc. of Zn and Hg

Physical Properties of LivingstoniteHide

Adamantine, Metallic
Transparency:
Translucent, Opaque
Colour:
Blackish-gray
Streak:
Red
Hardness:
Hardness:
VHN100=96 - 125 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Tenacity:
Elastic
Cleavage:
Perfect
{001} perfect, {010}, and {100} poor.
Density:
4.88(2) g/cm3 (Measured)    5.013 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of LivingstoniteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Strong
Dispersion:
relatively strong
Colour in reflected light:
White
Internal Reflections:
Deep red
Pleochroism:
Weak

Chemical Properties of LivingstoniteHide

Formula:
HgSb4S6(S2)
IMA Formula:
HgSb4S8

Crystallography of LivingstoniteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
B2/b
Cell Parameters:
a = 30.1543(10) Å, b = 3.9953(2) Å, c = 21.4262(13) Å
β = 104.265(1)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 7.547 : 1 : 5.363
Unit Cell V:
2501.7 ų
Z:
8
Morphology:
Minute needles elongated [010]. Columnar to fibrous massive; in globular masses of interlaced needles.
Comment:
A2/a

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of LivingstoniteHide

Other Language Names for LivingstoniteHide

Simplified Chinese:硫锑汞矿

Common AssociatesHide

CinnabarHgS
GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
StibniteSb2S3
SulphurS8
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Cinnabar7 photos of Livingstonite associated with Cinnabar on mindat.org.
Stibnite2 photos of Livingstonite associated with Stibnite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.JA.05eBenjaminiteAg3Bi7S12Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05gBorodaeviteAg5(Bi,Pb,Fe)8(Sb,Bi)2S17Mon.
2.JA.05aCupropavoniteCu0.9Ag0.5Pb0.6Bi2.5S5 Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05aKitaibeliteAg10PbBi30S51
2.JA.05dMakovickyiteCu1.12Ag0.81Pb0.27Bi5.35S9Mon. 2/m
2.JA.05fMummeiteCu0.58Ag3.11Pb1.10Bi6.65S13Mon.
2.JA.05aPavoniteAgBi3S5Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05bGrumipluciteHgBi2S4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05hMozgovaitePbBi4(S,Se)7Orth.
2.JA.05dCupromakovickyiteCu4AgPb2Bi9S18Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05cKudriavite(Cd,Pb)Bi2S4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05aCupromakopavoniteAg3Cu8Pb4Bi19S38Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.05DantopaiteCu1.06Ag4.24Pb0.9Bi12.23S21.89Te0.11Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.10aCuprobismutiteCu8AgBi13S24Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.10cHodrušiteCu8Bi12S22Mon.
2.JA.10ePadĕraiteCu7[(Cu,Ag)0.33Pb1.33Bi11.33]S22Mon.
2.JA.10dPizgrischite(Cu,Fe)Cu14PbBi17S35Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.10bKupčíkiteCu3.4Fe0.6Bi5S10Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.JA.15SchapbachiteAg0.4Pb0.2Bi0.4SIso.
2.JA.15CuboargyriteAgSbS2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
2.JA.20BohdanowicziteAgBiSe2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
2.JA.20MatilditeAgBiS2Hex.
2.JA.20VolynskiteAgBiTe2Orth.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

5.4.1NowackiiteCu6Zn3As4S12Trig. 3 : R3
5.4.2Florensovite(Cu,Zn)Cr1.5Sb0.5S4
5.4.3AktashiteCu6Hg3As4S12Trig. 3 : R3
5.4.4LaffittiteAgHgAsS3Mon.
5.4.5Galkhaite(Cs,Tl)(Hg,Cu,Zn)6(As,Sb)4S12Iso. 4 3m : I4 3m
5.4.7GruzdeviteCu6Hg3Sb4S12Trig.
5.4.8TvalchrelidzeiteHg3SbAsS3Mon. 2/m
5.4.9HakiteCu6[Cu4Hg2]Sb4Se13Iso. 4 3m : I4 3m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for LivingstoniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Barcena, M. (1874) Naturaleza: 3: 35.
Barcena, M. (1874) On livingstonite, a new mineral. American Journal of Science: 108: 145-146.
Barcena, M. (1875) American Journal of Science: 9: 64.
Barcena, M. (1879) Naturaleza: 4: 268.
Richmond, W.E. (1936) Crystallography of livingstonite. American Mineralogist: 21: 719-720.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 485-486.
Niizeki, N., Buerger, M.J. (1957) The crystal structure of livingstonite, HgSb4S8. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 109: 129-157.
Srikrishnan, T., W. Nowacki (1975) A redetermination of the crystal structure of livingstonite, HgSb4S8. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 141: 174–192.
Borisov, S.V., Pervukhina, N.V., Magarill, S.A., Kuratieva, N.V., Vasil’ev, V.I. (2010) Crystallographic analysis of the structure of livingstonite HgSb4S8 from refined data. Crystallography Reports: 55: 224-228.

Internet Links for LivingstoniteHide

Localities for LivingstoniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Yancowinna Co.
G. Nottes & U. Heidtke (1986) Aufschluss 37, 31-36
China
 
  • Qinghai Province
    • Hainan Autonomous Prefecture
      • Xinghai Co.
Zhengjiang Ding, Fengyue Sun, Bile Li, Shijin Li, Junwei Zhao, Hui Zhao, and Li Wang (2010): Geology and Exploration 46(2), 198-206
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Wiesloch
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Palatinate
      • Alsenz-Obermoschel
Lapis 2001(6), 13-40
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Tohoku Region
      • Iwate Prefecture
Mineralogical Journal, Spec. 1, 157-159 (1971)
Kyrgyzstan
 
  • Osh Oblast
    • Alai Range (Alay Range)
[Lapis 1993:11 p11-24]
      • Fergana Valley
[Lapis 11:11-24]; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Mexico (TL)
 
  • Guerrero
    • Mun. de Huitzuco
Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, 141, 174(1957)
Panczner(1987):254.
Pancnzer(1987):94-386.
Panczner (1987): 254.
Panczner (1987): 254.
New Zealand
 
  • North Island
    • Northland
Mineralogical Magazine; February 2004; v. 68; no. 1; p. 191-198
Russia
 
  • Urals Region
    • Middle Urals
      • Sverdlovskaya Oblast'
        • Ekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk)
          • Berezovskii (Berezovskii Zavod)
Vikent'eva, O., & Vikentev, I. (2016, April). Occurrence modes of As, Sb, Te, Bi, Ag in sulfide assemblages of gold deposits of the Urals. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 123, No. 1, p. 012028). IOP Publishing.
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
        • Plast
          • Kochkar' District
Vikent'eva, O., & Vikentev, I. (2016, April). Occurrence modes of As, Sb, Te, Bi, Ag in sulfide assemblages of gold deposits of the Urals. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 123, No. 1, p. 012028). IOP Publishing.
Spain
 
  • Castile and Leon
    • León
      • Crémenes
Crespo, J. L., Moro, M. C., Fadón, O., Cabrera, R., & Fernández, A. (2000). The Salamón gold deposit (León, Spain). Journal of Geochemical Exploration,71(2), 191-208.
      • Maraña
        • Boicibacar
- Luque, C., Garcia, J. and García, P. (1989): Características Geoquimicas de los Cinabrios de la Cordillera Cantábrica (NW de España): Utilidad en prospección. Trabajos de Geología Universidad de Oviedo(18) pp. 1-11
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
USA
 
  • Arkansas
    • Howard Co.
U.S. Geological Survey,2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S Geological Survey,Reston, Virginia
    • Pike Co.
Roberts, A.C. et al (2003), The Canadian Mineralogist: 41(3): 721-725.
U.S. Geological Survey,2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S Geological Survey,Reston, Virginia
  • Nevada
    • Nye Co.
      • Hot Creek Range
        • Tybo District
NBMG Bull 99B Geology and Mineral Resources of Northern Nye County, Nevada
    • Pershing Co.
      • Antelope Springs District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Mineral and/or Locality  
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