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Antarcticite

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About AntarcticiteHide

Antarctica

Antarctica
Formula:
CaCl2 · 6H2O
Colour:
Colourless
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
2 - 3
Specific Gravity:
1.715
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Name:
For its occurrence on the continent of Antarctica.
A highly hygroscopic mineral. May dehydrate to mesohydride under certain conditions.

A synthetic Sr analogue is known.


Classification of AntarcticiteHide

Approved
3.BB.30

3 : HALIDES
B : Simple halides, with H2O
B : M:X = 1:2
9.2.6.1

9 : NORMAL HALIDES
2 : AX2
8.4.9

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
4 : Halides of the alkaline earths and Mg

Physical Properties of AntarcticiteHide

Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Colourless
Streak:
White
Hardness:
2 - 3 on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
on {0001}, good to perfect on one prism face
Density:
1.715 g/cm3 (Measured)    1.7 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of AntarcticiteHide

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.550 nε = 1.490 - 1.500
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.060
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low

Chemical Properties of AntarcticiteHide

Formula:
CaCl2 · 6H2O

Crystallography of AntarcticiteHide

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3 2 - Trapezohedral
Space Group:
P3 2 1
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.9 Å, c = 3.95 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.5
Unit Cell V:
213.49 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
1

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.44 (24)
2.80 (23)
2.16 (23)
2.60 (22)
3.98 (18)
2.28 (13)
6.92 (9)
Comments:
Recorded on material from the type locality

Type Occurrence of AntarcticiteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Aggregates of acicular crystals with poor terminations, to 15 cm
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Precipitate from highly saline brines under very arid conditions

Synonyms of AntarcticiteHide

Other Language Names for AntarcticiteHide

Simplified Chinese:南极石
Traditional Chinese:南極石

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

3.BB.05EriochalciteCuCl2 · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.BB.10RokühniteFeCl2 · 2H2OMon.
3.BB.15BischofiteMgCl2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
3.BB.20NickelbischofiteNiCl2 · 6H2OMon.
3.BB.25SinjariteCaCl2 · 2H2OTet.
3.BB.35TachyhydriteCaMg2Cl6 · 12H2OTrig.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

8.4.1SellaiteMgF2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
8.4.2NeighboriteNaMgF3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
8.4.3BischofiteMgCl2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
8.4.4KorshunovskiteMg2Cl(OH)3 · 4H2OTric.
8.4.5CarnalliteKMgCl3 · 6H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnna
8.4.6TachyhydriteCaMg2Cl6 · 12H2OTrig.
8.4.7FluoriteCaF2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
8.4.8SinjariteCaCl2 · 2H2OTet.
8.4.10ChlorocalciteKCaCl3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
8.4.11RorisiteCaFClTet.
8.4.12JarliteNa(Sr,Na)7MgAl6F32(OH,H2O)2Mon. 2/m
8.4.13CalcjarliteNa(Ca,Sr)3Al3(OH)2F14Mon.
8.4.14TikhonenkoviteSr[AlF4(OH)(H2O)]Mon. 2/m : P21/b
8.4.15AcuminiteSr[AlF4(OH)(H2O)]Mon. 2/m : B2/b
8.4.16FrankdicksoniteBaF2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
8.4.17UsoviteBa2CaMgAl2F14Mon.
8.4.18BøgvaditeNa2SrBa2Al4F20Mon. 2/m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for AntarcticiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Torii, T., Ossaka, J. (1965) Antarcticite: a new mineral, calcium chloride hexahydrate, dicovered in Antarctica. Science: 149: 975-977.
Fleischer, M. (1965) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 50: 2096-2111. [abstract]
Dunning, G.E., Cooper, J.F., Jr. (1969) A second occurrence of antarcticite, from Bristol Dry Lake, California. American Mineralogist: 54: 1018-1025.
Agron, P.A., Busing, W.R. (1986) Calcium and strontium dichloride hexahydrates by neutron diffraction. Acta Crystallographica: C42: 141-143.
Schiffries, C.M. (1990) Liquid-absent aqueous fluid inclusions and phase equilibria in the system CaCl2 - NaCl - H2O. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 54: 611-619.
Eckstein, Y., Manecki, M., Matyjasik, M., Rosenthal, E. (1994) Hydrochemical stratification and processes in three "blue holes" on North Andros Island, Bahamas. Geological Society of America 1994 Annual Meeting - Abstracts with Programs : 26: 7: A-360.
Anthony, J. W., et al. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 16.

Internet Links for AntarcticiteHide

Localities for AntarcticiteHide

ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Antarctica
 
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Victoria Land
      • Ross Island
Handbook of Mineralogy
      • Wright Valley
J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3 (1997)
Australia
 
  • Queensland
    • Cloncurry Shire
      • Rosebud Station
        • Mary Kathleen district
T. Kwak & P. Abeysinghe (1987): Rare earth and uranium minerals present as daughter crystals in fluid inclusions, Mary Kathleen U-REE skarn, Queensland, Australia. Mineralogical Magazine 51, 665-670.
Bahamas
 
  • North Andros District
J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3 (1997); Eckstein Y., Manecki M., Matyjasik M., Rosenthal E. (1994): Hydrochemical stratification and processes in three “blue holes” on North Andros Island, Bahamas. Geological Society of America 1994 Annual Meeting, Seattle, WA, Oct. 24-27, Abstracts with Programs, 26, 7, A-360.
Canada
 
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • Abitibi RCM
        • Preissac
Taner, H., Williams-Jones, A.E., and Wood, S.A. (1998): Mineralium Deposita 34, 579-590.
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta Region
    • El Loa Province
      • San Pedro de Atacama
        • Cordillera de la Sal
De Waele, J., Carbone, C., Sanna, L., Vattano, M., Galli, E., & Forti, P. (2017). Secondary minerals from halite caves in the Atacama Desert (Chile). In 17th International Congress of Speleology (No. I, pp. 242-246). Australian Speleological Federation Inc.
China
 
  • Qinghai Province
    • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
      • Golmud Co. (Ge'ermu Co.)
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
      • Lenghu Co.
Bingxiao Li and Kejun Wang (1986): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 6(1), 59-62; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Xiyu Zheng (1994): Journal of Lake Sciences 6(3), 267-275; Mianping Zheng and Xifang Liu (2010): Acta Geologica Sinica 84(11), 1585-1600
Norway
 
  • Akershus
    • Bærum (Baerum)
Hans-Jørgen Berg, NHM, Oslo 1999
Russia
 
  • Irkutsk Oblast
    • Zheleznogorsk (Korshunikha)
Mazurov, M.P., Grishina, S.N., Istomin, V.E., and Titov, A.T. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(4), 271-284.; Mazurov et al (2007) Geology of Ore Deposits, 49, 271–284.
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast
Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
South Africa
 
  • Limpopo Province
    • Bushveld Complex
      • Burgersfort
        • Sekhukhuneland
J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3 (1997)
USA
 
  • California
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Saltus
Dunning, G.E. and J.F. Cooper (1969b) A second occurrence of antarcticite from Bristol Dry Lake, California. American Mineralogist: 54: 1018-1021; Muehle, G.H. (1971) Antarcticite from California. Mineralogical Record: 2: 171-172; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 288-290.; Ansermet, S. (2011): Aus dem Salzsee in Kühlschrank: Antarcticit vom Bristol Dry Lake, Kalifornien, USA. Lapis. 36 (11), 33-36
Mars
 
  • Aeolis quadrangle
    • Gusev Crater
SILICA-RICH DEPOSITS AND HYDRATED MINERALS AT GUSEV CRATER, MARS. M. S. Rice1, J. F.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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