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Mn-bearing Fluorapatite

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About Mn-bearing FluorapatiteHide

(Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
Blue, Greenish blue
Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Resinous
Informal descriptive modifier, introduced by Waldemar Schaller, joined to a mineral name . Although there are several Mn-bearing varieties of fluorapatite, some have been given unique names (manganapatite) and some have not, e.g. purple apatite and pink apatite. The dark blue apatites owe their coloration to pentavalent Mn and it is apparently the intention to give this unusual high valence substitution a separate name: Mn-bearing fluorapatite, although any Mn-bearing fluorapatite with unknown valence Mn, could be included under this generic name.
A variety of Fluorapatite

A high valence manganese-bearing variety of fluorapatite, generally containing Mn5+. The name "manganapatite" has been incorrectly applied to this variety.

When Mn2+ and, probably some divalent Fe, replaces Ca, the resulting color may be dull green (McConnell, 1973). When Mn3+ is present, a pinkish or violet coloration results which is typical for some alkaline pegmatites of the Lovozero massif. Some purple apatites have been studied by Mossbauer spectroscopy and the purple color has been ascribed to MnMn4+. Mn5+ can replace P and this will result in a blue color (Johnson, Prener, and Kingsley, 1963; Hughes et al., 2004). For example, fluorapatite with high valence Mn5+ fluorapatite often forms blue rims around orange lithiophilite grains at the Rb-Ta Elash deposit.

NOTE: The names manganapatite or manganoan apatite has been used to describe certain samples of fluorapatite that contain divalent Mn that causes a golden-yellow fluorescent response under UV. Without the manganese, fluorapatite is frequently unresponsive to UV, although there are other fluorescence activators in the apatites. Large amounts of Mn in fluorapatite, generally > 4 weight percent, are poorly fluorescent to non-fluorescent.

Pronounciation of Mn-bearing FluorapatiteHide

PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of Mn-bearing FluorapatiteHide

Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Resinous
Transparent, Translucent, Opaque
Blue, Greenish blue
Hardness Data:
{0001}, {1010}
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal, Sub-Conchoidal

Chemical Properties of Mn-bearing FluorapatiteHide

(Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)

Synonyms of Mn-bearing FluorapatiteHide

Other Language Names for Mn-bearing FluorapatiteHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Quartz6 photos of Mn-bearing Fluorapatite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Elbaite5 photos of Mn-bearing Fluorapatite associated with Elbaite on mindat.org.
Cleavelandite5 photos of Mn-bearing Fluorapatite associated with Cleavelandite on mindat.org.
Tourmaline5 photos of Mn-bearing Fluorapatite associated with Tourmaline on mindat.org.
Albite4 photos of Mn-bearing Fluorapatite associated with Albite on mindat.org.
Olenite4 photos of Mn-bearing Fluorapatite associated with Olenite on mindat.org.
Rubellite3 photos of Mn-bearing Fluorapatite associated with Rubellite on mindat.org.
Londonite-Rhodizite Series3 photos of Mn-bearing Fluorapatite associated with Londonite-Rhodizite Series on mindat.org.
Lepidolite3 photos of Mn-bearing Fluorapatite associated with Lepidolite on mindat.org.
Fluorite2 photos of Mn-bearing Fluorapatite associated with Fluorite on mindat.org.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Mn-bearing FluorapatiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Siewert (1874) Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaften, Halle: 10: 339 (as Manganapatit).
Otto (1935) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 47: 89.
Quensel, Percy (1937) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 59: 257.
McConnell, Duncan (1938) American Mineralogist: 23: 1.
Mason, Brian (1941) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 63: 279.
Palache, Charles, Berman, Harry, and Frondel, Clifford (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 878.
Johnson, P. D., Prener, J. S., and Kingsley, J. D. (1963) Apatite: Origin of Blue Color, Science, v. 141, p. 1179-1180.
Hughes, John M., Ertl, A., Bernhardt, H.-J., Rossman, George R. and Rakovan, John (2004): Mn-rich fluorapatite from Austria: Crystal structure, chemical analysis, and spectroscopic investigations. Am. Mineral. 89, 629-632.

Internet Links for Mn-bearing FluorapatiteHide

Localities for Mn-bearing FluorapatiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Victoria
    • Rural City of Wangaratta
      • Eldorado
Ryan Eagle collection
  • Western Australia
    • Bridgetown-Greenbushes Shire
      • Greenbushes Tinfield
Jacobson, M., Calderwood, M., Grguric, B.(2007): Pegmatites of Western Australia
  • Lower Austria
    • Waldviertel
      • Raabs an der Thaya
        • Eibenstein an der Thaya
Hughes, J. M., Ertl, A., Bernhardt, H.-J., Rossman, G. R. & Rakovan, J. (2004): Mn-rich fluorapatite from Austria: Crystal structure, chemical analysis, and spectroscopic investigations. Am. Mineral. 89, 629-632.
  • Minas Gerais
    • Conselheiro Lafaiete
  • Fujian Province
    • Nanping Prefecture
      • Yanping District
Huan Hu, Rucheng Wang, Fontan, F., Aicheng Zhang, and Jiadeng Chen (2007): Presented at the International Symposium: Granitic Pegmatites: The State of the Art, May 06–12, 2007, Porto, Portugal.
  • Henan Province
    • Sanmenxia Prefecture
      • Lushi Co.
        • Guanpo
Ruiling He and Enkui Cao (1985): Geology of Shaanxi 3(2), 39-46.
  • Hubei Province
    • Xiaogan Prefecture
      • Dawu Co.
Zhuying Chen and Lixian Jiang (1989): Mineral Deposits 8(4), 78-84
  • Jiangxi Province
    • Yichun Prefecture
      • Yuanzhou District
        • Yichun complex (Yashan batholith)
Xiaolong Huang, Rucheng Wang, Xiaoming Chen, Huan Hu, and Changshi Liu (2002): Canadian Mineralogist 40(4), 1047-1068.
  • New Valley Governorate
USGS Open-File Report 02–156–A
  • Western and Inner Finland Region
    • Orivesi
      • Eräjärvi area
    • Seinäjoki
      • Peräseinäjoki
  • Nouvelle-Aquitaine
    • Creuse
      • Crozant
Aubert G Pierrot R (1959) Sur un gisement de pegmatite à Li Mn Nb Ta Sn et Be dans la région de Crozant. Bulleti de la société française de minéralogie et de cristallographie LXXXII p 400
      • Soumans
        • Montebras
Patrice Queneau Collection
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Neustadt an der Waldnaab
        • Reinhardsrieth
Harald G. Dill and Radek Skoda (2015) The new Nb–P aplite at Reinhardsrieth: A keystone in the lateral and depth zonations of the Hagendorf–Pleystein Pegmatite Field, SE Germany. Ore Geology Reviews 70:208–227.
      • Pleystein
DILL, H.G., MELCHER, F., GERDES, A. and WEBER, B. (2008): The origin and zoning of hypogene and supergene Fe-Mn-Mg-Sc-U-REE-Zn phosphate mineralization from the newly discovered Trutzhofmühle aplite (Hagendorf pegmatite province, Germany). Canadian Mineralogist 46, 1131-1157.
      • Waidhaus
        • Hagendorf
Dill H.G.: "Mineralogical and chemical composition of the Hagendorf-North Pegmatite, SE Germany - a monographic study", J. Min. Geochem, 2013
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
      • Ehrenfriedersdorf
Thomas, R., and Webster, J.D. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 570-582.
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co.
    • Bükk Mts
      • Bükkszentkereszt
Koch: Minerals of Hungary, 1985
  • Antananarivo Province
    • Vakinankaratra Region
      • Antsirabe II District
        • Ibity Commune
          • Sahatany Valley
Larsen, K. E. (2003): Mineralene i Sahatany pegmatittfelt, Madagaskar. Norsk Bergverksmuseums Skrift. 25, 5-18 (in norwegian)
Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A. Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. p 353
Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. p 353
      • Betafo District
        • Andrembesoa Commune
          • FKT Antsentsindrano
Lacroix, A. (1912): Sur quelques minéraux des pegmatites du Vakinankaratra (Madagascar). Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie 35 , 76-84
  • Fianarantsoa Province
    • Amoron'i Mania Region
      • Ambatofinandrahana District
        • Itremo commune
Knut Edvard Larsen collection # M-402
  • Zambezia Province
    • Alto Ligonha District
Dias, M. Bettencourt and Wilson, W. E., 2000, Mineralogical Record, 31:459-497.
  • Erongo Region
    • Karibib
      • Okatjimukuju Farm 55 (Friedrichsfelde Farm)
P. Keller and O. von Knorring, Eur. J. Mineral. , 1989, 1, pp. 567-593.
  • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
    • Ząbkowice Slaskie District
      • Ząbkowice (Frankenstein)
        • Szklary (Gläsendorf)
Pieczka, A., & Gołębiowska, B. (2001). Altered pyrochlore from the Szklary rare-element pegmatite, Lower Silesia, Poland. In Mineral Deposits at the Beginning of the 21 st Century. Proceedings of the Joint sixth Biennial SGA-SEG Meeting (pp. 469-472).
Geologia Sudetica, 33 (1): 23-31.
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Buriatia (Buryatia)
        • Mama River Basin
Pavel M. Kartashov data
      • Irkutskaya Oblast'
P.M. Kartashov data
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaya Oblast'
      • Lovozero Massif
        • Seidozero Lake
          • Lepkhe-Nel'm Mt (Lepkhe-Nelm; Nepkha)
Pavel M. Kartashov data
Pavel M. Kartashov data
      • Voron'i Tundry
Pavel M. Kartashov
  • Western Province
    • Gatumba District
Bertossa, A. (1968) Inventaire des minéraux du Rwanda. Bulletin du Service Géologique de Rwanda: 4: 25-45.; Daltry, V.D.C. and von Knorring, O. (1998) Type-mineralogy of Rwanda with particular reference to the Buranga pegmatite. Geologica Belgica: 1: 9-15.
  • Bratislava Region
    • Bratislava Co.
      • Bratislava
        • Devín
Chudík, P. & Uher, P. (2009): Mitt. Österr. Mineral. Ges. 155, 40. (Abs.)
  • Castile and Leon
    • Salamanca
Roda, E., Fontán, F., Pesquera, A., & Keller, P. (2001). Phosphate mineral associations of the Aldehuela de la Bóveda, Li-Sn-Nb+-Tb bearing pegmatite, Salamanca, Spain: . In Mineral Deposits at the Beginning of the 21 st Century. Proceedings of the Joint sixth Biennial SGA-SEG Meeting (pp. 477-480).
      • Garcirrey
Encarnación Roda-Robles, Alfonso Pesquera (2007) Locality no. 4: The Phosphates-Rich Cañada Pegmatite (Aldehuela de La Bóveda, Salamanca, Spain) in ALEXANDRE LIMA & ENCARNACIÓN RODA ROBLES ed (2007) GRANITIC PEGMATITES: THE STATE OF THE ART - FIELD TRIP GUIDEBOOK. MEMÓRIAS N. º 9, UNIV. DO PORTO, FACULDADE DE CIÊNCIAS, DEPARTAMENTO DE GEOLOGIA pp 67-72.
  • Galicia
    • Pontevedra
      • Forcarei
Fuertes-Fuente, M., & Martin-Izard, A. (2001). The Forcarei Norte and Lalín pegmatite fields, Galicia, Northwest of Spain. Mineral Deposits at the Beginning of the 21st Century, 413.
Fuertes-Fuente, M., Martin-Izard, A., Boiron, M.C., and Mangas, J. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 332-345.
      • Lalín
Fuertes-Fuente, M., Martin-Izard, A., Boiron, M.C., and Mangas, J. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 332-345.
  • Norrbotten
    • Piteå
No reference listed
  • Skåne
    • Bromölla
      • Näsum
Weibull, M., (1886): Om manganapatit från Vestanå jemte några anmärkningar öfver apatitens sammansättning. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar 8, 492-495; Weibull, M. (1898) : Om några Vestanåmineral. Geologiska Föreningens i Stock­holm Förhandlingar 20, 57-66
  • Västerbotten
    • Skellefteå
Grensman, F & Langhof, J.(1991):Åkerberget. Guldgruva med litiumpegmatite. STEIN 18(2),20-22
Quensel, P. (1937): Minerals of the Varuträsk Pegmatite. V. Manganapatite and Manganvoelckorite. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar. 59: 257-261
  • Ticino (Tessin)
    • Lago Maggiore
      • Brissago
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 196.
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Mount's Bay District
        • Breage
Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
  • Arizona
    • Yavapai Co.
      • White Picacho District
        • Independence Gulch
Am Min 67:97-113
  • California
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • San Bernardino Mts
        • Bear Valley District
          • Fawnskin (Grout)
  • Colorado
    • Larimer Co.
      • Crystal Mountain Pegmatite District (Storm Mountain District)
Rocks & Min.:62:231 & 234-235.; USGS Prof. Paper 227
  • Connecticut
    • Fairfield Co.
      • Redding (Reading)
        • Branchville
AmMin 31:329-345 (1946); USGS Prof Paper 255
    • Hartford Co.
      • Glastonbury
        • South Glastonbury
Rocks and Minerals (1999) 74:110-121
    • Litchfield Co.
      • North Canaan
        • Canaan
Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976), Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
    • Middlesex Co.
      • East Hampton (Chatham)
        • Airline Railroad
Schooner, Richard. (1961): THE MINERALOGY OF CONNECTICUT.
      • Portland
Jones, Robert W. Jr., (1960), Luminescent Minerals of Connecticut, A Guide to Their Properties and Locations. Fluorescent House. Branford, Connecticut.
        • Collins Hill
          • Strickland pegmatite (Strickland-Cramer Quarry; Strickland-Cramer Mine; Strickland-Cramer Feldspar-Mica Quarries)
Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.
Michael W. Kieron collection; Rocks & Minerals (1970) 45:443-449; Rocks & Minerals (1970) 45:595-600
  • Delaware
    • New Castle Co.
      • Wilmington
Dana (1893) Textbook of Mineralogy 17th ed.
  • Maine
    • Oxford Co.
      • Albany
King, V. (ed.), 2009, Maine feldspar, Families, and Feuds
      • Buckfield
Martins da Pedra collection
      • Hartford
Van King
      • Hebron
Van King
      • Newry
King, V. T., 2006, Minerals of Halls Ridge and Plumbago-Puzzle Mountain, Newry, ... Maine, Mineral News, v. 22(6): p. 1-3.
      • Stoneham
King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine
  • New Hampshire
    • Carroll Co.
      • Wakefield
"Dan Costian" Collection
    • Grafton Co.
      • Groton
Nashua Min Soc. newsletter Jan., 2004
    • Rockingham Co.
Meyers & Stewart 1956. Geology of NH, Part III.
  • New Mexico
    • Taos Co.
      • Picuris District
Dean Alun photo
  • South Dakota
    • Pennington Co.
      • Keystone District
        • Keystone
Rocks & Min.:60:110,112,116.
  • Wisconsin
    • Florence Co.
      • Fern
Rocks & Min. (2002) 77:170
Falster, A. , W.B. Simmons & P.B. Moore (1996) The mineralogy and geochemistry of the Animikie Red Ace pegmatite in Florence County, Wisconsin: Recent Research Developments in Mineralogy: 1: 7-67.
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