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green, green-blue, white, brown, black
3½ - 4
Specific Gravity:
2.5 - 2.6
Crystal System:
Named in 1840 by Mathias Eduard Schweizer for the type locality, Valle di Antigorio, Domodossola, Piedmont, Italy, although there is a small question if he were on the Italian side of the border.
Kaolinite-Serpentine group.
m = 16 and m = 17 polysomes known.
Antigorite is a high-temperature serpentine mineral, forming only above 250°C (Wenner & Taylor, 1974; Evans, 1977).

See also the closely related chrysotile and lizardite which are low-temperature serpentine minerals.

Note: Antigorite is not the most common serpentine mineral, although it is a common member of the group. Volumetrically, lizardite is the most abundant serpentine mineral.

The type material was collected near the border between Switzerland and Italy from outcrops of the Geisspfad serpentinite. It is not clear in which country the material was sampled.

Visit for gemological information about Antigorite.

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Classification of AntigoriteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
D : Phyllosilicates with kaolinite layers composed of tetrahedral and octahedral nets

71 : PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
1 : Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
4 : Silicates of Mg

Physical Properties of AntigoriteHide

green, green-blue, white, brown, black
greenish white
3½ - 4 on Mohs scale
[001] good
2.5 - 2.6 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.52 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of AntigoriteHide

Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.555 - 1.567 nβ = 1.560 - 1.573 nγ = 1.560 - 1.573
Measured: 20° to 50°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.005 - 0.006
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of AntigoriteHide

IMA Formula:
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of AntigoriteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
m - Domatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 43.53 Å, b = 9.25 Å, c = 7.26 Å
β = 91.13°
a:b:c = 4.706 : 1 : 0.785
Unit Cell V:
2,922.69 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
7.28 (100)
7.21 (10)
3.623 (60)
3.589 (10)
2.523 (30)
2.169 (10)
2.150 (10)
1.558 (10)

Type Occurrence of AntigoriteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
massive, scales, plates
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
ETH Zürich, Switzerland
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of AntigoriteHide

Other Language Names for AntigoriteHide

Varieties of AntigoriteHide

Al-AntigoriteAn unnecessary name for an aluminium-bearing variety of Antigorite.
Andes JadeMarketing term for a tough lapidary-quality serpentine (composed dominantly of antigorite, with 21 to 31% lizardite, minor magnetite and Mg-carbonate) from Argentina. Color varies through many shades of green, yellowish, to almost black.
BoweniteOriginally described from Dexter Quarry (Dexter Lime Quarry), Lime Rock, Lincoln, Providence Co., Rhode Island, USA.
JenkinsiteA ferroan variety of antigorite.

Originally found at "O'Neil's mine near Monroe, Orange County, New York."
Vorhauseritemedium to dark brown colored variety of serpentine containing manganese
WebskyiteGreenish black fine-grained replacement of antigorite after a calcian forsterite.
WilliamsiteA translucent pale apple-green variety of antigorite.

Relationship of Antigorite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AmesiteMg2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
Berthierine(Fe2+,Fe3+,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
CronstedtiteFe2+2Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4Trig. 3m : P3 1m
GuidottiiteMn2Fe3+(Fe3+SiO5)(OH)4Hex. 6 : P63

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Chromite11 photos of Antigorite associated with Chromite on
Magnetite9 photos of Antigorite associated with Magnetite on
Serpentine Subgroup9 photos of Antigorite associated with Serpentine Subgroup on
Calcite7 photos of Antigorite associated with Calcite on
Magnesite5 photos of Antigorite associated with Magnesite on
Pimelite4 photos of Antigorite associated with Pimelite on
Deweylite3 photos of Antigorite associated with Deweylite on
Nemalite2 photos of Antigorite associated with Nemalite on
Clinochlore2 photos of Antigorite associated with Clinochlore on
Chondrodite2 photos of Antigorite associated with Chondrodite on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.ED.ClinochrysotileMon. 2/m
9.ED.05DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
9.ED.05KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
9.ED.05NacriteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
9.ED.05Odinite(Fe,Mg,Al,Fe,Ti,Mn)2.4((Si,Al)2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
9.ED.10HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
9.ED.10HisingeriteFe3+2(Si2O5)(OH)4 · 2H2OMon.
9.ED.10Halloysite-7ÅAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
9.ED.15AmesiteMg2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
9.ED.15Berthierine(Fe2+,Fe3+,Al)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4Mon. m : Bm
9.ED.15CronstedtiteFe2+2Fe3+((Si,Fe3+)2O5)(OH)4Trig. 3m : P3 1m
9.ED.15GuidottiiteMn2Fe3+(Fe3+SiO5)(OH)4Hex. 6 : P63
9.ED.20Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2OAmor.
9.ED.20ChrysocollaCu2-xAlx(H2-xSi2O5)(OH)4 · nH2OOrth.
9.ED.20Neotocite(Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2OAmor.
9.ED.25BismutoferriteFe3+2Bi(SiO4)2(OH)Mon. m : Bm
9.ED.25ChapmaniteFe3+2Sb3+(Si2O5)O3(OH)Mon. m : Bm

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.4.1ForsteriteMg2SiO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
14.4.2EnstatiteMgSiO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
14.4.3ClinoenstatiteMgSiO3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
14.4.5ClinochrysotileMon. 2/m
14.4.9TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1 : P1
14.4.10SpadaiteMgSiO2(OH)2 · H2O (?)
14.4.11SepioliteMg4(Si6O15)(OH)2 · 6H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnna
14.4.12LoughliniteNa2Mg3Si6O16 · 8H2OOrth.
14.4.16 Magnesio-anthophyllite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for AntigoriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Schweizer, E. (1840) Ueber den Antigorit, ein neues Mineral. Annalen der Physik und Chemie: 19: 595-599.
Zussman, J. (1954) Investigation of the crystal structure of antigorite. Mineralogical Magazine: 30: 498-512.
Kunze, V.G. (1958) Die gewellte Struktur des Antigorits, II. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 110: 282-320.
Kunze, V.G. (1961) Antigorit. Fortschritte der Mineralogie: 39: 206-324.
International Mineralogical Association (1967) Commission on new minerals and mineral names. Mineralogical Magazine: 36: 131-136.
Wicks, F.J. and Whittaker, E.J.W. (1975) A reappraisal of the structures of the serpentine minerals. Canadian Mineralogist: 13(3): 227-243.
Dungan, M.A. (1979) A microprobe study of antigorite and some serpentine pseudomorphs. The Canadian Mineralogist: 17: 771-784.
Yada, K. (1979) Microstructures of chrysotile and antigorite by high–resolution electron microscopy. The Canadian Mineralogist: 17: 679-691.
Spinnler, G.E. (1985) HRTEM study of antigorite, pyroxene-serpentine reactions and chlorite, 248 p. Ph.D. Thesis, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona.
Uehara, S. and Shirozu, H. (1985) Variations in chemical composition and structural properties of antigorites. Mineralogical Journal: 12: 299-318.
Mellini, M., Trommsdorff, V., and Compagnoni, R. (1987) Antigorite polysomatism: Behaviour during progressive metamorphism. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 97: 147-155.
Otten, M.T. (1993) High-resolution electron microscopy of polysomatism and stacking defects in antigorite. American Mineralogist: 78: 75-84.
Uehara, S. and Kamata, K. (1994) Antigorite with a large supercell from Saganoseki, Oita Prefecture, Japan. The Canadian Mineralogist: 32: 93-103.
O'Hanley, D.S. and Wicks, F.J. (1995) Conditions of formation of lizardite, chrysotile and antigorite, Cassiar, British Columbia. The Canadian Mineralogist: 33: 753-773.
Viti, C. and Mellini, M. (1996) Vein antigorite from Elba Island, Italy. European Journal of Mineralogy: 8: 423-434.
Wunder, B. and Schreyer, W. (1997) Antigorite: high-pressure stability in the system MgO-SiO2-H2O. Lithos: 41: 213-227.
Wunder, B., Baronnet, A., and Schreyer, W. (1997) Ab-initio synthesis and TEM confirmation of antigorite in the system MgO-SiO2-H2O. American Mineralogist: 82: 760-764.
Gaines, R.V., Skinner, H.C.W., Foord, E.E., Mason, B., Rosenzweig, A., and King, V. (1997)Dana's New Mineralogy: The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, 8th. edition.
Uehara, S. (1998) TEM and XRD study of antigorite superstructures. The Canadian Mineralogist: 36: 1595-1605.
Wunder, B., Wirth, R., Gottschalk, M. (2001) Antigorite: Pressure and temperature dependence of polysomatism and water content. European Journal of Mineralogy: 13: 485-495.
Dodony, I., Posfai, M., and Buseck, P.R. (2002) Revised structure models for antigorite: An HRTEM study. American Mineralogist: 87: 1443-1457.
Bromiley, G.D. and Pawley, A.R. (2003) The stability of antigorite in the systems MgO-SiO2-H2O (MSH) and MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O (MASH): The effects of Al 3+ substitution on high-pressure stability. American Mineralogist: 88: 99-108.
Grobéty, B. (2003) Polytypes and higher-order structures of antigorite A TEM study. American Mineralogist: 88: 27-36.
Rinaudo, C., Gastaldi, D., and Belluso, E. (2003) Characterization of chrysotile, antigorite and lizardite by FT-Raman spectroscopy. The Canadian Mineralogist: 41: 883-890.
Capitani, G.C. and Mellini, M. (2004) The modulated crystal structure of antigorite: the m = 17 polysome. American Mineralogist: 89: 147-158.
Capitani, G.C. and Mellini, M. (2005) HRTEM evidence for 8-reversals in the m = 17 antigorite polysome. American Mineralogist: 90: 991-999.
Capitani, G.C. and Mellini, M. (2006) The crystal structure of a second antigorite polysome (m = 16), by single-crystal synchrotron diffraction. American Mineralogist: 91: 394-399.
Dódony, I., Pósfai, M., and Buseck, P.R. (2006) Does antigorite really contain 4- and 8-membered rings of tetrahedra? American Mineralogist: 91: 1831-1838.
Capitani, G.C. and Mellini, M. (2007) High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) investigation of antigorite polysomes (m = 15 to 18). American Mineralogist: 92: 64-71.
Roth, P. (2007) Antigorite. in: Minerals first discovered in Switzerland and minerals named after Swiss individuals. Kristallografik Verlag, Achberg, Germany: 34-35.
Noguchi, N., Moriwaki, T., Ikemoto, Y., and Shinoda, K. (2012) OH group behavior and pressure-induced amorphization of antigorite examined under high pressure and temperature using synchrotron infrared spectroscopy. American Mineralogist: 97: 134-142.
Marquardt, H., Speziale, S., Koch-Müller, M., Marquardt, K., and Capitani, G.C (2015) Structural insights and elasticity of single-crystal antigorite from high-pressure Raman and Brillouin spectroscopy measured in the (010) plane. American Mineralogist: 100: 1932-1939.

Internet Links for AntigoriteHide

Localities for AntigoriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow

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