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About LindbergiteHide

Mn2+(C2O4) · 2H2O
White to grayish white
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named in honor of Marie Louise Lindberg-Smith (1918-2005). She worked at the US Geological Survey and described several new mineral species.
The Mn analogue of humboldtine.

May appear as a dehydration product of falottaite (Mn-oxalate trihydrate).

An orthorhombic polymorph is known as a synthetic compound (Huizing et al., 1977; Lethbridge et al., 2003).

A corresponding compound, likely lindbergite, is reported as a common biomineral formed by action of lichen (Pertusaria corallina) on Mn ores (vide Burford et al., 2003).

Classification of LindbergiteHide

Approval Year:
First Published:

A : Salts of organic acids
B : Oxalates

Physical Properties of LindbergiteHide

White to grayish white
2½ on Mohs scale
on {010}
not observed
2.1 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.356 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of LindbergiteHide

Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.424 nβ = 1.550 nγ = 1.650
Measured: 80° , Calculated: 77°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.226
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
not detected

Chemical Properties of LindbergiteHide

Mn2+(C2O4) · 2H2O
IMA Formula:
Mn(C2O4) · 2H2O

Crystallography of LindbergiteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:
a = 11.995 Å, b = 5.632 Å, c = 9.967 Å
β = 128.34°
a:b:c = 2.13 : 1 : 1.77
Unit Cell V:
528.1 ų
Pseudomorphous after short prismatic crystals of the trihydrate; aggregates of platelets.
Space group C2/c.

Type Occurrence of LindbergiteHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Secondary mineral associated with phosphates in a granite pegmatite
Atencio, D., Coutinho, J. M.V., Graeser, S., Matioli, P. A., Menezes Filho, L. A. D. (2004) Lindbergite, a new manganese oxalate dihydrate from Boca Rica mine, Galiléia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and Parsettens, Oberhalbstein, Switzerland. American Mineralogist: 89: 1087-1091.

Synonyms of LindbergiteHide

Other Language Names for LindbergiteHide


Relationship of Lindbergite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
GlushinskiteMg(C2O4) · 2H2OMon.
HumboldtineFe2+(C2O4) · 2H2OMon. 2/m
Unnamed (Zn-analogue of Humboldtine)Zn(C2O4) · 2H2O

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Frondelite10 photos of Lindbergite associated with Frondelite on mindat.org.
Tinzenite7 photos of Lindbergite associated with Tinzenite on mindat.org.
Quartz4 photos of Lindbergite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Hureaulite1 photo of Lindbergite associated with Hureaulite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

10.AB.Uroxite [(UO2)2(C2O4)(OH)2(H2O)2]·H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
10.AB.05HumboldtineFe2+(C2O4) · 2H2OMon. 2/m
10.AB.10GlushinskiteMg(C2O4) · 2H2OMon.
10.AB.15MoolooiteCu(C2O4) · 0.4H2OOrth.
10.AB.20StepanoviteNaMgFe3+(C2O4)3 · 8-9H2OTrig. 3m : P3c1
10.AB.25MinguzziteK3Fe3+(C2O4)3 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
10.AB.30WheatleyiteNa2Cu(C2O4)2 · 2H2OTric.
10.AB.35ZhemchuzhnikoviteNaMgAl(C2O4)3 · 8H2OTrig. 3m : P3c1
10.AB.40WeddelliteCa(C2O4) · (2.5-x)H2OTet. 4/m : I4/m
10.AB.45WhewelliteCa(C2O4) · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
10.AB.50CaoxiteCa(C2O4) · 3H2OTric.
10.AB.55Oxammite(NH4)2(C2O4) · H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 2
10.AB.65Coskrenite-(Ce)(Ce,Nd,La)2(C2O4)(SO4)2 · 12H2OTric.
10.AB.70Levinsonite-(Y)(Y,Nd,La)Al(C2O4)(SO4)2 · 12H2OMon. 2/m
10.AB.75Zugshunstite-(Ce)(Ce,Nd,La)Al(C2O4)(SO4)2 · 12H2OMon.
10.AB.80NovgorodovaiteCa2(C2O4)Cl2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for LindbergiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Deyrieux, R., Berro, C., Peneloux, A. (1973) Contribution à l'étude des oxalates de certains métaux bivalents. III. - Structure cristalline des oxalates dihydratés de manganèse, de cobalt, de nickel et de zinc. Polymorphisme des oxalates dihydratés de cobalt et de nickel. Bulletin de la Société Chimique de France: 1973: 25-34.
Huizing, A.; Van Hal, H. A. M.; Kwestroo, W.; Langereis, C.; Van Loosdregt, P. C. (1977) Hydrates of manganese(II) oxalate. Materials Research Bulletin: 12: 605-611.
Sledzinska, I., Murasik, A., Fischer, P. (1987) Magnetic ordering of the linear chain system manganese oxalate dihydrate investigated by means of neutron diffraction and bulk magnetic measurements. Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics: 20: 2247-2259.
Lethbridge, Zoe A. D.; Congreve, Aileen F.; Esslemont, Emma; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; Lightfoot, Philip. (2003) Synthesis and structure of three manganese oxalates: MnC2O4.2H2O, [C4H8(NH2)2][Mn2(C2O4)3] and Mn2(C2O4)(OH)2. Journal of Solid State Chemistry: 172: 212-218.
Burford, E.P., Kierans, M., Gadd, G.M. (2003) Geomycology: fungi in mineral substrata. Mycologist: 17(3): 98-107; DOI: 10.1017/S0269915X03003112
Atencio, D., Coutinho, J. M.V., Graeser, S., Matioli, P. A., Menezes Filho, L. A. D. (2004) Lindbergite, a new manganese oxalate dihydrate from Boca Rica mine, Galiléia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and Parsettens, Oberhalbstein, Switzerland. American Mineralogist: 89: 1087-1091.
Mandarino, J.A. (2004) New minerals. The Canadian Mineralogist: 42: 1901-1927.
Soleimannejad, J., Aghabozorg, H., Hooshmand, S., Ghadermazi M. and Attar Gharamaleki, J. (2007) The monoclinic polymorph of catena-poly[<[diaquamanganese(II)]- -oxalato-4O1,O2:O1',O2']. Acta Crystallographica: E63: m2389-m2390.
Echigo, T. and Kimata, M. (2008) Single-crystal X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic studies on humboldtine and lindbergite: weak Jahn–Teller effect of Fe2+ ion. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 35: 467-475.
Echigo, T., Kimata, M. (2010) Crystal chemistry and genesis of organic minerals: A review of oxalate and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon minerals. The Canadian Mineralogist: 48: 1329-1358.
Piro, O.E., Baran, E.J. (2018) Crystal chemistry of organic minerals-salts of organic acids: the synthetic approach. Crystallography Reviews: 24: 149-175.

Internet Links for LindbergiteHide

Localities for LindbergiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Styria
    • Fischbacher Alpen
      • Rettenegg
        • Prinzkogel (Prinzenkogel)
          • Prinzkogel mines
            • Southern District
Jakely, D., Bernhard, F. & Weiß, A. (2008): Die Mineralien der Silber-Blei-Zink-Erzvorkommen am Prinzenkogel bei Rettenegg in der Oststeiermark. Joannea Mineralogie, 5, 1-159 / Der Steirische Mineralog, Sonderband 1, 1-159.
Brazil (TL)
  • Minas Gerais
    • Galiléia
      • Sapucaia do Norte
AmMin 89:1087
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Triberg
        • Gremmelsbach
Walenta, K. (2003): Oxalatmineralien aus dem Schwarzwald. Erzgräber 17, 9-16. (in German); American Mineralogist 89:1087-1091
    • Freiburg
      • Ortenaukreis
        • Oberwolfach
          • Rankach valley
Blaß, G. & Graf, H.-W. (2000): Neufunde von bekannten Fundorten im Schwarzwald. Mineralien-Welt 11(4), 57-60 (in German); U. Kolitsch, G. Blaß, H.-W. Graf und J. Gröbner (2004): Neufunde aus der Grube Clara im mittleren Schwarzwald. Lapis 29 (2) 18-23; 50. (in German); American Mineralogist, 89, 1087-1091
        • Offenburg
Walenta, K. (2003): Oxalatmineralien aus dem Schwarzwald. Erzgräber 17, 9-16. (in German)
  • Saxony
    • Mittelsachsen
      • Freiberg
        • Bräunsdorf
J. Gröbner and U. Kolitsch (2007): Aktuelle Neufunde aus dem Erzgebirge III. Mineralien-Welt 18 (5), 16-19. (in German)
  • Liguria
    • Genoa
      • Graveglia Valley
        • Ne
Kolitsch, U., Lackner, E., Ciriotti, M. E. (2008): Lindbergite: primo ritrovamento italiano a Molinello. MICRO (UK report), 1/2008, 69-72.
          • Reppia
            • Monte Copello
Giorgio Bortolozzi - Probed.
  • Piedmont
    • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
      • Ossola Valley
        • Antigorio Valley
          • Devero Valley
            • Baceno
              • Devero Alp
Albertini, C. & Meisser, N. (2012): Lindbergite del Monte Cervandone, Alpe Devero, Baceno (Verbano-Cusio-Ossola). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 1/2012, 18-25. ; ALBERTINI C., MEISSER N. (2012) - Lindbergite del Monte Cervandone (Alpe Devero, Baceno, Verbano-Cusio-Ossola). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, XXXVI, 1, 18-25; Albertini, C. & Meisser, N. (2012): Lindbergite del Monte Cervandone (Alpe Devero, Baceno, Verbano-Cusio-Ossola). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 36, 1, 18-25 (in Italian).
  • Grisons
    • Albula Valley
      • Oberhalbstein (Surses; Sursass)
Graeser, G. & Gabriel, W. (2016): Falottait (MnC2O4)·3H2O) - ein neues Oxalat-Mineral aus den Schweizer Alpen. Schweizer Strahler 50 (3), 20-27.
American Mineralogist, 89, 1087-1091; Graeser, G. & Gabriel, W. (2016): Falottait (MnC2O4)·3H2O) - ein neues Oxalat-Mineral aus den Schweizer Alpen. Schweizer Strahler 50 (3), 20-27.
  • Scotland
    • Aberdeenshire
American Mineralogist, 89, 1087-1091
  • Virginia
    • Amelia Co.
      • Winterham
American Mineralogist, 89, 1087-1091
Mineral and/or Locality  
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