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Michenerite

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About MicheneriteHide

Formula:
PdBiTe
Hardness:
Crystal System:
Isometric
Member of:
Name:
In recognition of Charles Edward Michener (Red Deer, Alberta January 1907- Toronto 15 October 2004), Canadian exploration geologist, International Nickel Co., who is credited with the discovery of a number of major ore deposits, including the Thompson nickel belt in Manitoba and a laterite deposit in Indonesia. Michener discovered and first studied the mineral that was later named after him (Horváth 2003).

Classification of MicheneriteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
2/D.17-180
2.EB.25

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
E : Metal Sulfides, M: S <= 1:2
B : M:S = 1:2, with Fe, Co, Ni, PGE, etc.
2.12.3.11

2 : SULFIDES
12 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
3.12.20

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
12 : Sulphides etc. of the platinum metals

Physical Properties of MicheneriteHide

Hardness:
2½ on Mohs scale

Chemical Properties of MicheneriteHide

Formula:
PdBiTe
Common Impurities:
Pt,Ag,Ni,Sb

Crystallography of MicheneriteHide

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
2 3 - Tetartoidal
Space Group:
P21 3
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.65 Å
Unit Cell V:
294.08 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0005092MicheneriteChilds J D, Hall S R (1973) The crystal structure of michenerite, PdBiTe The Canadian Mineralogist 12 61-6519730293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

Type Occurrence of MicheneriteHide

Other Language Names for MicheneriteHide

Relationship of Michenerite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
ChangchengiteIrBiSIso.
CobaltiteCoAsSOrth. mm2 : Pca21
GersdorffiteNiAsSIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
Hollingworthite(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsSIso. m3 (2/m 3)
Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsSIso.
JolliffeiteNiAsSeIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
KalungaitePdAsSeIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
MaslovitePtBiTeIso. 2 3 : P21 3
MayingiteIrBiTeIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
MilotaitePdSbSeIso. 2 3 : P21 3
PadmaitePdBiSeIso.
PlatarsitePtAsSIso.
TestibiopalladitePdTe(Sb,Te)Iso.
TolovkiteIrSbSIso.
UllmanniteNiSbSIso. 2 3 : P21 3
WillyamiteCoSbS

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
1 photo of Michenerite associated with Pentlandite(FexNiy)Σ9S8
1 photo of Michenerite associated with PyrrhotiteFe1-xS
1 photo of Michenerite associated with MerenskyitePdTe2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.EB.05aAurostibiteAuSb2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05bBambollaiteCu(Se,Te)2Tet.
2.EB.05aCattieriteCoS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aErlichmaniteOsS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aFukuchiliteCu3FeS8Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aGeversitePtSb2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aHaueriteMnS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aInsizwaitePt(Bi,Sb)2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aKrut'aiteCuSe2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aLauriteRuS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aPenroseite(Ni,Co,Cu)Se2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aPyriteFeS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aSperrylitePtAs2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aTrogtaliteCoSe2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aVaesiteNiS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aVillamaninite(Cu,Ni,Co,Fe)S2Tric.
2.EB.05aDzharkeniteFeSe2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aGaotaiiteIr3Te8Iso.
2.EB.10bAlloclasiteCo1-xFexAsSMon. 2 : P21
2.EB.10dCostibiteCoSbSOrth. mm2 : Pmn21
2.EB.10aFerroseliteFeSe2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
2.EB.10aFrohbergiteFeTe2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
2.EB.10cGlaucodot(Co0.50Fe0.50)AsSOrth. mm2 : Pmn21
2.EB.10aKulleruditeNiSe2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
2.EB.10aMarcasiteFeS2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
2.EB.10aMattagamiteCoTe2Orth.
2.EB.10eParacostibiteCoSbSOrth.
2.EB.10ePararammelsbergiteNiAs2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
2.EB.10fOeniteCoSbAsOrth.
2.EB.15aAnduoite(Ru,Os)As2Orth.
2.EB.15aClinosaffloriteCoAs2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
2.EB.15aLöllingiteFeAs2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
2.EB.15aNisbiteNiSb2Orth.
2.EB.15aOmeiite(Os,Ru)As2Orth.
2.EB.15cPaxiteCuAs2Mon.
2.EB.15aRammelsbergiteNiAs2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
2.EB.15aSafflorite(Co,Ni,Fe)As2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
2.EB.15bSeinäjokite(Fe,Ni)(Sb,As)2Orth.
2.EB.20ArsenopyriteFeAsSMon. 2/m : P21/b
2.EB.20GudmunditeFeSbSMon. 2/m : P21/b
2.EB.20Osarsite(Os,Ru)AsSMon.
2.EB.20Ruarsite(Ru,Os)AsSMon.
2.EB.25CobaltiteCoAsSOrth. mm2 : Pca21
2.EB.25GersdorffiteNiAsSIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.25Hollingworthite(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsSIso. m3 (2/m 3)
2.EB.25Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsSIso.
2.EB.25JolliffeiteNiAsSeIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.25KrutoviteNiAs2Iso.
2.EB.25MaslovitePtBiTeIso. 2 3 : P21 3
2.EB.25PadmaitePdBiSeIso.
2.EB.25PlatarsitePtAsSIso.
2.EB.25TestibiopalladitePdTe(Sb,Te)Iso.
2.EB.25TolovkiteIrSbSIso.
2.EB.25UllmanniteNiSbSIso. 2 3 : P21 3
2.EB.25WillyamiteCoSbS
2.EB.25ChangchengiteIrBiSIso.
2.EB.25MayingiteIrBiTeIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.25Hollingsworthite(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsS
2.EB.25KalungaitePdAsSeIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.25MilotaitePdSbSeIso. 2 3 : P21 3
2.EB.30UrvantsevitePd(Bi,Pb)2Tet.
2.EB.35RheniiteReS2Tric.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

2.12.3.1CobaltiteCoAsSOrth. mm2 : Pca21
2.12.3.2GersdorffiteNiAsSIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.12.3.3UllmanniteNiSbSIso. 2 3 : P21 3
2.12.3.4WillyamiteCoSbS
2.12.3.5TolovkiteIrSbSIso.
2.12.3.6PlatarsitePtAsSIso.
2.12.3.7Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsSIso.
2.12.3.8Hollingworthite(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsSIso. m3 (2/m 3)
2.12.3.9JolliffeiteNiAsSeIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.12.3.10PadmaitePdBiSeIso.
2.12.3.12MaslovitePtBiTeIso. 2 3 : P21 3
2.12.3.13TestibiopalladitePdTe(Sb,Te)Iso.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

3.12.1Seinäjokite(Fe,Ni)(Sb,As)2Orth.
3.12.2LauriteRuS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.12.3Ruthenarsenite(Ru,Ni)AsOrth.
3.12.4Anduoite(Ru,Os)As2Orth.
3.12.5Ruarsite(Ru,Os)AsSMon.
3.12.6XingzhongitePb2+Ir3+2S4Iso.
3.12.7RhodplumsiteRh3Pb2S2Trig.
3.12.8Cuprorhodsite(Cu1+0.5Fe3+0.5)Rh3+2S4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
3.12.9KonderiteCu3Pb(Rh,Pt,Ir)8S16Hex. 6/m : P6/m
3.12.10Bowieite(Rh,Ir,Pt)2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.12.11CherepanoviteRhAsOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.12.12Hollingworthite(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsSIso. m3 (2/m 3)
3.12.13Vysotskite(Pd,Ni)STet.
3.12.14Vasilite(Pd,Cu)16(S,Te)7Iso.
3.12.15PalladseitePd17Se15Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
3.12.16Oosterboschite(Pd,Cu)7Se5Orth.
3.12.17TelluropalladinitePd9Te4Mon.
3.12.18TemagamitePd3HgTe3Trig. 3m : P3m1
3.12.19SopcheiteAg4Pd3Te4Orth.
3.12.21KotulskitePd(Te,Bi)2-x (x ≈ 0.4)Hex.
3.12.22Telargpalite(Pd,Ag)3(Te,Bi)Iso.
3.12.23MerenskyitePdTe2Trig. 3m : P3m1
3.12.24PalladoarsenidePd2AsMon. 2/m : P2/m
3.12.25StillwateritePd8As3Trig.
3.12.26AtheneitePd2As0.75Hg0.25Hex. 6 m2 : P62m
3.12.27MajakitePdNiAsHex.
3.12.28PalarstanidePd5(Sn,As)2Hex.
3.12.29ArsenopalladinitePd8(As,Sb)3Tric. 1 : P1
3.12.30VincentitePd3AsTet.
3.12.31PalladobismutharsenidePd2(As,Bi)Orth.
3.12.32StibiopalladinitePd5Sb2Hex.
3.12.33Hexatestibiopanickelite(Pd,Ni)(Sb,Te)Hex.
3.12.34SudburyitePdSbHex.
3.12.35TestibiopalladitePdTe(Sb,Te)Iso.
3.12.36BorovskitePd3SbTe4Iso.
3.12.37IsomertieitePd11Sb2As2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
3.12.38Mertieite-IPd11(Sb,As)4Hex.
3.12.39Mertieite-IIPd8Sb2.5As0.5Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
3.12.40SobolevskitePdBiHex.
3.12.41Frooditeα-PdBi2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
3.12.42PolaritePd(Bi,Pb)Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
3.12.43UrvantsevitePd(Bi,Pb)2Tet.
3.12.44CooperitePtSTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mmc
3.12.45Braggite(Pt,Pd,Ni)STet.
3.12.46Kharaelakhite(Cu,Pt,Pb,Fe,Ni)9S8Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmm
3.12.47MalaniteCu1+(Ir3+Pt4+)S4Iso.
3.12.48Moncheite(Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2Trig.
3.12.49MaslovitePtBiTeIso. 2 3 : P21 3
3.12.50SperrylitePtAs2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.12.51PlatarsitePtAsSIso.
3.12.52GeversitePtSb2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.12.53DaomaniteCuPtAsS2Orth.
3.12.54Genkinite(Pt,Pd,Rh)4Sb3Tet. 4 2 2
3.12.55StumpflitePtSbHex.
3.12.56InsizwaitePt(Bi,Sb)2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.12.57ErlichmaniteOsS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.12.58Omeiite(Os,Ru)As2Orth.
3.12.59Osarsite(Os,Ru)AsSMon.
3.12.60Kashinite(Ir,Rh)2S3Orth.
3.12.61InaglyiteCu3Pb(Ir,Pt)8S16Hex.
3.12.62Cuproiridsite(Cu,Fe)Ir2S4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
3.12.63Iridarsenite(Ir,Ru)As2Mon.
3.12.64Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsSIso.
3.12.65TolovkiteIrSbSIso.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for MicheneriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Hawley, J.E. and Berry, L.G. (1958) Michenerite and froodite, palladium bismuth minerals. Canadian Mineralogist: 6: 200-209. [TL1] [Abstract in American Mineralogist (1959) 44: 207].
American Mineralogist (1963): 48: 1184.
Cabri, L.J., Harris, D.C., and Gait, R.I. (1973) Michenerite (PdBiTe) redefined and froodite (PdBi2) confirmed from the Sudbury area. Canadian Mineralogist: 11: 903-912.
Childs, J.D. and Hall, S.R. (1973) The crystal structure of michenerite, PdBiTe. Canadian Mineralogist: 12: 61-65.

Internet Links for MicheneriteHide

Localities for MicheneriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Antarctica
 
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Princess Elizabeth Land
      • Ingrid Christensen Coast
        • Vestfold Hills
Egorova, M. S., Semenovb, V. S., & Alekseeva, N. L. (2015). Low Sulfide PGE Mineralization in Ring Layered Intrusion, Westfall Oasis, Antarctica. GEOLOGY OF ORE DEPOSITS, 57(8).
Argentina
 
  • San Luis Province
    • Coronel Pringles department
      • El Trapiche
Mineralogical Magazine 1997 61 : 861-877; FERRACUTTI, G.; BJERG, E. and MOGESSIE, A.. Precious and base metals in Las Águilas, Sierra de San Luis: Mineralogy, genesis and evolution. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2007, vol.62, n.3, pp. 434-446.; Mineralogy and Petrology (2000) 68: 85-114
Australia
 
  • Western Australia
    • Coolgardie Shire
      • Kambalda
        • Kambalda Nickel mines
Hudson, D.R. (1986) Platinum-group minerals from the Kambalda nickel deposits, Western Australia, Economic Geology, Vol 81, Vol.5 pp 1218-1225.
Hudson, D.R. (1986) Platinum-group minerals from the Kambalda nickel deposits, Western Australia, Economic Geology, Vol 81, No.5 pp.1218-1225.
Hudson, D.R. (1986) Platinum-group minerals from the Kambalda nickel deposits, Western Australia, Economic Geology, Vol 81, No.5 pp.1218-1225. Hudson, D.R., Robinson, B.W., Vigers, R.B.W. (1978) Zoned michenerite-testibiopalladite from Kambalda, Western Australia, The Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 16 May 1978, pp.121-126.
    • Ngaanyatjarraku Shire
      • West Musgrave Block
        • Jamieson Community (Mantamaru)
Seat, Z. (2008) Geology, Petrology, Mineral and Whole-rock Chemistry, Stable and Radiogenic Isotope Systematics and Ni-Cu-PGE Mineralisation of the Nebo-Babel Intrusion, West Musgrave, Western Australia. PhD. Thesis, University of Western Australia.
Mineral. Deposita 42 (2007) 551-581.
    • Roebourne Shire
      • Karratha
HOATSON,DM, WALLACE,DA, SUN,S-S, MACIAS,LF, SIMPSON,CJ and KEAYS,RR (1992) Petrology and platinum-group-element geochemistry of Archaean layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions, west Pilbara block, Western Australia. AGSO Bull. 242, 319pp. plus map.
    • Victoria Plains Shire
      • New Norcia
5th International Platinum Symposium Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland Number 61, Part 1,1989,1-64
Austria
 
  • Salzburg
    • Zell am See District
      • Mittersill
        • Haidbachgraben
Melcher, F., Onuk, P., Schwabl, S., Zimmermann, M. & Aiglsperger, T. (2019): Rhenium sulphides and platinum-group minerals at Haidbach/Pinzgau – recent results. Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft 165, 64 (abs.).
Botswana
 
  • North-East District
    • Francistown District
Maier, W.D., Barnes, S.-J., Chinyepi, G., Barton, Jr., J.M., Eglington, B., and Setshedi, I. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 37-60.
Brazil
 
  • Amapá
    • Mazagão
      • Vila Nova
Canadian Mineralogist 39:377-396
  • Bahia
    • Ipiaú
      • Mirabela farm
Knight, R. (2014). The primary magmatic concentration and secondary remobilisation of platinum-group elements in Ni-Cu sulphide ores (Doctoral dissertation, Cardiff University).
Bulgaria
 
  • Sofia Province
    • Zlatitsa Obshtina
      • Zlatitsa
Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.; Georgiev, Georgi (2008) A genetic model of the Elatsite porphyry copper deposit, Bulgaria. GEOCHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY • SOFIA 46, 143-160.
Canada
 
  • Manitoba
    • Thompson Nickel Belt
      • Moab-Setting Lakes area
Y. Chen, M. E. Fleet and Y. Pan (1993) Platinum-group minerals and gold in Arsenic-rich ore at the Thompson mine, Thompson Nickel Belt, Manitoba, Canada. Mineralogy and Petrology 49:127-146; Chen, Yuan, "Precious-metal Mineralization And Sulfide-silicate Relationships In Some Canadian Nickel-copper Sulfide Deposits: Thompson Mine, Manitoba; Sudbury, Ontario; Dundonald Beach, Ontario" (1993). Digitized Theses. Paper 2231.
  • New Brunswick
    • Kings Co.
      • Cardwell Parish
Canadian Mineralogist 45, 775; Grammatikopoulos, T.A., Hiebert, R.S., Barr, S.M. and Valeyev, O., (2006) Cu-Ni-PGM Mineralization In The Mechanic Settlement Pluton, Southern New Brunswick, Canada. in Geological Association of Canada, Program with Abstracts Volume 31
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Labrador
      • Voisey´s Bay
Kelvin et al. Canadian Mineralogist 49, 1505
  • Nunavut
    • Kivalliq Region
Campos-Alvarez, N. O., Samson, I. M., & Fryer, B. J. (2012). The roles of magmatic and hydrothermal processes in PGE mineralization, Ferguson Lake deposit, Nunavut, Canada. Mineralium Deposita, 47(4), 441-465.
  • Ontario
    • Kenora District
      • Ring of Fire
        • BMA527861 Area
N Farhangi,CM Lesher,and MG Houlé
    • Nipissing District
      • Strathy Township
MDI Number: MDI31M04SW00022
    • Sudbury District
      • Blezard Township
; Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
      • Broder Township
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
      • Capreol Township
Péntek, A., Molnár, F., Tuba, G., Watkinson, D. H., & Jones, P. C. (2013). The significance of partial melting processes in hydrothermal low sulfide Cu-Ni-PGE mineralization within the footwall of the Sudbury Igneous Complex, Ontario, Canada. Economic Geology, 108(1), 59-78.
      • Creighton-Davies Township
Sarah A. S. Dare, Sarah-Jane Barnes and Hazel M. Prichard (2010): The distribution of platinum group elements (PGE) and other chalcophile elements among sulfides from the Creighton Ni–Cu–PGE sulfide deposit, Sudbury, Canada, and the origin of palladium in pentlandite. Mineralium Deposita 45, 765-793.; Dare, S. A., Barnes, S. J., Prichard, H. M., & Fisher, P. C. (2010). The timing and formation of platinum-group minerals from the Creighton Ni-Cu-platinum-group element sulfide deposit, Sudbury, Canada: early crystallization of PGE-rich sulfarsenides. Economic Geology, 105(6), 1071-1096.
      • Denison Township
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787; Chen, Yuan, "Precious-metal Mineralization And Sulfide-silicate Relationships In Some Canadian Nickel-copper Sulfide Deposits: Thompson Mine, Manitoba; Sudbury, Ontario; Dundonald Beach, Ontario" (1993). Digitized Theses. Paper 2231.
HAWLEY, J.E. & BERRY, L.G. (1958): Michenerite and froodite, palladium bismuth minerals. Canadian Mineralogist 6, 200-209. [TL1] CABRI, L.J., HARRIS, D.C. & GAIT, R.I. (1973): Michenerite (PdBiTe) redefined and froodite (PdBi2) confirmed from the Sudbury area. Canadian Mineralogist 11, 903-912. CHILDS, J.D. & HALL, S.R. (1973): The crystal structure of michenerite, PdBiTe. Canadian Mineralogist 12, 61-65.
      • Drury Township
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
      • Garson Township
LeFort, D.T. (2012) A mineralogical and fluid inclusion study of modified, contact style Ni-Cu-PGE ores in the #1 and #4 shear zones, Garson Mine, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Unpublished M.Sc thesis, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. 189p.
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
Ford, F.D., Wecholaz, C.R. & Lee, A. (2011) Predicting process outcomes for Sudbury platinum-group minerals using grade-recovery modeling from mineral liberation analyzer (MLA) data. Canadian Mineralogist 49, 1627-1642.
Sarah A. S. Dare, Sarah-Jane Barnes, Hazel M. Prichard und Peter C. Fisher (2011): Chalcophile and platinum-group element (PGE) concentrations in the sulfide minerals from the McCreedy East deposit, Sudbury, Canada, and the origin of PGE in pyrite. Mineralium Deposita 46, 381-407.; Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., (2003), Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787; Dare, S. A., Barnes, S. J., Prichard, H. M., & Fisher, P. C. (2014). Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Cu-Rich Ores from the McCreedy East Ni-Cu-PGE Deposit (Sudbury, Canada): Implications for the Behavior of Platinum Group and Chalcophile Elements at the End of Crystallization of a Sulfide Liquid. Economic Geology, 109(2), 343-366.; Kjarsgaard, I. M., & Ames, D. E. (2010, June). Ore mineralogy of Cu-Ni-PGE deposits in the North Range footwall environment, Sudbury, Canada. In 11th international platinum symposium, program abstracts, Ontario Geological Survey, miscellaneous release-data (Vol. 269).
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787; Kjarsgaard, I. M., & Ames, D. E. (2010, June). Ore mineralogy of Cu-Ni-PGE deposits in the North Range footwall environment, Sudbury, Canada. In 11th international platinum symposium, program abstracts, Ontario Geological Survey, miscellaneous release-data (Vol. 269).
Kjarsgaard, I. M., & Ames, D. E. (2010, June). Ore mineralogy of Cu-Ni-PGE deposits in the North Range footwall environment, Sudbury, Canada. In 11th international platinum symposium, program abstracts, Ontario Geological Survey, miscellaneous release-data (Vol. 269).
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
      • MacLennan Township
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
      • McKim Township
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
HAWLEY, J.E. & BERRY, L.G. (1958): Michenerite and froodite, palladium bismuth minerals. Canadian Mineralogist 6, 200-209. [TL1] CABRI, L.J., HARRIS, D.C. & GAIT, R.I. (1973): Michenerite (PdBiTe) redefined and froodite (PdBi2) confirmed from the Sudbury area. Canadian Mineralogist 11, 903-912. CHILDS, J.D. & HALL, S.R. (1973): The crystal structure of michenerite, PdBiTe. Canadian Mineralogist 12, 61-65. ; Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
      • Norman Township
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., (2003), Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
      • Rathbun Township
Econ Geol (1988) 83:492-510; Econ Geol (1986) 81:1272-1277; Hulbert, L. J., Duke, J. M., Eckstrand, O. R., Lydon, J. W., Scoates, R. F. J., Cabri, L. J., & Irvine, T. N. (1998) Geological Environments of Platinum Group elements. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1440. Natural Resources Canada.
      • Snider Township
Canadian Mineralogist (1973): 11: 903-912.
Grice, Joel D. (1989) Sudbury: Nickel Capital of the World. In: Famous mineral localities of Canada. Published by Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited & the National Museum of Natural Sciences, 190 pages: 79-84; 157-158.
      • Wisner Township
Economic Geology 103 (2008) 1005-1028.; Ames, D. E., McClenaghan, M. B., Averill, S., & Milkereit, B. (2007). Footwall-hosted Cu-PGE (Au, Ag), Sudbury Canada: towards a new exploration vector. Exploration 07, Exploration in the New Millennium, 1013-1017.; Ames D, Hanley J, Jackson S (2014)Low sulfide high-grade sperrylite-epidote-quartz zone, Sudbury Canada: implications for hydrothermal-magmatic processes. 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 96
Robert C. Smith, II Pennsylvania Geological Survey, 10-03-10
    • Thunder Bay District
Mulja & Mitchell (1990)
Mcdonald, A.M., Cabri, L.J., Stanley, C.J., Good, D.J., Redpath, J., Lane, G., Spratt, J. & Ames, D.E. (2015) Coldwellite, Pd3Ag2S, a new mineral species from the Marathon deposit, Coldwell complex, Ontario, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist 53, 1-13. ; Good, D. J., Cabri, L. J., & Ames, D. E. (2017). PGM facies variations for Cu-PGE deposits in the Coldwell Alkaline Complex, Ontario, Canada. Ore Geology Reviews, 90, 748-771.
      • Greenwich Lake Area
Good, D., Borysenko, J., McBride, J., Walford, P., Smyk, M., Hollings, P., ... & Corkery, J. (2010) Cu-Ni-PGE Deposits in Mafic Intrusions of the Lake Superior Region June 24-30, 2010. 11th International Platinum Symposium
      • Seagull Lake Area
        • Seagull Lake complex
Wilson, G., & Harper, G. (2013). Nipigon Reefs Project: A New Look at the PGE-bearing Seagull Mafic-Ultramafic Complex. Field Guide to the Copper-Nickel-Platinum Group Element Deposits of the Lake Superior Region, Precambrian Research Center Guidebook, 13-01.
      • Seeley Lake Area
Mulja, T. & Mitchell, R.H. (1990) Platinum-group minerals and tellurides from the Geordi Lake intrusion, Coldwell complex, Northwestern Ontario. Canadian Mineralogist 28, 489-501.
Good, D. J., Cabri, L. J., & Ames, D. E. (2017). PGM facies variations for Cu-PGE deposits in the Coldwell Alkaline Complex, Ontario, Canada. Ore Geology Reviews, 90, 748-771.
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • Témiscamingue RCM
        • Belleterre
COOK, N.J. & WOOD, S.A. (1994) Platinum-group minerals in the Lac Sheen Cu-Ni-PGE prospect, Quebec. Canadian Mineralogist, 32,703-712.
    • Côte-Nord
      • Caniapiscau RCM
Beaudoin, G., Laurent, R. & Ohnenstetter, D. (1990) First report of platinum-group minerals at Blue Lake, Labrador Through, Quebec. Canadian Mineralogist 28, 409-418.
    • Nord-du-Québec
      • Nunavik
        • Raglan
          • Donaldson deposit
Dillon-Leitch, H. C. H. (1990). The distribution of platinum-group elements and platinum-group minerals from the Donaldson West and Surface deposits, Cape Smith belt, Quebec: The roles of thermal and dynamic metamorphism. PhD Thesis Carleton University (Canada)
        • Ungava Peninsula
Charlie L. Seabrook, Hazel M. Prichard and Peter C. Fisher (2004) Platinum-group minerals in the Raglan Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide deposit, Cape Smith, Quebec, Canada (in Platinum-group elements; petrology, geochemistry, mineralogy) The Canadian Mineralogist 42:485-497
Liu, Y., Mungall, J. E., & Ames, D. E. (2016). Hydrothermal redistribution and local enrichment of platinum group elements in the Tootoo and Mequillon magmatic sulfide deposits, South Raglan Trend, Cape Smith Belt, New Quebec Orogen. Economic Geology, 111(2), 467-485.
Am Min 90:1466-1467; McDonald et al (2005), Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 1735-1744
Liu, Y., Mungall, J. E., & Ames, D. E. (2016). Hydrothermal redistribution and local enrichment of platinum group elements in the Tootoo and Mequillon magmatic sulfide deposits, South Raglan Trend, Cape Smith Belt, New Quebec Orogen. Economic Geology, 111(2), 467-485.
  • Saskatchewan
5th International Platinum Symposium Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland Number 61, Part 1,1989,1-64
  • Yukon
    • Whitehorse mining district
      • Kluane District
Barkov, A.Y., Laflamme, J.H.G., Cabri, L.J., and Martin, R.F. (2002) Platinum-group minerals from the Wellgreen Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, Yukon, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist: 40: 651-669.; 5th International Platinum Symposium Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland Number 61, Part 1,1989,1-64; Barkov, A.Y., Laflamme, J.H.G., Cabri, L.G., Martin. R.F. (2002): Platinum-group minerals from the Wellgreen Ni-Cu-PGE deposit, Yukon, Canada. Can. Mineral.: 40(2): 651-669
China
 
  • Gansu
    • Jinchang
      • Jinchuan District
Economic Geology (1992) 87, 1475-1495; Wenfeng Zhu and Youbin Liang (2000): Geology and Prospecting 36(1), 26-28; Yang, X.-Z., Ishihara, S., and Zhao, D.-H. (2006): Mineralogy and Petrology 86 (1/2), 109-128; Yang, Xuan-Zhu;Matsueda, Hiroharu;Yui, Shunzo;Dong, Xian-Yang (1992) : Chemical Compositions and Paragenesis of the Platinum-group Element Minerals in the Jinchuan Sulfide Deposit, Gansu Province, China. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University. Series 4, Geology and mineralogy;Vol.XXIII, No.2
  • Jilin
    • Tonghua
      • Tonghua Co.
Xiangwen Wang (2002): Mineral Deposits 21(suppl.), 689-692
  • Sichuan
    • Garzê Autonomous Prefecture (Ganzi Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Danba Co.
        • Yangliuping Cu-Ni-PGE ore field
American Mineralogist (1979), 64, 464; Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 21(1), 14-18; Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Chengdu University of Technology 28(1), 48-52; Song, X. Y., Zhou, M. F., & Cao, Z. M. (2004): The Canadian Mineralogist 42(2), 469-483
    • Panzhihua
      • Miyi County
Zhu, W. G., Zhong, H., Hu, R. Z., Liu, B. G., He, D. F., Song, X. Y., & Deng, H. L. (2010). Platinum-group minerals and tellurides from the PGE-bearing Xinjie layered intrusion in the Emeishan Large Igneous Province, SW China. Mineralogy and Petrology, 98(1-4), 167-180.
  • Xinjiang
    • Yili Hasake Autonomous Prefecture (Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Aletai Prefecture (Altay Prefecture)
        • Fuyun Co. (Koktokay Co.)
Chunming Han, Wenjiao Xiao, Guochun Zhao, Wenjun Qu, and Andao Du (2007): Ore Geology Reviews 32, 452-468.
Czech Republic
 
  • Ústí nad Labem Region
    • Děčín District
      • Šluknov
Haluzova, E., Ackerman, L., Pasava, J., Jonasova, S., Svojtka, M., Hrstka, T., & Veselovsky, F. (2015). Geochronology and characteristics of Ni-Cu-(PGE) mineralization at Rozany, Lusatian Granitoid Complex, Czech Republic. Journal of GEOsciences, 60(4), 219-236.
  • Vysočina Region
    • Havlíčkův Brod District
      • Havlíčkův Brod
        • Chotěboř (Chotieborsch; Potiworz)
Vavřín, I.: Přehled mineralogie, geochemie a ložisek platinových kovů. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1997, roč. 4-5, s. 132-140.; Pašava, J., Vavřín, I., Frýda, J., Janoušek, V., & Jelínek, E. (2003). Geochemistry and mineralogy of Platinum-group elements in the Ransko gabbro–peridotite massif, Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic). Mineralium Deposita, 38(3), 298-311.
Egypt
 
  • Red Sea
    • Eastern Desert
Helmy, H.M., and Mogessie, A. (2001): Mineralium Deposita 36, 58-71.
Helmy, H. M. (2005). Melonite group minerals and other tellurides from three Cu–Ni–PGE prospects, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Ore Geology Reviews, 26(3-4), 305-324.
      • Wadi Allaqi District
        • Wadi Haimur
Helmy, H. M., Stumpfl, E. F., & Kamel, O. A. (1995). Platinum-group minerals from the metamorphosed Abu Swayel Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 90(8), 2350-2360.
Finland
 
  • Lapland
    • Koillismaa Complex
Kojonen, K. and Iljina, M. 2001. Platinum-Group Minerals in the Early Proterozoic Kuusijärvi Marginal Series, Koillismaa Layered Igneous Complex, Northeastern Finland. In A. Piestrzynski et al. (eds). Proceedings of the sixth Biennial SGA-SEG meeting, Balkema Publishers, Lisse, pp 653-656
    • Portimo complex
Iljina, M. 1994. The Portimo Layered Igneous Complex - with emphasis on diverse sulphide and platinum-group element deposits. Acta Univ. Oul. A258, 1994
    • Sodankylä
Lamberg, P., Välimaa, J., Parkkinen, J., & Kojonen, K. (2005). Structural, geochemical and magmatic modelling of the early Proterozoic Keivitsa Ni-Cu-PGE deposit in Sodankylä, northern Finland. Extended Abstract. In 10th International Platinum Symposium, Abstract volume.; Gervilla, F., Kojonen, K. and Merkle, R.K.W., 2005. Platinum-group minerals in the Proterozoic Keivitsa mafic-ultramafic intrusion, Sodankylä, northern Finland. Extended Abstract, 10th International Platinum Symposium, Abstract volume
  • North Ostrobothnia
    • Nivala
K.K. Kojonen et al.: Can. Mineral. 42:539-544 (2004); Econ Geol (1986) 81:1236-1241
    • Pudasjärvi
Karinen, Tuomo 2010. The Koillismaa intrusion northeasten Finland - evidence for PGE reef forming processes in the layered series. Geological Survey of Finland Bulletin 404
  • Pirkanmaa
    • Akaa
Papunen, H., 1985,The Kylmäkoski Nickel-Copper deposit. Geological Survey of Finland bulletin 333.
India
 
  • Karnataka
    • Davanagere District
      • Shimoga schist belt
T. T. Alapieti, T. C. Devaraju, R. J. Kaukonen (2005) Sem-eds Study of the Platinum-group Minerals in the PGE mineralized Hanumalapura Segment of the Layeredmafic-ultramafic Complex of Channagiri, Davangere District, Karnataka. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, 65:745-752.
    • Shimoga District
Devaraju, T. C., & Alapieti, T. T. (2014, January). Exploration for PGE mineralization in the Western Dharwar Craton. In Proceedings of the Workshop on Magmatic Ore Deposits. Geol. Soc. India Special Publ (Vol. 2, pp. 43-60).
  • Odisha
    • Keonjhar District
Mineralogical Magazine 1997 61 : 902-906
Ivory Coast
 
  • Montagnes
    • Tonkpi
      • Biankouma Department
Gouedji, F., Picard, C., Coulibaly, Y., Audet, M. A., Auge, T., Goncalves, P., ... & Ouattara, N. (2014). The Samapleu mafic-ultramafic intrusion and its Ni-Cu-PGE mineralization: an Eburnean (2.09 Ga) feeder dyke to the Yacouba layered complex (Man Archean craton, western Ivory Coast). Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France, 185(6), 393-411.
Kazakhstan
 
  • East Kazakhstan
    • Abay
      • Maksut
Prokopyev, I.R., Izokh, A.E., Borisenko, A.S., Naumov, E.A., and Seltmann, R. (2010): Presented at the 11th International Platinum Symposium, June 21-24, 2010.
Madagascar
 
  • Betsiboka
    • Maevatanana
      • Morafeno
[AmMin 85:265]
North Macedonia
 
  • Radoviš Municipality
Petrunov, R., Serafimovski, T., & Dragov, P. (2001). New finding of PGE-mineralisation in porphyry-copper environment-the Bučim deposit, Macedonia: preliminary microscope and microprobe data. In ABCDGEODE 2001 Workshop Vata Bai, Romania (Vol. 79, pp. 79-80).
Norway
 
  • Vestland
    • Vik
Nilsson, L. P. & Larsen, R. B. (1998): Edle mineraler i mafiske og ultramafiske bergarter- en oppsummering av platina-gruppe mineraler (PGM) funnet i Norge i de senere år. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 14: 40-49
Russia
 
  • Irkutsk Oblast
Kolotilina, T. B., Mekhonoshin, A. S., & Orsoev, D. A. (2019). Re Sulfides from Zhelos and Tokty-Oi Intrusions (East Sayan, Russia). Minerals, 9(8), 479.
    • Uda–Biryusa district
Shvedov, G. I., & Barkov, A. Y. (2017). Primary and alteration assemblages of platinum-group minerals from the Ognit complex, Irkutskaya oblast, Eastern Sayans, Russia. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen: Journal of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 194(1), 35-48.; Ognitite, NiBiTe, a new mineral species, and cobaltian maucherite from the Ognit ultramafic complex, Eastern Sayans, Russia (electronic preprint)
Kolotilina, T. B., Mekhonoshin, A. S., & Orsoev, D. A. (2019). Re Sulfides from Zhelos and Tokty-Oi Intrusions (East Sayan, Russia). Minerals, 9(8), 479.
  • Krasnoyarsk Krai
Alexander V. Dedeev et al (2002) The PGE-Bearing Sulphide Ores of the Kingash Mafic-Ultramafic Differentiated Intrusion and Ore Processing Characteristics, East Sajan, Russia. 9th annual platinum symposium
    • Taymyrskiy Autonomous Okrug
      • Taimyr Peninsula
        • Putoran Plateau
Spiridonov, E. M., E. A. Kulagov, A. A. Serova, I. M. Kulikova, N. N. Korotaeva, E. V. Sereda, I. N. Tushentsova, S. N. Belyakov, and N. N. Zhukov. "Genetic Pd, Pt, Au, Ag, and Rh mineralogy in Noril’sk sulfide ores." Geology of Ore Deposits 57, no. 5 (2015): 402-432.
            • Talnakh Cu-Ni Deposit
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
2014 Ultramafic-mafic intrusions, volcanic rocks and PGE-Cu-Ni sulfide deposits of the Noril’sk Province, Polar Siberia . 12th International Platinum Symposium
    • Taymyrsky Dolgano-Nenetsky District
      • Kureika river
        • Dzheltul'skii massif (Dzhaltul)
Shvedov, G. I., & Barkov, A. Y. (2015). Oulankaite, a Pd-rich stannosulphotelluride, and associated platinum-group minerals from the Dzhaltul microgabbroic intrusion, Krasnoyarskiy kray, Russia. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen: Journal of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 192(3), 229-237.
  • Murmansk Oblast
    • Fedorovo-Pansky massif (Pana layered complex)
33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Platinum-group minerals in the PGE deposit of the Fedorovo-Pansky layered intrusion, Kola Peninsula; Groshev, N.Y.; Rundkvist, T.V.; Karykowski, B.T.; Maier, W.D.; Korchagin, A.U.; Ivanov, A.N.; Junge, M. (2019) Low-Sulfide Platinum–Palladium Deposits of the Paleoproterozoic Fedorova–Pana Layered Complex, Kola Region, Russia. Minerals 9, 764.
Groshev, N.Y.; Rundkvist, T.V.; Karykowski, B.T.; Maier, W.D.; Korchagin, A.U.; Ivanov, A.N.; Junge, M. (2019) Low-Sulfide Platinum–Palladium Deposits of the Paleoproterozoic Fedorova–Pana Layered Complex, Kola Region, Russia. Minerals 9, 764.
Groshev, N.Y.; Rundkvist, T.V.; Karykowski, B.T.; Maier, W.D.; Korchagin, A.U.; Ivanov, A.N.; Junge, M. (2019) Low-Sulfide Platinum–Palladium Deposits of the Paleoproterozoic Fedorova–Pana Layered Complex, Kola Region, Russia. Minerals 9, 764.
33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Platinum-group minerals in the PGE deposit of the Fedorovo-Pansky layered intrusion, Kola Peninsula
http://www.duke.edu/~boudreau/9thPtSymposium/Grokhovskaya_Abstract.pdf
Grokhovskaya, T. L., Lapina, M. I., & Mokhov, A. V. (2009). Assemblages and genesis of platinum-group minerals in low-sulfide ores of the Monchetundra deposit, Kola peninsula, Russia. Geology of Ore Deposits, 51(6), 467-485.
Yury L. Voytekhovsky, Yury N. Neradovsky (2008) The Cu-Ni-PGE and Cr deposits of the Monchegorsk area, the Kola Peninsula, Russia. 33 IGC excursion No 48, August 15 – 21, 2008
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
33 IGC excursion No 48, August 15 – 21, 2008
http://www4.geology.utoronto.ca/faculty/mungall/Website/igcp479northasia/dp803.html.
    • Pechengsky District
Abzalov, M.Z., and Both, R.A. (1997): Mineralogy and Petrology 61, 119-143.
  • Republic of Karelia
Grokhovskaya, T. L., Lapina, M. I., Ganin, V. A., & Grinevich, N. G. (2005). PGE mineralization in the Burakovsk Layered Complex, Southern Karelia, Russia. Geology of Ore Deposits C/C of Geologiia Rudnykh Mestorozhdenii, 47(4), 283.
Grishaenko, M. V. P., & Federation, R. (2007). Independent Report on the Shalozerskoe (Burakovsky), Lukkulaisvaara and Tsipringa Platinum, Palladium, Copper, Nickel Deposits in the Autonomous Republic of Karelia Russian Federation
    • Louhi District
      • Oulanka plutonic complex
        • Olanga River (Oulanka River)
Grishaenko, M. V. P., & Federation, R. (2007). Independent Report on the Shalozerskoe (Burakovsky), Lukkulaisvaara and Tsipringa Platinum, Palladium, Copper, Nickel Deposits in the Autonomous Republic of Karelia Russian Federation
Can Min (2002) 40, (2), 679-692; Mineralogical Magazine 1996 60 : 973-978.
    • Northern Karelia
Lavrov, O. B., & Kuleshevich, L. V. (2017). Platinoids in the Kaalamo Differentiated Massif in the Northern Ladoga Region, Karelia, Russia. Geology of Ore Deposits, 59(7), 632-641.
  • Zabaykalsky Krai
    • Buriatia Republic (Buryatia)
      • Dovyren Highlands
Spiridonov, E. M., Orsoev, D. A., Ariskin, A. A., Kislov, E. V., Korotaeva, N. N., Nikolaev, G. S., & Yapaskurt, V. O. (2019). Germanium-Rich Palladium Minerals Palladogermanide Pd 2 Ge, Paolovite Pd 2 (Sn, Ge), and Zvyagintsevite in Sulfide-Bearing Anorthosites of the Yoko-Dovyren Pluton, Baikal Area. Geochemistry International, 57(5), 600-603.
Spiridonov, E. M., Orsoev, D. A., Ariskin, A. A., Kislov, E. V., Korotaeva, N. N., Nikolaev, G. S., & Yapaskurt, V. O. (2019, April). Palladogermanide PdGe 2 from Sulfidized Anorthosite of the Yoko-Dovyren Intrusion: First Finding in Russia. In Doklady Earth Sciences (Vol. 485, No. 2, pp. 458-460). Pleiades Publishing.
    • Chiney massif
Can Min (2002) 40, (2), 679-692; Seltmann, R., Soloviev, S., Shatov, V., Pirajno, F., Naumov, E., & Cherkasov, S. (2010). Metallogeny of Siberia: tectonic, geologic and metallogenic settings of selected significant deposits*. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57(6), 655-706
South Africa
 
  • Limpopo
    • Sekhukhune District
      • Burgersfort
The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 43, pp. 1711-1734 (2005)
    • Waterberg District
      • Mogalakwena
Hutchinson, D., & Kinnaird, J. A. (2005). Complex multistage genesis for the Ni–Cu–PGE mineralisation in the southern region of the Platreef, Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Applied Earth Science, 114(4), 208-224.
Ramakoloi N, Viljoen F (2014) Mineral chemistry of PGE-bismuthotellurides in the Platreef, Akanani Prospect, Lonmin plcl. 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 106; Viljoen, F., Ramakoloi, N., Rose, D., & Reinke, C. (2015). Mineral Chemistry of (Pt, Pd)-Bismuthotelluride Minerals In the Platreef At Zwartfontein, Akanani Project, Northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa. The Canadian Mineralogist, 53(6), 1109-1127.
Holwell, D. A., & McDonald, I. (2007). Distribution of platinum-group elements in the Platreef at Overysel, northern Bushveld Complex: a combined PGM and LA-ICP-MS study. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 154(2), 171-190.
Holwell, D. A., McDonald, I., & Armitage, P. E. B. (2006). Platinum-group mineral assemblages in the Platreef at the Sandsloot Mine, northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 70(1), 83-101.; Armitage, P. E. B., McDonald, I., Edwards, S. J., & Manby, G. M. (2002). Platinum-group element mineralization in the Platreef and calc-silicate footwall at Sandsloot, Potgietersrus District, South Africa. Applied Earth Science: Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy: Section B, 111(1), 36-45.; HOLWELL D.A., MCDONALD I. & ARMITAGE, P.E.B. (2006). Platinum-group mineral assemblages in the Platreef at the South Central Pit, Sandsloot Mine, northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 70, 83-101.
Manyeruke, T. D. (2007). Compositional and lithological variation of the Platreef on the farm Nonnenwerth, northern lobe of the Bushveld Complex: Implications for the origin of Platinum-group elements (PGE) mineralization (Doctoral dissertation, University of Pretoria).
Hutchinson, D., & Kinnaird, J. A. (2005). Complex multistage genesis for the Ni–Cu–PGE mineralisation in the southern region of the Platreef, Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Applied Earth Science, 114(4), 208-224.
Fanus Viljoen, F., Ramakoloi, N., Rose, D. and Reinke, C. (2016) Mineral Chemistry of (Pt,Pd)-Bismuthotelluride Minerals In the Platreef At Zwartfontein, Akanani Project, Northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa. The Canadian Mineralogist, 53(6), 1109-1127.
  • Mpumalanga
    • Nkangala District
      • Waterval
http://www.minsoc.org.za/pubs/BaseMetals2003.pdf
H.F.J. Theart and C.D. de Nooy (2001) The Platinum Group Minerals in two parts of the Massive Sulphide Body of the Uitkomst Complex, Mpumalanga, South Africa. SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OF GEOLOGY, VOLUME 104, PAGE 287-300
  • North West
    • Bojanala Platinum District
      • Rustenburg (Rustenburg District)
R.O. Meyer collection, identity confirmed by microprobe analysis
        • Marikana
Dzvinamurungu, T. (2012). Geometallurgical characterisation of Merensky Reef and UG2 at the Lonmin Marikana mine, Bushveld Complex, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, University of Johannesburg).
        • Royal Bafokeng
Smith, A. J. B., Viljoen, K. S., Schouwstra, R., Roberts, J., Schalkwyk, C., & Gutzmer, J. (2013). Geological variations in the Merensky Reef at Bafokeng Rasimone Platinum Mine and its influence on flotation performance. Minerals Engineering, 52, 155-168.
Minerals of South Africa
    • Dr Kenneth Kaunda District
      • Klerksdorp
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Minerals of South Africa
Spain
 
  • Extremadura
    • Badajoz
      • Monesterio
Suárez, S. et al. (2010): Mineralium Deposita 45, 331-350. ; R. Piña, F. Gervilla, L. Ortega, R. Lunar (2008): Mineralogy and geochemistry of platinum-group elements in the Aguablanca Ni-Cu deposit (SW Spain). Mineralogy and Petrology 92, 259-282.; R. Piña, F. Gervilla, S.-J. Barnes, L. Ortega, R. Lunar (2012): Distribution of platinum-group and chalcophile elements in the Aguablanca Ni–Cu sulfide deposit (SW Spain): Evidence from a LA-ICP-MS study. Chemical Geology 302-303, 61-75.; Ortega, L., Lunar, r., García-Palomero, F., Moreno, T., Martín-Estévez, J.R., Prichard, H.M., Fisher, P.C. (2004): The Aguablanca Ni-Cu-PGE deposit, Southwestern Iberia: magmatic ore-forming processes and retrograde evolution. Can. Mineral.: 42(2): 325-350
Tanzania
 
  • Kigoma Region
Wilhelmij, H.R. and Cabri, L.J. (2016) Platinum mineralization in the Kapalagulu Intrusion, western Tanzania. Mineralium Deposita, 51(3), 343-367.
UK
 
  • Scotland
    • Dumfries and Galloway
      • Newton Stewart
MinMag 68(2):395-411
    • Highland
      • Isle of Rum
Power, M.R., Pirrie, D., Andersen, J.C.O., and Butcher, A.R. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 762-775.
USA
 
  • Minnesota
    • St. Louis Co.
      • Ely-Hoyt Lakes Area
McSwiggen, P. L. (1999) Platinum-palladium group minerals, gold, silver, and cobalt in the Minnamax copper-nickel sulfide deposit, Duluth Complex, northeastern Minnesota. Minnesota Geological Survey Report of Investigations 54
  • Montana
    • Stillwater Co.
Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
Canadian Mineralogist Vol.24, pp. 329-346 (1986)
    • Sweet Grass Co.
Andersen, A. K., Zientek, M. L. and Parks, H. L.(2018) Base-metal and PGE Distribution in the Iron Mountain Area of the Stillwater Complex, Montana. Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Vol. 50, No. 6
  • Nevada
    • Clark Co.
Erik Vercammen collection
      • Virgin Mountains
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
          • Whitney Pocket Basin
Brent Thorne specimen analyzed by Sid Williams. Label says Bunkerville District but the actual locality is probably the Key West mine.
  • Wyoming
    • Albany Co.
      • Lake Owen Complex
5th International Platinum Symposium Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland Number 61, Part 1,1989,1-64
      • New Rambler Mining District
R.R. Loucks, M.E. McCallum (1980) Platinum-group minerals in the New Rambler copper-nickel deposit, Wyoming: A preliminary report. ft Sulphosalts, Platinum Minerals and Ore Microscopy, 200-218. Proc. XI IMA Meet., Novosibirsk.(Am Min 74:1217); Econ Geol (1988) 83:492-510
Vietnam
 
  • Sơn La Province
    • Bac Yen District
      • Ban Phuc
Can Min 39, (2), 2001, 573-589
Zimbabwe
 
  • Masvingo
    • Chiredzi mining district (Hartley mining district)
      • Chiredzi
Economic Geology (1990) 85:556-584; Allan H. Wilson and Martin D. Prendergast (2001) Platinum-Group Element Mineralisation in the Great Dyke, Zimbabwe, and its Relationship to Magma Evolution and Magma Chamber Structure. South African Journal of Geology, 104:319-342; LIU, J., JIN, S. and WANG, Y. (2014), The Occurrence of Useful Components in Platinum-Palladium Deposit in the Great Dyke, Zimbabwe. Acta Geologica Sinica, 88: 1466–1467; Oberthür, T., Weiser, T. W., Gast, L., & Kojonen, K. (2003). Geochemistry and mineralogy of platinum-group elements at Hartley Platinum Mine, Zimbabwe. Mineralium Deposita, 38(3), 327-343.
  • Midlands
    • Shurugwi District (Selukwe District)
Allan H. Wilson and Martin D. Prendergast (2001) Platinum-Group Element Mineralisation in the Great Dyke, Zimbabwe, and its Relationship to Magma Evolution and Magma Chamber Structure. South African Journal of Geology, 104:319-342
    • Zvishavane District
      • Zvishavane (Shabani; Shabanie; Shavani)
Nashwa, Velaphi Moses. "The flotation of high talc-containing ore from the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe." (2008). MS Thesis
 
Mineral and/or Locality  
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