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Michenerite

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Formula:
PdBiTe
Hardness:
Member of:
Name:
In recognition of Charles Edward Michener (Red Deer, Alberta January 1907- Toronto 15 October 2004), Canadian exploration geologist, International Nickel Co., who is credited with the discovery of a number of major ore deposits, including the Thompson nickel belt in Manitoba and a laterite deposit in Indonesia. Michener discovered and first studied the mineral that was later named after him (Horváth 2003).
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Classification of MicheneriteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
2/D.17-180
2.EB.25

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
E : Metal Sulfides, M: S <= 1:2
B : M:S = 1:2, with Fe, Co, Ni, PGE, etc.
2.12.3.11

2 : SULFIDES
12 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
3.12.20

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
12 : Sulphides etc. of the platinum metals

Physical Properties of MicheneriteHide

Hardness:
2½ on Mohs scale

Chemical Properties of MicheneriteHide

Formula:
PdBiTe
Common Impurities:
Pt,Ag,Ni,Sb

Type Occurrence of MicheneriteHide

Other Language Names for MicheneriteHide

Relationship of Michenerite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
ChangchengiteIrBiSIso.
CobaltiteCoAsSOrth. mm2 : Pca21
GersdorffiteNiAsSIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
Hollingworthite(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsSIso. m3 (2/m 3)
Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsSIso.
JolliffeiteNiAsSeIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
KalungaitePdAsSeIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
MaslovitePtBiTe
MayingiteIrBiTeIso.
MilotaitePdSbSeIso. 2 3 : P21 3
PadmaitePdBiSeIso.
PlatarsitePtAsSIso.
TestibiopalladitePdTe(Sb,Te)Iso.
TolovkiteIrSbSIso.
UllmanniteNiSbSIso. 2 3 : P21 3
Willyamite(Co,Ni)SbS

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Pentlandite1 photo of Michenerite associated with Pentlandite on mindat.org.
Pyrrhotite1 photo of Michenerite associated with Pyrrhotite on mindat.org.
Merenskyite1 photo of Michenerite associated with Merenskyite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.EB.05aAurostibiteAuSb2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05bBambollaiteCu(Se,Te)2Tet.
2.EB.05aCattieriteCoS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aErlichmaniteOsS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aFukuchiliteCu3FeS8Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aGeversitePtSb2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aHaueriteMnS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aInsizwaitePt(Bi,Sb)2
2.EB.05aKrut'aiteCuSe2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aLauriteRuS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aPenroseite(Ni,Co,Cu)Se2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aPyriteFeS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aSperrylitePtAs2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aTrogtaliteCoSe2
2.EB.05aVaesiteNiS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.05aVillamaninite(Cu,Ni,Co,Fe)S2
2.EB.05aDzharkeniteFeSe2Iso.
2.EB.05aGaotaiiteIr3Te8Iso.
2.EB.10bAlloclasiteCo1-xFexAsSMon. 2 : P21
2.EB.10dCostibiteCoSbSOrth. mm2 : Pmn21
2.EB.10aFerroseliteFeSe2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
2.EB.10aFrohbergiteFeTe2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
2.EB.10cGlaucodot(Co0.50Fe0.50)AsSOrth. mm2 : Pmn21
2.EB.10aKulleruditeNiSe2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
2.EB.10aMarcasiteFeS2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
2.EB.10aMattagamiteCoTe2Orth.
2.EB.10eParacostibiteCoSbSOrth.
2.EB.10ePararammelsbergiteNiAs2Orth.
2.EB.10fOeniteCoSbAsOrth.
2.EB.15aAnduoite(Ru,Os)As2Orth.
2.EB.15aClinosaffloriteCoAs2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
2.EB.15aLöllingiteFeAs2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
2.EB.15aNisbiteNiSb2Orth.
2.EB.15aOmeiite(Os,Ru)As2Orth.
2.EB.15cPaxiteCuAs2Mon.
2.EB.15aRammelsbergiteNiAs2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
2.EB.15aSafflorite(Co,Ni,Fe)As2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
2.EB.15bSeinäjokite(Fe,Ni)(Sb,As)2Orth.
2.EB.20ArsenopyriteFeAsSMon. 2/m : P21/b
2.EB.20GudmunditeFeSbSMon. 2/m : P21/b
2.EB.20Osarsite(Os,Ru)AsSMon.
2.EB.20Ruarsite(Ru,Os)AsSMon.
2.EB.25CobaltiteCoAsSOrth. mm2 : Pca21
2.EB.25GersdorffiteNiAsSIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.25Hollingworthite(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsSIso. m3 (2/m 3)
2.EB.25Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsSIso.
2.EB.25JolliffeiteNiAsSeIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.25KrutoviteNiAs2Iso.
2.EB.25MaslovitePtBiTe
2.EB.25PadmaitePdBiSeIso.
2.EB.25PlatarsitePtAsSIso.
2.EB.25TestibiopalladitePdTe(Sb,Te)Iso.
2.EB.25TolovkiteIrSbSIso.
2.EB.25UllmanniteNiSbSIso. 2 3 : P21 3
2.EB.25Willyamite(Co,Ni)SbS
2.EB.25ChangchengiteIrBiSIso.
2.EB.25MayingiteIrBiTeIso.
2.EB.25Hollingsworthite(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsS
2.EB.25KalungaitePdAsSeIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.EB.25MilotaitePdSbSeIso. 2 3 : P21 3
2.EB.30UrvantsevitePd(Bi,Pb)2Tet.
2.EB.35RheniiteReS2Tric.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

2.12.3.1CobaltiteCoAsSOrth. mm2 : Pca21
2.12.3.2GersdorffiteNiAsSIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.12.3.3UllmanniteNiSbSIso. 2 3 : P21 3
2.12.3.4Willyamite(Co,Ni)SbS
2.12.3.5TolovkiteIrSbSIso.
2.12.3.6PlatarsitePtAsSIso.
2.12.3.7Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsSIso.
2.12.3.8Hollingworthite(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsSIso. m3 (2/m 3)
2.12.3.9JolliffeiteNiAsSeIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
2.12.3.10PadmaitePdBiSeIso.
2.12.3.12MaslovitePtBiTe
2.12.3.13TestibiopalladitePdTe(Sb,Te)Iso.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

3.12.1Seinäjokite(Fe,Ni)(Sb,As)2Orth.
3.12.2LauriteRuS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.12.3Ruthenarsenite(Ru,Ni)AsOrth.
3.12.4Anduoite(Ru,Os)As2Orth.
3.12.5Ruarsite(Ru,Os)AsSMon.
3.12.6Xingzhongite(Pb,Cu,Fe)(Ir,Pt,Rh)2S4Iso.
3.12.7RhodplumsiteRh3Pb2S2Trig.
3.12.8Cuprorhodsite(Cu,Fe)Rh2S4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
3.12.9KonderiteCu3Pb(Rh,Pt,Ir)8S16Hex. 6/m : P6/m
3.12.10Bowieite(Rh,Ir,Pt)2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.12.11CherepanoviteRhAsOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.12.12Hollingworthite(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsSIso. m3 (2/m 3)
3.12.13Vysotskite(Pd,Ni)STet.
3.12.14Vasilite(Pd,Cu)16(S,Te)7
3.12.15PalladseitePd17Se15
3.12.16Oosterboschite(Pd,Cu)7Se5Orth.
3.12.17TelluropalladinitePd9Te4Mon.
3.12.18TemagamitePd3HgTe3Trig. 3m : P3m1
3.12.19SopcheiteAg4Pd3Te4Orth.
3.12.21KotulskitePd(Te,Bi)Hex.
3.12.22Telargpalite(Pd,Ag)3(Te,Bi)Iso.
3.12.23Merenskyite(Pd,Pt)(Te,Bi)2Trig. 3m : P3m1
3.12.24PalladoarsenidePd2AsMon. 2/m : P2/m
3.12.25StillwateritePd8As3Trig.
3.12.26AtheneitePd2As0.75Hg0.25Hex. 6 m2 : P62m
3.12.27MajakitePdNiAsHex.
3.12.28PalarstanidePd5(Sn,As)2Hex.
3.12.29ArsenopalladinitePd8(As,Sb)3Tric. 1 : P1
3.12.30VincentitePd3AsTet.
3.12.31PalladobismutharsenidePd2(As,Bi)Orth.
3.12.32StibiopalladinitePd5Sb2Hex.
3.12.33Hexatestibiopanickelite(Pd,Ni)(Sb,Te)Hex.
3.12.34Sudburyite(Pd,Ni)SbHex.
3.12.35TestibiopalladitePdTe(Sb,Te)Iso.
3.12.36BorovskitePd3SbTe4Iso.
3.12.37IsomertieitePd11Sb2As2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
3.12.38Mertieite-IPd11(Sb,As)4Hex.
3.12.39Mertieite-IIPd8Sb2.5As0.5Trig.
3.12.40SobolevskitePd(Bi,Te)Hex.
3.12.41Frooditeα-PdBi2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
3.12.42PolaritePd(Bi,Pb)Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
3.12.43UrvantsevitePd(Bi,Pb)2Tet.
3.12.44CooperitePtSTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mmc
3.12.45Braggite(Pt,Pd,Ni)STet.
3.12.46Kharaelakhite(Cu,Pt,Pb,Fe,Ni)9S8Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmm
3.12.47MalaniteCu(Pt3+,Ir3+)2S4Iso.
3.12.48Moncheite(Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)2Trig.
3.12.49MaslovitePtBiTe
3.12.50SperrylitePtAs2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.12.51PlatarsitePtAsSIso.
3.12.52GeversitePtSb2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.12.53DaomaniteCuPtAsS2Orth.
3.12.54Genkinite(Pt,Pd,Rh)4Sb3Tet. 4 2 2
3.12.55StumpflitePt(Sb,Bi)Hex.
3.12.56InsizwaitePt(Bi,Sb)2
3.12.57ErlichmaniteOsS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.12.58Omeiite(Os,Ru)As2Orth.
3.12.59Osarsite(Os,Ru)AsSMon.
3.12.60Kashinite(Ir,Rh)2S3Orth.
3.12.61InaglyiteCu3Pb(Ir,Pt)8S16Hex.
3.12.62Cuproiridsite(Cu,Fe)Ir2S4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
3.12.63Iridarsenite(Ir,Ru)As2Mon.
3.12.64Irarsite(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsSIso.
3.12.65TolovkiteIrSbSIso.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for MicheneriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
HAWLEY, J.E. & BERRY, L.G. (1958): Michenerite and froodite, palladium bismuth minerals. Canadian Mineralogist 6, 200-209. [TL1] [Abstract in American Mineralogist 44 (1959) 207]
American Mineralogist (1963): 48: 1184.
CABRI, L.J., HARRIS, D.C. & GAIT, R.I. (1973): Michenerite (PdBiTe) redefined and froodite (PdBi2) confirmed from the Sudbury area. Canadian Mineralogist 11, 903-912.
CHILDS, J.D. & HALL, S.R. (1973): The crystal structure of michenerite, PdBiTe. Canadian Mineralogist 12, 61-65.

Internet Links for MicheneriteHide

Localities for MicheneriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Argentina
 
  • San Luis
    • Coronel Pringles department
      • El Trapiche
Mineralogical Magazine 1997 61 : 861-877; FERRACUTTI, G.; BJERG, E. and MOGESSIE, A.. Precious and base metals in Las Águilas, Sierra de San Luis: Mineralogy, genesis and evolution. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2007, vol.62, n.3, pp. 434-446.; Mineralogy and Petrology (2000) 68: 85-114
Australia
 
  • Western Australia
    • Coolgardie Shire
      • Kambalda
        • Kambalda Nickel mines
Hudson, D.R. (1986) Platinum-group minerals from the Kambalda nickel deposits, Western Australia, Economic Geology, Vol 81, Vol.5 pp 1218-1225.
Hudson, D.R. (1986) Platinum-group minerals from the Kambalda nickel deposits, Western Australia, Economic Geology, Vol 81, No.5 pp.1218-1225.
Hudson, D.R. (1986) Platinum-group minerals from the Kambalda nickel deposits, Western Australia, Economic Geology, Vol 81, No.5 pp.1218-1225. Hudson, D.R., Robinson, B.W., Vigers, R.B.W. (1978) Zoned michenerite-testibiopalladite from Kambalda, Western Australia, The Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 16 May 1978, pp.121-126.
    • Ngaanyatjarraku Shire
      • West Musgrave Block
        • Jamieson Community (Mantamaru)
Mineral. Deposita 42 (2007) 551-581.
    • Roebourne Shire
      • Karratha
HOATSON,DM, WALLACE,DA, SUN,S-S, MACIAS,LF, SIMPSON,CJ and KEAYS,RR (1992) Petrology and platinum-group-element geochemistry of Archaean layered mafic-ultramafic intrusions, west Pilbara block, Western Australia. AGSO Bull. 242, 319pp. plus map.
    • Victoria Plains Shire
      • New Norcia
5th International Platinum Symposium Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland Number 61, Part 1,1989,1-64
Botswana
 
  • North-East District
    • Francistown District
Maier, W.D., Barnes, S.-J., Chinyepi, G., Barton, Jr., J.M., Eglington, B., and Setshedi, I. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 37-60.
Brazil
 
  • Amapá
    • Mazagão
      • Vila Nova
Canadian Mineralogist 39:377-396
  • Bahia
    • Ipiaú
      • Mirabela farm
Knight, R. (2014). The primary magmatic concentration and secondary remobilisation of platinum-group elements in Ni-Cu sulphide ores (Doctoral dissertation, Cardiff University).
Bulgaria
 
  • Sofiya Oblast (Sofia Oblast)
    • Zlatitsa Obshtina
      • Zlatitsa
Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.; Georgiev, Georgi (2008) A genetic model of the Elatsite porphyry copper deposit, Bulgaria. GEOCHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY • SOFIA 46, 143-160.
Canada
 
  • Manitoba
    • Thompson Nickel Belt
      • Moab-Setting Lakes area
Y. Chen, M. E. Fleet and Y. Pan (1993) Platinum-group minerals and gold in Arsenic-rich ore at the Thompson mine, Thompson Nickel Belt, Manitoba, Canada. Mineralogy and Petrology 49:127-146; Chen, Yuan, "Precious-metal Mineralization And Sulfide-silicate Relationships In Some Canadian Nickel-copper Sulfide Deposits: Thompson Mine, Manitoba; Sudbury, Ontario; Dundonald Beach, Ontario" (1993). Digitized Theses. Paper 2231.
  • New Brunswick
    • Kings Co.
      • Cardwell Parish
Canadian Mineralogist 45, 775; Grammatikopoulos, T.A., Hiebert, R.S., Barr, S.M. and Valeyev, O., (2006) Cu-Ni-PGM Mineralization In The Mechanic Settlement Pluton, Southern New Brunswick, Canada. in Geological Association of Canada, Program with Abstracts Volume 31
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Labrador
      • Voisey´s Bay
Kelvin et al. Canadian Mineralogist 49, 1505
  • Ontario
    • Kenora District
      • Ring of Fire
        • BMA527861 Area
N Farhangi,CM Lesher,and MG Houlé
    • Nipissing District
      • Strathy Township
MDI Number: MDI31M04SW00022
    • Sudbury District
      • Blezard Township
; Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
      • Broder Township
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
      • Creighton-Davies Township
Sarah A. S. Dare, Sarah-Jane Barnes and Hazel M. Prichard (2010): The distribution of platinum group elements (PGE) and other chalcophile elements among sulfides from the Creighton Ni–Cu–PGE sulfide deposit, Sudbury, Canada, and the origin of palladium in pentlandite. Mineralium Deposita 45, 765-793.; Dare, S. A., Barnes, S. J., Prichard, H. M., & Fisher, P. C. (2010). The timing and formation of platinum-group minerals from the Creighton Ni-Cu-platinum-group element sulfide deposit, Sudbury, Canada: early crystallization of PGE-rich sulfarsenides. Economic Geology, 105(6), 1071-1096.
      • Denison Township
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787; Chen, Yuan, "Precious-metal Mineralization And Sulfide-silicate Relationships In Some Canadian Nickel-copper Sulfide Deposits: Thompson Mine, Manitoba; Sudbury, Ontario; Dundonald Beach, Ontario" (1993). Digitized Theses. Paper 2231.
HAWLEY, J.E. & BERRY, L.G. (1958): Michenerite and froodite, palladium bismuth minerals. Canadian Mineralogist 6, 200-209. [TL1] CABRI, L.J., HARRIS, D.C. & GAIT, R.I. (1973): Michenerite (PdBiTe) redefined and froodite (PdBi2) confirmed from the Sudbury area. Canadian Mineralogist 11, 903-912. CHILDS, J.D. & HALL, S.R. (1973): The crystal structure of michenerite, PdBiTe. Canadian Mineralogist 12, 61-65.
      • Drury Township
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
      • Garson Township
LeFort, D.T. (2012) A mineralogical and fluid inclusion study of modified, contact style Ni-Cu-PGE ores in the #1 and #4 shear zones, Garson Mine, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Unpublished M.Sc thesis, Saint Mary's University, Halifax, Nova Scotia. 189p.
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
Ford, F.D., Wecholaz, C.R. & Lee, A. (2011) Predicting process outcomes for Sudbury platinum-group minerals using grade-recovery modeling from mineral liberation analyzer (MLA) data. Canadian Mineralogist 49, 1627-1642.
Sarah A. S. Dare, Sarah-Jane Barnes, Hazel M. Prichard und Peter C. Fisher (2011): Chalcophile and platinum-group element (PGE) concentrations in the sulfide minerals from the McCreedy East deposit, Sudbury, Canada, and the origin of PGE in pyrite. Mineralium Deposita 46, 381-407.; Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., (2003), Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787; Dare, S. A., Barnes, S. J., Prichard, H. M., & Fisher, P. C. (2014). Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Cu-Rich Ores from the McCreedy East Ni-Cu-PGE Deposit (Sudbury, Canada): Implications for the Behavior of Platinum Group and Chalcophile Elements at the End of Crystallization of a Sulfide Liquid. Economic Geology, 109(2), 343-366.
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
      • MacLennan Township
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
      • McKim Township
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
HAWLEY, J.E. & BERRY, L.G. (1958): Michenerite and froodite, palladium bismuth minerals. Canadian Mineralogist 6, 200-209. [TL1] CABRI, L.J., HARRIS, D.C. & GAIT, R.I. (1973): Michenerite (PdBiTe) redefined and froodite (PdBi2) confirmed from the Sudbury area. Canadian Mineralogist 11, 903-912. CHILDS, J.D. & HALL, S.R. (1973): The crystal structure of michenerite, PdBiTe. Canadian Mineralogist 12, 61-65. ; Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
      • Norman Township
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., (2003), Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
      • Rathbun Township
Econ Geol (1988) 83:492-510; Econ Geol (1986) 81:1272-1277
      • Snider Township
Canadian Mineralogist (1973): 11: 903-912.
      • Wisner Township
Economic Geology 103 (2008) 1005-1028.
Robert C. Smith, II Pennsylvania Geological Survey, 10-03-10
    • Thunder Bay District
Mulja & Mitchell (1990)
Mcdonald, A.M., Cabri, L.J., Stanley, C.J., Good, D.J., Redpath, J., Lane, G., Spratt, J. & Ames, D.E. (2015) Coldwellite, Pd3Ag2S, a new mineral species from the Marathon deposit, Coldwell complex, Ontario, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist 53, 1-13.
      • Greenwich Lake Area
Good, D., Borysenko, J., McBride, J., Walford, P., Smyk, M., Hollings, P., ... & Corkery, J. (2010) Cu-Ni-PGE Deposits in Mafic Intrusions of the Lake Superior Region June 24-30, 2010. 11th International Platinum Symposium
      • Seeley Lake Area
Mulja, T. & Mitchell, R.H. (1990) Platinum-group minerals and tellurides from the Geordi Lake intrusion, Coldwell complex, Northwestern Ontario. Canadian Mineralogist 28, 489-501.
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • Témiscamingue RCM
        • Belleterre
COOK, N.J. & WOOD, S.A. (1994) Platinum-group minerals in the Lac Sheen Cu-Ni-PGE prospect, Quebec. Canadian Mineralogist, 32,703-712.
    • Côte-Nord
      • Caniapiscau RCM
Beaudoin, G., Laurent, R. & Ohnenstetter, D. (1990) First report of platinum-group minerals at Blue Lake, Labrador Through, Quebec. Canadian Mineralogist 28, 409-418.
    • Nord-du-Québec
      • Nunavik
        • Ungava
Charlie L. Seabrook, Hazel M. Prichard and Peter C. Fisher (2004) Platinum-group minerals in the Raglan Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide deposit, Cape Smith, Quebec, Canada (in Platinum-group elements; petrology, geochemistry, mineralogy) The Canadian Mineralogist 42:485-497
Am Min 90:1466-1467; McDonald et al (2005), Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 1735-1744
  • Saskatchewan
5th International Platinum Symposium Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland Number 61, Part 1,1989,1-64
  • Yukon
    • Whitehorse Mining District
      • Kluane District
Barkov, A.Y., Laflamme, J.H.G., Cabri, L.J., and Martin, R.F. (2002) Platinum-group minerals from the Wellgreen Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, Yukon, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist: 40: 651-669.; 5th International Platinum Symposium Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland Number 61, Part 1,1989,1-64
China
 
  • Gansu Province
    • Jinchang Prefecture
      • Jinchuan District
Economic Geology (1992) 87, 1475-1495; Wenfeng Zhu and Youbin Liang (2000): Geology and Prospecting 36(1), 26-28; Yang, X.-Z., Ishihara, S., and Zhao, D.-H. (2006): Mineralogy and Petrology 86 (1/2), 109-128; Yang, Xuan-Zhu;Matsueda, Hiroharu;Yui, Shunzo;Dong, Xian-Yang (1992) : Chemical Compositions and Paragenesis of the Platinum-group Element Minerals in the Jinchuan Sulfide Deposit, Gansu Province, China. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University. Series 4, Geology and mineralogy;Vol.XXIII, No.2
  • Jilin Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
    • Tonghua Prefecture
      • Tonghua Co.
Xiangwen Wang (2002): Mineral Deposits 21(suppl.), 689-692
  • Sichuan Province
    • Garzê Autonomous Prefecture (Ganzi Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Danba Co.
        • Yangliuping Cu-Ni-PGE ore field
American Mineralogist (1979), 64, 464; Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 21(1), 14-18; Xiaoqiang Hu, Yunquan Li, and Dequan Shuai (2001): Journal of Chengdu University of Technology 28(1), 48-52; Song, X. Y., Zhou, M. F., & Cao, Z. M. (2004): The Canadian Mineralogist 42(2), 469-483
    • Panzhihua Prefecture
      • Miyi Co.
Zhu, W. G., Zhong, H., Hu, R. Z., Liu, B. G., He, D. F., Song, X. Y., & Deng, H. L. (2010). Platinum-group minerals and tellurides from the PGE-bearing Xinjie layered intrusion in the Emeishan Large Igneous Province, SW China. Mineralogy and Petrology, 98(1-4), 167-180.
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Yili Hasake Autonomous Prefecture (Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Aletai Prefecture (Altay Prefecture)
        • Fuyun Co. (Koktokay Co.)
Chunming Han, Wenjiao Xiao, Guochun Zhao, Wenjun Qu, and Andao Du (2007): Ore Geology Reviews 32, 452-468.
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Ústí Region
      • Šluknov (Schluckenau)
Haluzova, E., Ackerman, L., Pasava, J., Jonasova, S., Svojtka, M., Hrstka, T., & Veselovsky, F. (2015). Geochronology and characteristics of Ni-Cu-(PGE) mineralization at Rozany, Lusatian Granitoid Complex, Czech Republic. Journal of GEOsciences, 60(4), 219-236.
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • Vysočina Region
      • Havlíčkův Brod District
        • Chotěboř
Vavřín, I.: Přehled mineralogie, geochemie a ložisek platinových kovů. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1997, roč. 4-5, s. 132-140.; Pašava, J., Vavřín, I., Frýda, J., Janoušek, V., & Jelínek, E. (2003). Geochemistry and mineralogy of Platinum-group elements in the Ransko gabbro–peridotite massif, Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic). Mineralium Deposita, 38(3), 298-311.
Egypt
 
  • Red Sea Governorate
    • Eastern Desert
Helmy, H.M., and Mogessie, A. (2001): Mineralium Deposita 36, 58-71.
      • Wadi Haimur
Helmy, H. M., Stumpfl, E. F., & Kamel, O. A. (1995). Platinum-group minerals from the metamorphosed Abu Swayel Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, South Eastern Desert, Egypt. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists, 90(8), 2350-2360.
Finland
 
  • Lapland Region
    • Koillismaa Complex
Kojonen, K. and Iljina, M. 2001. Platinum-Group Minerals in the Early Proterozoic Kuusijärvi Marginal Series, Koillismaa Layered Igneous Complex, Northeastern Finland. In A. Piestrzynski et al. (eds). Proceedings of the sixth Biennial SGA-SEG meeting, Balkema Publishers, Lisse, pp 653-656
    • Portimo complex
Iljina, M. 1994. The Portimo Layered Igneous Complex - with emphasis on diverse sulphide and platinum-group element deposits. Acta Univ. Oul. A258, 1994
    • Sodankylä
Lamberg, P., Välimaa, J., Parkkinen, J., & Kojonen, K. (2005). Structural, geochemical and magmatic modelling of the early Proterozoic Keivitsa Ni-Cu-PGE deposit in Sodankylä, northern Finland. Extended Abstract. In 10th International Platinum Symposium, Abstract volume.; Gervilla, F., Kojonen, K. and Merkle, R.K.W., 2005. Platinum-group minerals in the Proterozoic Keivitsa mafic-ultramafic intrusion, Sodankylä, northern Finland. Extended Abstract, 10th International Platinum Symposium, Abstract volume
  • Northern Finland Region
    • Nivala
K.K. Kojonen et al.: Can. Mineral. 42:539-544 (2004); Econ Geol (1986) 81:1236-1241
    • Pudasjärvi
Karinen, Tuomo 2010. The Koillismaa intrusion northeasten Finland - evidence for PGE reef forming processes in the layered series. Geological Survey of Finland Bulletin 404
  • Western and Inner Finland Region
    • Akaa
Papunen, H., 1985,The Kylmäkoski Nickel-Copper deposit. Geological Survey of Finland bulletin 333.
India
 
  • Karnataka
    • Shimoga schist belt
T. T. Alapieti, T. C. Devaraju, R. J. Kaukonen (2005) Sem-eds Study of the Platinum-group Minerals in the PGE mineralized Hanumalapura Segment of the Layeredmafic-ultramafic Complex of Channagiri, Davangere District, Karnataka. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, 65:745-752.
  • Odisha (Orissa)
    • Keonjhar District
Mineralogical Magazine 1997 61 : 902-906
Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire)
 
  • Dix-Huit Montagnes region
    • Biankouma department
Gouedji, F., Picard, C., Coulibaly, Y., Audet, M. A., Auge, T., Goncalves, P., ... & Ouattara, N. (2014). The Samapleu mafic-ultramafic intrusion and its Ni-Cu-PGE mineralization: an Eburnean (2.09 Ga) feeder dyke to the Yacouba layered complex (Man Archean craton, western Ivory Coast). Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France, 185(6), 393-411.
Kazakhstan
 
  • Eastern Kazakhstan Province (Shyghys Qazaqstan Oblysy; Vostochno-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast')
    • Maksut
Prokopyev, I.R., Izokh, A.E., Borisenko, A.S., Naumov, E.A., and Seltmann, R. (2010): Presented at the 11th International Platinum Symposium, June 21-24, 2010.
Madagascar
 
  • Mahajanga Province (Majunga)
    • Betsiboka Region
      • Tsaratanàna District
        • Andriamena Commune
[AmMin 85:265]
Norway
 
  • Sogn og Fjordane
    • Vik
      • Stølsheimen
Nilsson, L. P. & Larsen, R. B. (1998): Edle mineraler i mafiske og ultramafiske bergarter- en oppsummering av platina-gruppe mineraler (PGM) funnet i Norge i de senere år. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 14: 40-49
Republic of Macedonia
 
  • Radoviš (Radovish)
Petrunov, R., Serafimovski, T., & Dragov, P. (2001). New finding of PGE-mineralisation in porphyry-copper environment-the Bučim deposit, Macedonia: preliminary microscope and microprobe data. In ABCDGEODE 2001 Workshop Vata Bai, Romania (Vol. 79, pp. 79-80).
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Taymyrskiy Autonomous Okrug
      • Taimyr Peninsula
        • Putoran Plateau
          • Noril'sk
            • Talnakh Cu-Ni Deposit
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
2014 Ultramafic-mafic intrusions, volcanic rocks and PGE-Cu-Ni sulfide deposits of the Noril’sk Province, Polar Siberia . 12th International Platinum Symposium
    • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
      • Chitinskaya Oblast'
        • Chiney massif
Can Min (2002) 40, (2), 679-692; Seltmann, R., Soloviev, S., Shatov, V., Pirajno, F., Naumov, E., & Cherkasov, S. (2010). Metallogeny of Siberia: tectonic, geologic and metallogenic settings of selected significant deposits*. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57(6), 655-706
    • Tuva Republic
      • Sayan Mts
        • Eastern Sayan
Alexander V. Dedeev et al (2002) The PGE-Bearing Sulphide Ores of the Kingash Mafic-Ultramafic Differentiated Intrusion and Ore Processing Characteristics, East Sajan, Russia. 9th annual platinum symposium
  • Northern Region
    • Karelia Republic
      • Lake Onega
Grokhovskaya, T. L., Lapina, M. I., Ganin, V. A., & Grinevich, N. G. (2005). PGE mineralization in the Burakovsk Layered Complex, Southern Karelia, Russia. Geology of Ore Deposits C/C of Geologiia Rudnykh Mestorozhdenii, 47(4), 283.
Grishaenko, M. V. P., & Federation, R. (2007). Independent Report on the Shalozerskoe (Burakovsky), Lukkulaisvaara and Tsipringa Platinum, Palladium, Copper, Nickel Deposits in the Autonomous Republic of Karelia Russian Federation
      • Northern Karelia
        • Oulanka plutonic complex
          • Olanga River (Oulanka River)
Grishaenko, M. V. P., & Federation, R. (2007). Independent Report on the Shalozerskoe (Burakovsky), Lukkulaisvaara and Tsipringa Platinum, Palladium, Copper, Nickel Deposits in the Autonomous Republic of Karelia Russian Federation
Can Min (2002) 40, (2), 679-692; Mineralogical Magazine 1996 60 : 973-978.
    • Murmanskaya Oblast'
      • Fedorovo-Pansky massif (Pana layered complex)
33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Platinum-group minerals in the PGE deposit of the Fedorovo-Pansky layered intrusion, Kola Peninsula
33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Platinum-group minerals in the PGE deposit of the Fedorovo-Pansky layered intrusion, Kola Peninsula
      • Monche-Tundra
http://www.duke.edu/~boudreau/9thPtSymposium/Grokhovskaya_Abstract.pdf
Yury L. Voytekhovsky, Yury N. Neradovsky (2008) The Cu-Ni-PGE and Cr deposits of the Monchegorsk area, the Kola Peninsula, Russia. 33 IGC excursion No 48, August 15 – 21, 2008
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
33 IGC excursion No 48, August 15 – 21, 2008
http://www4.geology.utoronto.ca/faculty/mungall/Website/igcp479northasia/dp803.html.
      • Pechengsky District
Abzalov, M.Z., and Both, R.A. (1997): Mineralogy and Petrology 61, 119-143.
South Africa
 
  • Free State Province
Minerals of South Africa
  • Limpopo Province
    • Bushveld Complex
R.O. Meyer collection, identity confirmed by microprobe analysis
The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 43, pp. 1711-1734 (2005)
      • Waterberg District
        • Mokopane (Potgietersrus)
Holwell, D. A., McDonald, I., & Armitage, P. E. B. (2006). Platinum-group mineral assemblages in the Platreef at the Sandsloot Mine, northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 70(1), 83-101.; Armitage, P. E. B., McDonald, I., Edwards, S. J., & Manby, G. M. (2002). Platinum-group element mineralization in the Platreef and calc-silicate footwall at Sandsloot, Potgietersrus District, South Africa. Applied Earth Science: Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy: Section B, 111(1), 36-45.; HOLWELL D.A., MCDONALD I. & ARMITAGE, P.E.B. (2006). Platinum-group mineral assemblages in the Platreef at the South Central Pit, Sandsloot Mine, northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 70, 83-101.
Fanus Viljoen, F., Ramakoloi, N., Rose, D. and Reinke, C. (2016) Mineral Chemistry of (Pt,Pd)-Bismuthotelluride Minerals In the Platreef At Zwartfontein, Akanani Project, Northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa. The Canadian Mineralogist, 53(6), 1109-1127.
  • Mpumalanga Province
    • Nkangala District
      • Waterval
http://www.minsoc.org.za/pubs/BaseMetals2003.pdf
H.F.J. Theart and C.D. de Nooy (2001) The Platinum Group Minerals in two parts of the Massive Sulphide Body of the Uitkomst Complex, Mpumalanga, South Africa. SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OF GEOLOGY, VOLUME 104, PAGE 287-300
  • North West Province
    • Bojanala Platinum District
      • Western Bushveld Complex
        • Rustenburg (Rustenburg District)
          • Royal Bafokeng
Smith, A. J. B., Viljoen, K. S., Schouwstra, R., Roberts, J., Schalkwyk, C., & Gutzmer, J. (2013). Geological variations in the Merensky Reef at Bafokeng Rasimone Platinum Mine and its influence on flotation performance. Minerals Engineering, 52, 155-168.
Minerals of South Africa
    • Dr Kenneth Kaunda District
      • Witwatersrand field
        • Klerksdorp
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Spain
 
  • Extremadura
    • Badajoz
      • Monesterio
Suárez, S. et al. (2010): Mineralium Deposita 45, 331-350. ; R. Piña, F. Gervilla, L. Ortega, R. Lunar (2008): Mineralogy and geochemistry of platinum-group elements in the Aguablanca Ni-Cu deposit (SW Spain). Mineralogy and Petrology 92, 259-282.
UK
 
  • Scotland
    • Dumfries & Galloway
      • Newton Stewart
MinMag 68(2):395-411
    • North West Highlands
      • Isle of Rum
Power, M.R., Pirrie, D., Andersen, J.C.O., and Butcher, A.R. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 762-775.
USA
 
  • Montana
    • Stillwater Co.
      • Nye
Canadian Mineralogist Vol.24, pp. 329-346 (1986)
Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
  • Nevada
    • Clark Co.
Erik Vercammen collection
      • Virgin Mts
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
          • Whitney Pocket Basin
Brent Thorne specimen analyzed by Sid Williams. Label says Bunkerville District but the actual locality is probably the Key West mine.
  • Wyoming
    • Albany Co.
      • Lake Owen Complex
5th International Platinum Symposium Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland Number 61, Part 1,1989,1-64
      • New Rambler District
R.R. Loucks, M.E. McCallum (1980) Platinum-group minerals in the New Rambler copper-nickel deposit, Wyoming: A preliminary report. ft Sulphosalts, Platinum Minerals and Ore Microscopy, 200-218. Proc. XI IMA Meet., Novosibirsk.(Am Min 74:1217); Econ Geol (1988) 83:492-510
Vietnam
 
  • Son La Province
    • Bac Yen District
      • Ban Phuc
Can Min 39, (2), 2001, 573-589
Zimbabwe
 
  • Masvingo
    • Chiredzi Mining District (Hartley Mining District)
      • Chiredzi
Economic Geology (1990) 85:556-584; Allan H. Wilson and Martin D. Prendergast (2001) Platinum-Group Element Mineralisation in the Great Dyke, Zimbabwe, and its Relationship to Magma Evolution and Magma Chamber Structure. South African Journal of Geology, 104:319-342; LIU, J., JIN, S. and WANG, Y. (2014), The Occurrence of Useful Components in Platinum-Palladium Deposit in the Great Dyke, Zimbabwe. Acta Geologica Sinica, 88: 1466–1467; Oberthür, T., Weiser, T. W., Gast, L., & Kojonen, K. (2003). Geochemistry and mineralogy of platinum-group elements at Hartley Platinum Mine, Zimbabwe. Mineralium Deposita, 38(3), 327-343.
  • Midlands
    • Shurugwi District (Selukwe District)
Allan H. Wilson and Martin D. Prendergast (2001) Platinum-Group Element Mineralisation in the Great Dyke, Zimbabwe, and its Relationship to Magma Evolution and Magma Chamber Structure. South African Journal of Geology, 104:319-342
    • Zvishavane District
      • Zvishavane (Shabani; Shabanie; Shavani)
Nashwa, Velaphi Moses. "The flotation of high talc-containing ore from the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe." (2008). MS Thesis
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