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Apatite Supergroup

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Formula:
IXM1VII2M23(IVTO4)3X (Z= 2)
M= Ca2+, Pb2+, Ba2+, Sr2+, Mn2+, Na+, Ce3+, La3+, Y3+, Bi3+
T= P5+, As5+, V5+, Si4+, S6+, B3+
X= F-, (OH)-, Cl-
Name:
The supergroup has its name after the generic name apatite first introduced by the German mineralogist Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1786 (Gerards 1786). It is derived from the Greek ἀπατάω (apatao), to deceive, in allusion to apatite often being confused with other minerals (e.g., beryl, milarite).
A supergroup that includes minerals with a generic chemical formula IXM12VIIM23(IVTO4)3X (Z=2). A large number of ions may occupy the key sites in the structure, and thus the possible number of distinct minerals is large. The members of the apatite supergroup characteristically show a wide range of substitutional solid solutions. The nomenclature of the apatite supergroup was approved by the IMA in 2010 (Pasero et al. 2010).

The apatite supergroup are broader and includes more minerals than the historically "apatite group". (The later is not to be confused with the new approved subgroup of the apatite supergroup, also named the apatite group). It includes arsenate, vanadate, silicate, silicate-sulphate and sulphate minerals.
Based on both crystallographic and chemical criteria the apatite supergroup is divided into five groups: Apatite Group, Hedyphane Group, Belovite Group, Britholite Group and Ellestadite Group.

Fluorapatite, Apatite Group
Hedyphane, Hedyphane Group
Britholite Group
Ellestadite, Ellestadite Group
Belovite-(Ce), Belovite Group
Fluorapatite, Apatite Group
Hedyphane, Hedyphane Group
Britholite Group
Ellestadite, Ellestadite Group
Belovite-(Ce), Belovite Group
Fluorapatite, Apatite Group
Hedyphane, Hedyphane Group
Britholite Group
Ellestadite, Ellestadite Group
Belovite-(Ce), Belovite Group


Bromine concentration in samples analyzed by Dong (2005) is of a trace level (e.g., 57 ppm). A single study (Broska et al., 2014) reports a possible trace-amount occurrence of CN- (cyanide) admixture in fluorapatite. Vanadium-rich members of the ellestadite group are observed in pyrometamorphic rocks formed in a burning coal-mining dump (Kruszewski, pers. obs.). A manganate(V) (MnO43-) substitution, likely induced by heat treatment, was determined in blue mastodon ivory (hydroxylapatite) bones (Chadefaux et al., 2009).




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Classification of Apatite SupergroupHide

Approved
Notes:
Group Name

Chemical Properties of Apatite SupergroupHide

Formula:
IXM1VII2M23(IVTO4)3X (Z= 2)

M= Ca2+, Pb2+, Ba2+, Sr2+, Mn2+, Na+, Ce3+, La3+, Y3+, Bi3+
T= P5+, As5+, V5+, Si4+, S6+, B3+
X= F-, (OH)-, Cl-

Crystallographic forms of Apatite SupergroupHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Apatite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Apatite no.5 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Apatite no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Apatite no.8 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Apatite no.9 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Apatite no.12 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Apatite no.25 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Apatite no.68 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Apatite no.129 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Apatite no.146 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
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Relationship of Apatite Supergroup to other SpeciesHide

Group Members:
Apatite Group 
  Alforsite Ba5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
  Chlorapatite Ca5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
  Fluorapatite Ca5(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
  Hydroxylapatite Ca5(PO4)3(OH)Hex. 6/m : P63/m
  Hydroxylpyromorphite Pb5(PO4)3(OH)
  Johnbaumite Ca5(AsO4)3OHHex. 6/m : P63/m
  Mimetite Pb5(AsO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
  Oxypyromorphite Pb10(PO4)6O
  Pieczkaite Mn5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
  Pyromorphite Pb5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
  Stronadelphite Sr5(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
  Svabite Ca5(AsO4)3FHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
  Turneaureite Ca5(AsO4)3ClHex.
  Unnamed (F-analogue of Pyromorphite) Pb5(PO4)3F
  Unnamed (OH-analogue of Mimetite) Pb5(AsO4)3(OH)
  Vanadinite Pb5(VO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
Belovite Group 
  Belovite-(Ce) NaCeSr3(PO4)3FTrig. 3 : P3
  Belovite-(La) NaLaSr3(PO4)3FTrig. 3 : P3
  Carlgieseckeite-(Nd) NaNdCa3(PO4)3FTrig. 3 : P3
  Deloneite (Na0.5REE0.25Ca0.25)(Ca0.75REE0.25)Sr1.5(CaNa0.25REE0.25)(PO4)3F0.5(OH)0.5Trig.
  Fluorcaphite SrCaCa3(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
  Fluorstrophite SrCaSr3(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
  Kuannersuite-(Ce) NaCeBa3(PO4)3F0.5Cl0.5Trig. 3 : P3
Britholite Group (REE, Ca)5[(Si,P)O4]3X
  Britholite-(Ce) (Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OHHex. 6/m : P63/m
  Britholite-(La) Ca2(La,Ce,Ca)3(SiO4,PO4)3(OH,F)
  Britholite-(Y) (Y,Ca)5(SiO4)3OHHex. 6/m : P63/m
  Calciobritholite (Ca,Y)5(SiO4,PO4)3(OH)
  Fluorbritholite-(Ce) (Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
  Fluorbritholite-(Y) (Y,Ca)5(SiO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
  Fluorcalciobritholite (Ca,REE)5(SiO4,PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
  Tritomite-(Ce) Ce5(SiO4,BO4)3(OH,O)
  Tritomite-(Y) Y5(SiO4,BO4)3(O,OH,F)
Ellestadite Group 
  Chlorellestadite Ca5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
  Fluorellestadite Ca5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5FHex.
  Hydroxylellestadite Ca5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(OH)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mcm
  Mattheddleite Pb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)Hex. 6/m : P63/m
Hedyphane Group 
  Aiolosite Na4Bi(SO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
  Caracolite Na3Pb2(SO4)3ClMon.
  Cesanite Na3Ca2(SO4)3(OH)Hex.
  Fluorphosphohedyphane Ca2Pb3(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
  Hedyphane Ca2Pb3(AsO4)3ClHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
  Miyahisaite (Sr,Ca)2Ba3(PO4)3F Hex. 6/m : P63/m
  Morelandite Ca2Ba3(AsO4)3Cl
  Phosphohedyphane Ca2Pb3(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
Vanackerite Pb4Cd(AsO4)3(Cl,OH) Trig. 3 : P3

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Apatite Supergroup in petrologyHide

Common component of (items highlighted in red)

References for Apatite SupergroupHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Gerhards, C. A. (1786) Erster Ahnung. Von einigen noch nicht genau bestimmten und ganz neu entdecken Mineralien. in Grundriss des Mineralsystems, Christian Friedrich Himburg (Berlin): 281-287 [First introduction of the name apatite, Werner credited as the originator]
Náray-Szabó (1930) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 75: 387.
Mehmel (1930) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 75: 323.
Mehmel (1931) Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, Leipzig, Berlin: 15: 223.
McConnell, D. (1938) A structural investigation of the isomorphism of the apatite group. American Mineralogist: 23: 1-19.
McConnell, D. (1973) Apatite, its Crystal Chemistry, Mineralogy, Utilization, and Geologic and Biologic Occurrences. Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y.
Lang, A.R., Walmsley, J.C. (1983) Apatite inclusions in natural diamond coat. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 9: 6-8.
Farver, J.R., Gletti, B.J. (1989) Oxygen and strontium diffusion kinetics in apatite and potential application to thermal history determinations. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 53: 1621-1631.
Hogarth, D.D. (1989) Pyrochlore, apatite and amphibole: distinctive minerals in carbonatite. In K. Bell, Ed., Carbonatites: Genesis and Evolution: 105-148. Unwin Hyman Ltd., London.
Elliott, J.C. (1994) Structure and Chemistry of the Apatites and Other Calcium Orthophosphates. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Fleet, M.E., Pan, Y. (1997) Rare earth elements in apatite: uptake from H2O-bearing phosphate-fluoride melts and role of volatile components. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 61: 4645-4760.
Jonckheere, R., Wagner, G. (2000) On the occurrence of anomalous fission tracks in apatite and titanite. American Mineralogist: 85: 1744-1753.
Hughes, J.M., Rakovan, J. (2002) The crystal structure of apatite, Ca5(PO4)3(F,OH,Cl). In: Phosphates - Geochemical, Geobiological, and Materials Importance (M.L. Kohn, J. Rakovan, and J.M. Hughes, Eds.). Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry: 48: 1-12.
Pan, Y., Fleet, M.E. (2002) Compositions of the apatite group minerals: substitution mechanisms and controlling factors. In: Phosphates - Geochemical, Geobiological, and Materials Importance (M.L. Kohn, J. Rakovan, and J.M. Hughes, Eds.). Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry: 48: 13-49.
Flora, N.J., Yoder, C.H., Jenkins, H.D.B. (2003) Lattice energies of apatites and estimation of ΔH1°(PO3- 4 g). Inorganic Chemistry: 34: 499-517.
Dong, P. (2005) Halogen-element (F, Cl, and Br) behaviour in apatites, scapolite, and sodalite: an experimental investigation with field applications. Ph.D. Thesis, College of Graduate Studies and Research, Department of Geological Sciences
University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon.
Chadefaux, C., Vignaud, C., Chalmin, E., Robles-Camacho, J., Arroyo-Cabrales, J., Johnson, E., Reiche, I. (2009) Color origin and heat evidence of paleontological bones: Case study of blue and gray bones from San Josecito Cave, Mexico. European Journal of Mineralogy: 94(1): 27-33.
Pasero, M., Kampf, A.R., Ferraris, C., Pekov, I.V., Rakovan, J., White, T.J. (2010) Nomenclature of the apatite supergroup minerals. European Journal of Mineralogy: 22: 163-179.
Broska, I., Krogh Ravna, E.J., Vojtko, P., Janák, M., Konečný, P., Pentrák, M., Bačík, Luptáková, J., Kullerud, K. (2014) Oriented inclusions in apatite in a post-UHP fluid-mediated regime (Tromsø Nappe, Norway). European Journal of Mineralogy: 26(5): 623-634.
Hughes, J.M., Rakovan, J.F. (2015) Structurally robust, chemically diverse: apatite and apatite supergroup minerals. Elements: 11: 165-170.

Internet Links for Apatite SupergroupHide

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