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Commonly reddish brown to brown; shades of green to brown, yellow brown, rarely nearly white; yellow, colourless in transmitted light.
Sub-Adamantine, Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Greasy
5 - 5½
Specific Gravity:
5 - 5.5
Crystal System:
Member of:
Named in 1829 by Johann Friedrich August Breithaupt from the Greek μουάζω "to be solitary" in allusion to the rarity of its presence in the first known localities. The suffix "Ce" conforms to the Levinson Rule for rare earth minerals, for the cerium dominant member of the monazite series.
The overwhelmingly most common member of the monazite group. Monazite-(Ce) is a widely distributed mineral, as an accessory in granitic igneous rocks and gneissic metamorphic rocks, and in detrital sands derived from them.

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Classification of Monazite-(Ce)Hide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

A : Phosphates, etc. without additional anions, without H2O
D : With only large cations

4 : AXO4

19 : Phosphates
9 : Phosphates of rare earths and Sc

Physical Properties of Monazite-(Ce)Hide

Sub-Adamantine, Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Greasy
Commonly reddish brown to brown; shades of green to brown, yellow brown, rarely nearly white; yellow, colourless in transmitted light.
White, faintly coloured.
5 - 5½ on Mohs scale
On {100}, distinct; on {010}, difficult; also on {110}, {101}, and {011}, indistinct as observed at times.
Well-marked frequently present on {001}; on {111}, rare.
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
5 - 5.5 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.26 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Density increases with an increase in the Th content (to 5.4).

Optical Data of Monazite-(Ce)Hide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.770 - 1.793 nβ = 1.778 - 1.800 nγ = 1.823 - 1.860
Measured: 10° to 26°, Calculated: 18° to 24°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.053 - 0.067
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
r > v or r < v, weak
Optical Extinction:
X=b, Z^c = 2° - 6°
Faint to imperceptible. In pale yellows.

Chemical Properties of Monazite-(Ce)Hide

IMA Formula:

Crystallography of Monazite-(Ce)Hide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.7902(10) Å, b = 7.0203(6) Å, c = 6.4674(7) Å
β = 103.6°
a:b:c = 0.967 : 1 : 0.921
Unit Cell V:
299.65 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals usually small but may be large and coarse at times. Frequently flattened {100} or elongate [010]; prismatic by extension of {111} at times; equant, or wedge-shaped by the large development of {100} and {111}. Crystal faces commonly rough, striated or uneven.
On {100}, common; cruciform at times. Also on {001}, lamellar, rare. Doubtfully reported on {201} and {_902}.
Space-group setting P21/n.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
3.285 (35)
3.078 (80)
2.862 (100)
2.151 (40)
1.963 (50)
1.876 (30)
1.738 (40b)

Type Occurrence of Monazite-(Ce)Hide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Red to red-brown tabular crystals
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Mining Academy, Freiberg, Germany 19539
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Originally described from a "quartz-leeren Zirkon Granits", which could be the same as a syenite pegmatite.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of Monazite-(Ce)Hide

Other Language Names for Monazite-(Ce)Hide

Varieties of Monazite-(Ce)Hide

KulariteBlack enriched with Eu variety of Monazite-(Ce) from gold placers of Polar Yakutia. Usually form rounded crystals formed in weathering zones of black shales.
SilicomonaziteA silicatian Monazite.
Sulphatian Strontian Monazite-(Ce)A variety strongly enriched in S (≤ 11.3% SO3, accounting for 0.31 apfu S) and Sr (≤ 8.7% SrO, accounting for 0.18 apfu Sr).

Occurs in aggregates with hingganite in hydrothermal quartz-albite-chlorite veinlets.
TurneriteGolden yellow to brownish yellow wedge-shaped crystals.

Relationship of Monazite-(Ce) to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
CheraliteCaTh(PO4)2Mon. 2/m
Monazite-(Sm)Sm(PO4)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
RooseveltiteBi(AsO4)Mon. 2/m
Unnamed (Gd-dominant monazite)(Gd,Y,Dy,Sm,Nd,Th,Ca)(PO4)

Common AssociatesHide

Apatite"Apatite" is a field term for unidentified calcium phosphate members of the apatite group.
Columbite-TantaliteA generic name for minerals of the Columbite/Tantalite families which are difficult to distinguish without ...
FergusoniteFergusonite is one of the species groups or series that was originally described as a single species, based on the ...
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Quartz223 photos of Monazite-(Ce) associated with Quartz on
Cassiterite41 photos of Monazite-(Ce) associated with Cassiterite on
Muscovite23 photos of Monazite-(Ce) associated with Muscovite on
Hematite21 photos of Monazite-(Ce) associated with Hematite on
Xenotime-(Y)21 photos of Monazite-(Ce) associated with Xenotime-(Y) on
Rutile20 photos of Monazite-(Ce) associated with Rutile on
Anatase18 photos of Monazite-(Ce) associated with Anatase on
Albite14 photos of Monazite-(Ce) associated with Albite on
Pyrrhotite13 photos of Monazite-(Ce) associated with Pyrrhotite on
Zircon11 photos of Monazite-(Ce) associated with Zircon on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

8.AD.05NahpoiteNa2HPO4Mon. 2/m : P21/m
8.AD.10MonetiteCa(HPO4)Tric. 1
8.AD.10WeiliteCa(HAsO4)Tric. 1 : P1
8.AD.10ŠvenekiteCa(H2AsO4)2Tric. 1 : P1
8.AD.15Archerite(K,NH4)(H2PO4)Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
8.AD.15Biphosphammite(NH4,K)(H2PO4)Tet. 4 2 2 : I41 2 2
8.AD.20Phosphammite(NH4)2(HPO4)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
8.AD.25BuchwalditeNaCa(PO4)Orth. mm2 : Pmn21
8.AD.30SchultenitePb(HAsO4)Mon. 2/m : P2/b
8.AD.35Chernovite-(Y)Y(AsO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
8.AD.35DreyeriteBi(VO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
8.AD.35Wakefieldite-(Ce)Ce(VO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
8.AD.35Wakefieldite-(Y)Y(VO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
8.AD.35Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
8.AD.35Wakefieldite-(La)La(VO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
8.AD.40PucheriteBi(VO4)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
8.AD.50RooseveltiteBi(AsO4)Mon. 2/m
8.AD.50CheraliteCaTh(PO4)2Mon. 2/m
8.AD.50Monazite-(Sm)Sm(PO4)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
8.AD.60Chursinite(Hg+2)0.5Hg2+(AsO4)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
8.AD.65ClinobisvaniteBi(VO4)Mon. 2/m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide 2/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

19.9.1Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
19.9.2Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
19.9.6Rhabdophane-(Ce)(Ce,La)(PO4) · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
19.9.7Rhabdophane-(La)(La,Ce)(PO4) · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
19.9.8Rhabdophane-(Nd)(Nd,Ce,La)(PO4) · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
19.9.9Vitusite-(Ce)Na3(Ce,La,Nd)(PO4)2Orth. mm2 : Pca21
19.9.13KolbeckiteScPO4 · 2H2OMon. 2/m

Fluorescence of Monazite-(Ce)Hide

Not fluorescent

Other InformationHide

Slowly decomposed by acids.
Dull brown cathodoluminescence.
Health Risks:
Radioactive if rich in thorium or uranium.
Industrial Uses:
Ore of the rare earth elements.

References for Monazite-(Ce)Hide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Lévy (1823) Annals of Philosophy, London: 5: 241 (as Turnerite).
Phillips (1823) Mineralogy. 3rd edition: 382.
Breithaupt, A. (1829) Ueber den Monazit, eine neue Specie des Mineral-Reichs. Journal für Chemie und Physik, Nuremberg: 55: 301-303 (as Monazite).
Brooke, H. (1831) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 10: 189 (as Mengite).
Shepard, C.U. (1837) American Journal of Science: 32: 162 (as Edwardsite).
Shepard, C.U. (1837) American Journal of Science: 32: 341 (as Eremite).
Dana, J.D. (1838) American Journal of Science: 33: 70.
Wöhler, F. (1846) Göttingische gelehrte Anzeigen, Göttingen: 19 (as Kryptolith).
Hermann (1847) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 40: 21 (as Monazitoid).
Watts (1849) Journal of the Chemical Society, London: 2: 131.
Miller (1852) Phillips' Mineralogy: 493 (Monazite), 653 (Turnerite).
Forbes and Dahll (1855) Nytt Magazin for Naturvidenskaberne, Oslo: 8: 227 (as Urdit).
Des Cloizeaux (1863) Manuel de minéralogie: 533.
Kokscharow (1863) Materialien zur Mineralogie Russlands: 8.
Vom Rath (1863) Poggendorff's Annalen: 119: 247.
Radominski (1874) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 78: 764 (as Kårarfveit).
Trechmann (1876) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie: 593.
Dana, E.S. (1882) American Journal of Science: 24: 247.
Miers, H.A. (1885) On monazite from Cornwall, and connellite. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 6, n° 30, 164-167 (referring to Dana (1882)).
Goldschmidt, V. (1890) Index der Krystallformen der Mineralien. 3 volumes: 2: 542pp.: 399.
Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 749.
Ramsay and Zilliacus (1897) Ofv. Finska Vetenskaps-Societeten, Helsingfors (Acta Societatis Scientiarum Fennicae; Suomen Tiedesura), Förh.: 39.
Schetelig (1913) Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, Oslo: 2, no. 9.
Busz (1914) Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Beil.-Bd.: 39: 492.
Doelter, C. (1914) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 3[1]: 546.
Johnstone (1914) Journal of the Society Chem. Ind.: 33: 55.
Goldschmidt, V. (1920) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 6: 51.
Shibata, Y., Kimura, K. (1921) Chemical studies of rare-earth element minerals found in the Orient. Part 1. Analysis of naegite, fergusonite, and monazite found at Naegi in Gifu Prefecture. Japan Chemical Society Journal: 42(1): 1-16. (in Japanese)
Shibata, Y., Kimura, K. (1921) Chemical studies of rare-earth element minerals found in the Orient. Part 2. Analysis of columbite and monazite found in Iwaki, Ishikawa-machi, Fukushima Prefecture. Japan Chemical Society Journal: 42(11): 957-964. (in Japanese)
Hintze, C. (1922) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4A]: 298.
Pisani analysis in: Lacroix, Alfred (1922)
Minéralogie de Madagascar, Paris. 3 volumes: volume 1: 351.
Hintze, C. (1923) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4A]: 368.
Shibata, Y., Kimura, K. (1923) The chemical investigation of Japanese minerals containing rarer elements. Part 1. Analyses of fergusonite, naegite, and monazite, of Naegi, Mino Province. Japanese Journal of Chemical Transactions and Abstracts: 2(1): 1-6.
Shibata, Y., Kimura, K. (1923) The chemical investigation of Japanese minerals containing rare elements. Part 3. Analyses of columbite, monazite, samarskite and ishikawaite (a new mineral), of Ishikawa, Iwaki Province. Japanese Journal of Chemical Transactions and Abstracts: 2(1): 13-20.
Niggli and Faesy (1925) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 62: 557.
Ellsworth, H.V. (1932) Monazite colored by carbon from Dickens Township, Nipissing District, Ontario. American Mineralogist: 17: 19-28.
Bearth (1936) Schweizerische mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Frauenfeld: 14: 442.
Thoreau, Breckpot, and Vaes (1936) Académie royale des sciences de Belgique, Brussels, Bull.: 22[5]: 1111.
Zemel (1936) Journal of Applied Chemistry, Leningrad: 9: 1969.
Parker, R.L. (1937) A note on the morphology of monazite. American Mineralogist: 22: 572-580.
Gliszczynski (1939) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie Leipzig: 101: 1.
Gordon (1939) Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia, Notulae Naturae: no. 2.
Parrish, W. (1939) Unit cell and space group of monazite (La,Ce,Y)PO4. American Mineralogist: 24: 651-652.
Sahama and Vähätalo (1941) C.r. soc. géol. Finlande, no. 14: 50.
Sarkar (1941) Proceedings of the Indian Academy of Science: 13: section A: 245.
Mawson (1944) Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia: 68: 3354.
Hutton, C.O. (1947) Determination of xenotime. American Mineralogist: 32: 141-145.
Holmes, A. (1948) Monazite from Bodmin Moor, Cornwall: A study in geochronology. Part I. Monazite as a geological timekeeper. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: 63: 115-129.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 691-696 (as Monazite).
Ueda, T. (1967) Re-examination of the crystal structure of monazite. Journal of the Japanese Association of Mineralogists, Petrologists, and Economic Geologists: 58: 170-179.
Kucha, H. (1980) Continuity in the monazite-huttonite series. Mineralogical Magazine: 43: 1031-1034.
Beall, G.W., Boatner, L.A., Mullica, D.F., Mulligan, W.O. (1981) The structure of cerium orthophosphate, a synthetic analogue of monazite. Journal of Inorganic Chemistry: 43: 101-105.
Mineralogicheskii Zhurnal (1988): 10: 37.
Demartin, F., Pilati, T., Diella, V., Donzelli, S., Gramaccioli, C.M. (1991) Alpine monazite: further data. Canadian Mineralogist: 29: 61-67.
Ni, Y., Hughes, J.M., Mariano, A.N. (1995) Crystal chemistry of the monazite and xenotime structures. American Mineralogist: 80: 21-26.
Nasdala, L., Ruschel, K., Rhede, D., Wirth, R., Kerschhofer-Wallner, L., Kennedy, A.K., Kinny, P.D., Finger, F., Groschopf, N. (2010) Phase decomposition upon alteration of radiation-damaged monazite-(Ce) from Moss, Østfold, Norway. Chimia: 64: 705-711.
Clavier, N., Podor, R., Dacheux, N. (2011) Crystal chemistry of the monazite structure. Journal of the European Ceramic Society: 31: 941-976.
Ruschel, K., Nasdala, L., Kronz, A., Hanchar, J.M., Többens, D.M., Škoda, R., Finger, F., Möller, A. (2012) A Raman spectroscopic study on the structural disorder of monazite–(Ce). Mineralogy and Petrology: 105: 41-55.
Lenz, C., Nasdala, L., Talla, D., Hauzenberger, H., Seitz, R., Kolitsch, U. (2015) Laser-induced REE3+ photoluminescence of selected accessory minerals: An “advantageous artefact” in Raman spectroscopy. Chemical Geology: 415: 1-16.

Internet Links for Monazite-(Ce)Hide

Localities for Monazite-(Ce)Hide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow

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