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About MonetiteHide

White, yellow or colorless; colorless in transmitted light.
Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named by Charles Upham Shepard in 1882 for the type locality of Moneto Island, near Puerto Rico, Caribbean, one of the two islands where it was initially found. The locality name is sometimes given as Moneta Island or currently Monito Island.
This page provides mineralogical data about Monetite.

Classification of MonetiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

A : Phosphates, etc. without additional anions, without H2O
D : With only large cations
Dana 7th ed.:

1 : Miscellaneous

19 : Phosphates
4 : Phosphates of Ca

Physical Properties of MonetiteHide

Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy
Formerly given inaccurately as vitreous
White, yellow or colorless; colorless in transmitted light.
Colorless to white
3½ on Mohs scale
On three unspecified planes.
2.929 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.924 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Measured value on artificial material.

Optical Data of MonetiteHide

Biaxial (+/-)
RI values:
nα = 1.587 - 1.600 nβ = 1.615 nγ = 1.631 - 1.640
Measured: 70° , Calculated: 74°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.044
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r > v strong
Optical Extinction:

Chemical Properties of MonetiteHide


Crystallography of MonetiteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
1 - Pinacoidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.91 Å, b = 6.627 Å, c = 6.998 Å
α = 96.34°, β = 103.82°, γ = 88.33°
a:b:c = 1.043 : 1 : 1.056
Unit Cell V:
309.28 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Minute crystals forming massive aggregates; crusts, stalactites with rough crystalline surfaces. Crystals have rough surfaces and are frequently configured in interpenetrating groups; commonly flattened {010} with a rhombohedral outline.
AC(B) 33:1223 (1977), also JCPDS 9-80 (synthetic)

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0009584MonetiteCatti M, Ferraris G, Filhol A (1977) Hydrogen bonding in the crystalline state. CaHPO4 (monetite), P-1 or P1? A novel neutron diffraction study Acta Crystallographica B33 1223-12291977Synthetic0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
3.37 Å(70)
3.35 Å(80)
3.13 Å(20)
2.96 Å(100)
2.94 Å(40)
2.75 Å(20)
2.72 Å(40)
1.850 Å(20)
JCPDS 9-80 (synthetic)

Type Occurrence of MonetiteHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Formed by the interaction of bird guano in a limestone cave.

Synonyms of MonetiteHide

Other Language Names for MonetiteHide


Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
1 photo of Monetite associated with NewberyiteMg(PO3OH) · 3H2O

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

8.AD.05NahpoiteNa2(PO3OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
8.AD.10WeiliteCa(HAsO4)Tric. 1 : P1
8.AD.10ŠvenekiteCa(H2AsO4)2Tric. 1 : P1
8.AD.15Archerite(K,NH4)(H2PO4)Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
8.AD.15BiphosphammiteNH4(H2PO4)Tet. 4 2 2 : I41 2 2
8.AD.20Phosphammite(NH4)2(PO3OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
8.AD.25BuchwalditeNaCa(PO4)Orth. mm2 : Pmn21
8.AD.30SchultenitePb(HAsO4)Mon. 2/m : P2/b
8.AD.35Chernovite-(Y)Y(AsO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
8.AD.35DreyeriteBi(VO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
8.AD.35Wakefieldite-(Ce)Ce(VO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
8.AD.35Wakefieldite-(Y)Y(VO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
8.AD.35Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
8.AD.35Wakefieldite-(La)La(VO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
8.AD.35Wakefieldite-(Nd)Nd(VO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
8.AD.40PucheriteBi(VO4)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
8.AD.50Gasparite-(Ce)Ce(AsO4)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
8.AD.50Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
8.AD.50Monazite-(La)La(PO4)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
8.AD.50Monazite-(Nd)Nd(PO4)Mon. 2/m
8.AD.50RooseveltiteBi(AsO4)Mon. 2/m
8.AD.50CheraliteCaTh(PO4)2Mon. 2/m
8.AD.50Monazite-(Sm)Sm(PO4)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
8.AD.50Gasparite-(La)LaAsO4Mon. 2/m
8.AD.60Chursinite[Hg2]2+Hg2+2[AsO4]2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
8.AD.65ClinobisvaniteBi(VO4)Mon. 2/m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide 1 : P1

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

19.4.2HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)Hex. 6/m : P63/m
19.4.3BrushiteCa(PO3OH) · 2H2OMon. m : Bb
19.4.4IsoclasiteCa2(PO4)(OH) · 2H2OMon.
19.4.5BuchwalditeNaCa(PO4)Orth. mm2 : Pmn21
19.4.6CanaphiteNa2Ca(P2O7) · 4H2OMon.
19.4.7Mundrabillaite(NH4)2Ca(PO3OH)2 · H2OMon. m : Pm
19.4.8WhitlockiteCa9Mg(PO4)6(PO3OH)Trig. 3m : R3c
19.4.9BrianiteNa2CaMg(PO4)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
19.4.10Petersite-(Y)(Y,Ce,Nd)Cu6(PO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2OHex.

Fluorescence of MonetiteHide

Not fluorescent

Other InformationHide

Powdered material takes up water from the atmosphere and forms Brushite.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for MonetiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Shepard, C.C. (1856) American Journal of Science 22: 96 (as Glaubapatite, in part).
Shepard, C.U. (1882) On two new minerals, monetite and monite, with a notice of pyroclasite. American Journal of Science: 23: 400-405.
de Schulten (1901) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 24: 332.
de Schulten (1904) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 27: 120.
Willbourn (1925) Journal of the Malayan Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society: 3, Pt. 3: 57.
Larsen, E.S., Berman, H. (1934) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, Second edition, USGS Bulletin 848: 111.
Hill and Hendricks (1936) Ind. Eng. Chem.: 38: 440.
Frondel, C. (1943) Mineralogy of calcium phosphates in insular phosphate rock. American Mineralogist: 28: 215-232.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 660-661.
Murdoch, J. (1958) Phosphate minerals of the Borborema Pegmatites: II-Boqueirao. American Mineralogist: 43: 1148-1156.
Materials Research Bulletin, 1970, v. 5, p. 437.
Catti, M., Ferraris, G., Filhol, A. (1977) Hydrogen bonding in the crystalline state. CaHPO4 (monetite), P-1; or P1? A novel neutron diffraction study. Acta Crystallographica: B33: 1223-1229.

Internet Links for MonetiteHide

Localities for MonetiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Mendoza Province
    • Malargüe Department
Benedetto, C., Forti, P., Galli, E., & Rossi, A. (1998). Chemical deposits in volcanic caves of Argentina. International Journal of Speleology, 27(1), 16.
  • Western Australia
    • Dundas Shire
      • Cocklebiddy Roadhouse
Caves: processes, development, and management By David S. Gillieson; Bridge, P.J.(1973):Guano Minerals from Murra-el-Evelyn Cave Western Australia, Mineralogical Magazine (December 1973):39:467-469
  • San Salvador District
    • San Salvador Island
Onac B.P., Sumrall J., Mylroie J.E., Kearns J. (2009): Cave minerals of San Salvador Island, Bahamas. The University of South Florida karst studies series, 1, 70 pp.
  • Antofagasta
    • Antofagasta Province
      • Mejillones
        • Mejillones peninsula
XRD by Gerhard Möhn and Joy Desor
  • Shaanxi
    • Hanzhong
      • Ningqiang County
Xiyue Wang, Huimin Zhang, Sichao Wang, and Yuezhen Wu (1987): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 6(4), 296-306
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
Skarpelis, N. and Argyraki, A. (2009): The geology and origin of supergene ores in Lavrion (Attica, Greece). Resource Geology, 59, 1-14.
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County
    • Putnok District
      • Aggtelek
Dana's New Mineralogy, 1997, Gaines, et al.
Dana's New Mineralogy, 1997, Gaines, et al.
  • Sarawak
Mineralogical Magazine (1983): 47: 79-80.
  • Erongo Region
    • Dâures
Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. 409 (in English).
U. Kolitsch (single-crystal X-ray diffraction)
  • Aruba
Stienstra, P. (1985). Geology of a small rock-phosphate deposit, Ceru Colorado, Aruba, Netherlands Antilles. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 55(1).
  • Brașov
Puşcaş, C. M., Kristaly, F., Stremţan, C. C., Onac, B. P., & Effenberger, H. S. (2014). Stability of cave phosphates: Case study from Liliecilor Cave (Trascău Mountains, Romania). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen: Journal of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 191(2), 157-168.; Marincea, Ş., Dumitraş, D. g., Diaconu, G., & Fransolet, a. m. (2004) Mineralogical Data on the Bat Guano Deposit from Gura Ponicovei Cave (Almaj Mountains, Romania). Romanian Journal of Mineral Deposits 81:126-129
  • Constanța
Dumitras D, Marincea S, Diaconu G (2004) Thermal diagenesis in the phosphate-sulfate sequence from Gura Dobrogei Cave, Dobrogea, Romania. 21 st meeting of the International Mineralogical Association. p 71
  • Hunedoara
    • Hunedoara
      • Boșorod
Onac, B.P., Breban, R., Kearns, J., and Tamas, T. (2002) Unusual minerals related to phosphate deposits in Cioclovina Cave, Şureanu Mts. (Romania). Theoretical and Applied Karstology: 15: 27-34.
Saint Helena
American Mineralogist 28:215-232
South Korea
  • Gangwon Province
    • Yeongwol County
Jun, Chang-Pyo ; Lee, Seong-Joo ; Kong, Dal-Yong ; Kang, Il-Mo ; Song, Yun-Goo (2010) Mineralogy of Secondary Phosphates and Sulfates Precipitated within the Sequence of Bat Guano Deposits in the Gossi Cave, Korea. Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea, volume 23, issue 4, 2010, Pages 395-402
  • California
    • Mono Co.
      • Mono Lake
Cohen, L.H. & P.H. Ribbe (1966), Magnesium phosphate mineral replacdement at Mono Lake California: American Mineralogist: 51: 1755-1765; Ribbe, P.H. and Cohen, L. (1966) Newberyite and monetite from Paoha Island, Mono Lake, California. California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 19: 46; Cooper, J.F. & G.E. Dunning (1969), Struvite found at Mono Lake: California Division Mines & Geol. Min. Info Svc.: 22: 44-45; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 314.
  • Hawaii
    • Hawaii Co.
Giorgio Bortolozzi collection
  • Puerto Rico
    • Mayagüez
Shepard (1882) American Journal of Science, ser. 3: 23, 400-405; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 661.; Onac, B. P., & Forti, P. (2011). State of the art and challenges in cave minerals studies. Studia UBB, Geologia, 56(1), 33-42.; American Mineralogist 28:215-232
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 661.
  • Federal Dependencies
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 661.; American Mineralogist 28:215-232
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