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About MonohydrocalciteHide

CaCO3 · H2O
Colourless, white (especially if dehydrated)
2 - 3
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named in 1964 by Evgeny Ivanovich Semenov for the chemical relation to calcite and because it contains one ('mono') water molecule ('hydro').
Compare Unnamed (Amorphous Calcium Carbonate).

Note: In syntheses, a metastable precursor phase with the formula Ca(CO3).0.5H2O was found that later transforms into monohydrocalcite (Zou et al., 2019).

Classification of MonohydrocalciteHide

Approval Year:

C : Carbonates without additional anions, with H2O
B : With large cations (alkali and alkali-earth carbonates)

1 : A(XO3)·xH2O

11 : Carbonates
4 : Carbonates of Ca

Pronounciation of MonohydrocalciteHide

PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of MonohydrocalciteHide

Colourless, white (especially if dehydrated)
2 - 3 on Mohs scale
2.95 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.48 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Measured 2.95 from type desc.; measured 2.38 synthetic

Optical Data of MonohydrocalciteHide

Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.545 nε = 1.590
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.045
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of MonohydrocalciteHide

CaCO3 · H2O
IMA Formula:
Ca(CO3) · H2O

Crystallography of MonohydrocalciteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
3 - Pyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.554 Å, c = 7.545 Å
a:c = 1 : 0.715
Unit Cell V:
727.82 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Subcell (space group P3121): 6.0931, 7.5446 A.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
4.49 Å(9)
3.15 Å(9)
2.90 Å(8)
2.17 Å(10)
1.926 Å(10)
1.770 Å(7)
1.746 Å(7)

Type Occurrence of MonohydrocalciteHide

Semenov, E.I. (1964) Hydrated carbonates of sodium and calcium. Translated from. Kristallografiya: 9: 109-110.

Other Language Names for MonohydrocalciteHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
2 photos of Monohydrocalcite associated with CallaghaniteCu2Mg2(CO3)(OH)6 · 2H2O
1 photo of Monohydrocalcite associated with RauenthaliteCa3(AsO4)2 · 10H2O
1 photo of Monohydrocalcite associated with LanarkitePb2(SO4)O

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

5.CB.05ThermonatriteNa2CO3 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmm
5.CB.10NatronNa2CO3 · 10H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
5.CB.15TronaNa3H(CO3)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m
5.CB.25IkaiteCaCO3 · 6H2OMon.
5.CB.30PirssoniteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 2H2OOrth. mm2 : Fdd2
5.CB.35GaylussiteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 5H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
5.CB.40ChalconatroniteNa2Cu(CO3)2 · 3H2OMon. 2/m
5.CB.45BaylissiteK2Mg(CO3)2 · 4H2OMon.
5.CB.50TuliokiteNa6BaTh(CO3)6 · 6H2OTrig.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

11.4.1CalciteCaCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
11.4.2AragoniteCaCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
11.4.3VateriteCaCO3Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
11.4.5IkaiteCaCO3 · 6H2OMon.
11.4.6DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
11.4.7HuntiteCaMg3(CO3)4Trig. 3 2 : R3 2

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for MonohydrocalciteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Baron, G. and Pesneau, M. (1946) Sur l'existence et un mode de preparation du monohydrate de carbonate de calcium. Comptes Rendus: 243: 17.
Brooks, R., Clark, L.M., Thurston, E.F. (1950) Calcium carbonate and its hydrates. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A Mathematical and Physical Sciences 243: 145-167.
Semenov, E.I. (1964) Hydrated carbonates of sodium and calcium. Translated from. Kristallografiya: 9: 109-110.
Fleischer, M. (1964) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 49: 1151-1154.
Marschner, Hannelore (1969) Hydrocalcite (CaCO3·H2O) and nesquehonite (MgCO3·H2O) in carbonate scales. Science: 165: l119-ll2l.
Fleischer, M. (1970) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 55: 1067-1073.
Broughton, P.I. (1972) Monohydrocalcite in speleothems: an alternative interpretation. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 36: 171-174.
Hull, H., Turnbull, A.G. (1973) A thermochemical study of monohydrocalcite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 37(3): 685-694.
Stoffers, P., Fischbeck, R. (1974) Monohydrocalcite in the sediments of Lake Kivu (East Africa). Sedimentology: 21: 163-171.
Taylor, G.F. (1975) The occurrence of monohydrocalcite in two small lakes in the South East of South Australia. American Mineralogist: 60: 690-697.
Skinner, H.C.W., Osbaldiston, G.W., Wilner, A.N. (1977) Monohydrocalcite in a guinea-pig bladder stone, a novel occurrence. American Mineralogist: 62: 273-277.
Effenberger, H. (1980) The crystal structure of calcium carbonate monohydrate, CaCO3•H2O. 6th European Crystallographic Meeting, Barcelona, Spain.
Effenberger, H. (1981) Kristallstruktur und Infrarot-Absorptionsspektrum von synthetischen Monohydrocalcit, CaCO3(H2O). Monatschefte fur Chemie und verwandte Teile anderer Wissenschaften: 112: 899-909.
Řidkošil T, Sejkora J, Ondruš P. (1991) Monohydrocalcite from polymetallic vein of the Vrančice deposit, near Příbram. Czechoslovakia. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Monatshefte: 7: 289–295.
European Journal of Mineralogy (1994): 6: 256.
American Mineralogist (1995): 80: 634.
Pekov, I.V. (1998) Minerals First Discovered on the Territory of the Former Soviet Union. page 142. (Ocean Pictures, Moscow)
Garvie, L.A.J. (2003) Decay-induced biomineralization of the saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea). American Mineralogist: 88: 1879-1888.
Dahl, K. and B. Buchardt (2006) Monohydrocalcite in the arctic Ikka Fjord, SW Greenland. Journal of Sedimentary Research: 76: 460-471.
Brečević, Ljerka and Kralj, Damir (2007) On Calcium Carbonates: from Fundamental Research to Application. Croatica Chemica Acta: 80(3-4): 467-484.
Swainson, I.P. (2008) The structure of monohydrocalcite and the phase composition of the beachrock deposits of Lake Butler and Lake Fellmongery, South Australia. American Mineralogist: 93: 1014-1018.
Wang, Y.Y., Yao, Q.Z., Zhou, G.T., Fu, S.Q. (2015) Transformation of amorphous calcium carbonate into monohydrocalcite in aqueous solution: a biomimetic mineralization study. European Journal of Mineralogy: 27: 717-729.
Tomáš, Mikuš; Martin, Patúš; Jarmila, Luptáková; Tomáš, Bancík; Adrián, Biroň (2017) Mineralogical characteristics of the secondary calcium carbonates association from the Špania Dolina - The first occurrence of monohydrocalcite in ore deposits in Slovakia. Bulletin Mineralogie Petrologie: 25(2): 318-326.
Makovicky, E. (2018) The order–disorder potential of the crystal structure of monohydrocalcite, CaCO3·H2O. Mineralogy and Petrology: 112: 105-109.
Zhaoyong Zou, Wouter J. E. M. Habraken, Galina Matveeva, Anders C. S. Jensen, Luca Bertinetti, Matthew A. Hood, Chang-yu Sun, Pupa U. P. A. Gilbert, Iryna Polishchuk, Boaz Pokroy, Julia Mahamid, Yael Politi, Steve Weiner, Peter Werner, Sebastian Bette, Robert Dinnebier, Ute Kolb, Emil Zolotoyabko, Peter Fratzl (2019): A hydrated crystalline calcium carbonate phase: Calcium carbonate hemihydrate. Science 363, 396-400.

Internet Links for MonohydrocalciteHide

Localities for MonohydrocalciteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Atlantic Ocean
  • Mid-Atlantic Ridge complex
Gablina, I. F., Dobretzova, I. G., Laiba, A. A., Narkevsky, E. V., Maksimov, F. E., & Kuznetsov, V. Y. (2018). Specific Features of Sulfide Ores in the Pobeda Hydrothermal Cluster, Mid-Atlantic Rise 17° 07′–17° 08′ N. Lithology and Mineral Resources, 53(6), 431-454.
  • South Australia
    • South East - Limestone Coast
      • Robe
Am Min 60,690-697 (1975); Am Min 93, 1014-1018(2008)
Am Min 60,690-697 (1975); Am Min 93, 1014-1018(2008)
  • Tasmania
    • Bass Strait
  • Carinthia
    • Sankt Veit an der Glan District
      • Hüttenberg
        • Hüttenberg
          • Waitschach
Kolitsch, U., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fink, R. & Auer, C. (2013): Die Mineralogie der weltweit einzigartigen Schlacken von Waitschach, Kärnten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A, 115, 19-87 (in German).
    • Völkermarkt District
      • Globasnitz
Heppner, S. (1986): Mineralsuche in Kärnten. Der Aufschluss 37, Beilage „Aktuell“ zu Heft 3, 13-16. [as "Hydrocalcite"]
  • Tyrol
    • Kufstein District
      • Brixlegg
Kolitsch, U. (2013): 1799) Anglesit, Brochantit, Calcit, Callaghanit, Connellit, Cuprit, Diopsid, Elyit, Forsterit, Kupfer, Lithargit, Magnesiochromit, Malachit, Monohydrocalcit, Phoenicochroit, Rouait und Willemit in Schlacken der Montanwerke Brixlegg, Tirol. Pp. 111-114 in Niedermayr, G. et al. (2013): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXII. Carinthia II, 203./123., 91-146.
  • Upper Austria
    • Steyr
      • Slag localities
peter neschen collection
  • Vratsa Province
    • Balkan Mts (Stara Planina)
ATANASSOVA, S. THE PRESERVED MINERAL DIVERSITY OF SEDMOCHISLENITSI DEPOSIT, VRATSA ORE REGION.; Svetla Atanassova, The Preserved Mineral Diversity of Sedmochislenitsi Deposit, Vratsa Ore Region. pp 207-216
  • New Brunswick
    • Kings Co.
      • Cardwell Parish
CM 43, 1469-1487
Grice J D, Gault R A, Van Velthuizen J (1996) Penobsquisite: A new borate mineral with a complex framework structure, The Canadian Mineralogist 34, 657-665
      • Studholm Parish
Grice, J.D., Gault, R.A., Van Velthuizen, J. (2005) Borate minerals of the Penobsquis and Millstream deposits, southern New Brunswick, Canada. The Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 1469-1487.
  • Saskatchewan
Last, W. M. (1990). Paleochemistry and paleohydrology of Ceylon Lake, a salt-dominated playa basin in the northern Great Plains, Canada. Journal of Paleolimnology, 4(3), 219-238.
Last, F. M., Last, W. M., Fayek, M., & Halden, N. M. (2013). Occurrence and significance of a cold-water carbonate pseudomorph in microbialites from a saline lake. Journal of paleolimnology, 50(4), 505-517.
  • Tibet
    • Nagchu Prefecture (Naqu Prefecture)
      • Baingoin Co. (Bange Co.)
Minghui Li, Shichang Kang, Liping Zhu, Qinglong You, Qianggong Zhang, and Junbo Wang (2008): Quaternary International 187, 105-116.
Czech Republic
  • Central Bohemian Region
    • Kutná Hora District
No reference listed
    • Příbram District
      • Vrančice
[Lapis 1995, 12, p.13-24]
Ondruš, P. & Hyršl, J. (1989): New finds and revision of secondary minerals from Příbram district. Acta Universitatis Carolinae, Geologica 1989, 521-533.
  • Karlovy Vary Region
    • Karlovy Vary District
Lapis 2002(7/8), 63-65
  • Greenland
    • Qeqqata
      • Isortoq Fjord (Søndre Isortoq)
        • Sarfartoq region
Petersen, O. V. and Secher, K. (1993): The minerals of Greenland, The Mineralogical Record, Vol. 24(2), 1-65
    • Sermersooq
      • Ikka Fjord (Ìka)
Dahl, K. & Buchardt, B. (2006): Monohydrocalcite in the Arctic Ikka Fjord, SW Greenland: First Reported Marine Occurrence. Journal of Sedimentary Research. 76 (3), 460-471
DR Congo
  • South Kivu
Stoffers, P., Fischbeck, R. (1974) Monohydrocalcite in the sediments of Lake Kivu (East Africa). Sedimentology: 21: 163-171.
  • Grand Est
    • Haut-Rhin
      • Colmar-Ribeauvillé
        • Ste Marie-aux-Mines
P&T N°23-24, H. BARI 1982, Minéralogie des filons du Neuenberg à Sainte Marie aux Mines (Haut-Rhin).
            • Sankt Wilhelm vein
H. Bari, Pierre et Terre, Setember 1982
Wittern, Journée: "Mineralien finden in den Vogesen", 1997
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Freiburg
      • Ortenaukreis
        • Oberwolfach
Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German)
    • Schenkenzell
      • Wittichen
        • Burgfelsen
American Mineralogist: 76: 2021.
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Franconia
      • Bamberg
        • Wiesenttal
Fischbeck, R. & Müller, G. (1971): Monohydrocalcite, hydromagnesite, nesquehonite, dolomite, aragonite, and calcite in speleothems of the Fränkische Schweiz, Western Germany. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 33, 87-92; Broughton, P. L. (1971): Monohydrocalcite in speleothems: An alternative interpretation Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 36, 171-174.
  • Hesse
    • Hersfeld-Rotenburg
      • Bebra
Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1991): Mineralogische Notizen V. Aufschluss 42, 155-171.
      • Nentershausen
        • Süß
          • Richelsdorf Smelter
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1992
  • Lower Saxony
    • Goslar
      • Goslar
        • Astfeld
BLAß, G. & GRAF, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von bekannten Fundstellen (13). Mineralien-Welt 6 (3), 47-51.
      • Grane Reservoir
Schnorrer, G. (1993): Mineralogische Notizen VI. Aufschluss, 44, 44-58.
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Arnsberg
      • Hochsauerlandkreis
        • Meschede
Schnorrer-Köhler, G., (1990): Ramsbeck - Neue Minerale aus dem ehemaligen Blei-Zink-Erzrevier des Sauerlandes, Der Aufschluss, Vol. 41 (4), 211-218
    • Cologne
      • Aachen
        • Eschweiler
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
        • Stolberg
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
      • Euskirchen
        • Mechernich
          • Kall
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Mansfeld Basin
      • Helbra
C.Auer (2019)
      • Hettstedt
        • Copper-Silver smelter (Gottesbelohnung smelter) slag locality
  • Thuringia
    • Saalfeld-Rudolstadt
      • Saalfeld
        • Garnsdorf
F. Rüger, L. Senf & T. Witzke: Lapis 1995 (1), 15-26
  • Munster
    • Co. Kerry
      • Killarney
S. MORETON, P. DAVIDSON, D. I. GREEN and G. RYBACK (1999) Unusual Supergene Minerals at Muckross Mine, Killarney, Co. Kerry. Irish Journal of Earth Sciences 17:19-24
  • Liguria
    • Genoa
      • Genoa
        • Varenna Valley
Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 2 (Avril/Juin), 175-188.
  • Tuscany
    • Siena Province
      • Chiusdino
Menchetti, S., Batoni, M., Batacchi, C., Borselli, G., Brogi, A., Ceccantini, L., Fassina, B., Marchesini, M., Rossellini, A. & Ruggieri, G. (2015): Le Cetine di Cotorniano. Miniera e minerali. Associazione Micro-Mineralogica Italiana, Cremona, 354 p.
  • Hokkaidō
    • Tokachi Subprefecture
      • Ashoro-cho (Asyoro-tyo)
Ito (1993) Ganseki-Koubutsu-Koshogaku Zasshi, 88, 485-491.
Kyrgyzstan (TL)
  • Issyk-Kul Region
NJMM (1991), 289; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
  • Coahuila
    • Cuatrociénegas Municipality
      • Cuatro Ciénegas (Cuatrociénegas de Carranza; Venustiano Carranza)
        • Limestone caves
Forti, P. et al. (2006): ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1, 79–98.
  • Silesian Voivodeship
    • Rybnik City Co.
Kruszewski, Ł., Fabiańska, M.J., Segit, T., Kusy, D., Motyliński, R., Ciesielczuk, J., Deput, E., (2019): Carbon-nitrogen compounds, alcohols, mercaptans, monoterpenes, acetates, aldehydes, ketones, SF6, PH3, and other fire gases in coal-mining waste heaps of Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Poland) – a re-investigation by means of in situ FTIR external database approach. Science of The Total Environment (in press)
  • Buzău
Slavoaca, R., Slavoaca, D.C., 2000. Water chemistry and hydrochemical processes assessment in zones with Land slip in Buzău and Vrancea, SE Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineral Deposits, 79, Suppl. I, 2000, p.99-101
  • Hunedoara
    • Cerna valley
Onac, B. P. (2009): ACTA CARSOLOGICA 38/1, 27-39
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Banská Bystrica Co.
      • Špania Dolina (Herrengrund)
Mikuš T., Patúš M., Luptáková J., Bancík T., Biroň A. (2017): Mineralogická charakteristika asociácie sekundárnych karbonátov vápnika zo Španej Doliny - prvý nález monohydrokalcitu z rudných ložísk na území Slovenska. Bull. Mineral. Petrolog., 25, 2, 318-326 (in Slovak with English abstract).
Mikuš T., Patúš M., Luptáková J., Bancík T., Biroň A., 2017: Mineralogická charakteristika asociácie sekundárnych karbonátov vápnika zo Španej Doliny - prvý nález monohydrokalcitu z rudných ložísk na území Slovenska. Bull. Mineral. Petrolog., 25, 2, 318-326 (in Slovak with English abstract).
  • Balearic Islands
B. Onac et al (2009) Mineral Diversity in Caves from Mallorca Island, Spain. Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. p 325
      • Inca
Onac, B.P., Fornós, J.J., Ginés, A., Ginés, J. (2005): Mineralogical reconnaissance of caves from Mallorca Island. Endins, 27, 131-140.
  • Bern
    • Hasli Valley
      • Grimsel area
        • Gerstenegg
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 281.
  • Arusha region
    • Ngorongoro District
Zaitsev, A. N., & Keller, J. (2006). Mineralogical and chemical transformation of Oldoinyo Lengai natrocarbonatites, Tanzania. Lithos, 91(1), 191-207.
  • Scotland
    • Dumfries and Galloway
      • Wanlockhead
BMS Database; Green, D. I. (1987): The minerals of Meadowfoot smelter. UK Journal of Mines and Minerals 2, 3-9.
  • Wales
    • Gwynedd
      • Dolgellau Gold Belt
        • Bontddu
          • Vigra Mine
BMS Database
  • Arizona
    • Maricopa Co.
Garvie, L.A.J. (2003) Decay-induced biomineralization of the saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantean). American Mineralogist: 88: 1879-1888. Grant, Raymond W., Bideaux, R.A., and Williams, S.A. (2006) Minerals Added to the Arizona List 1995-2005: 6.
  • Hawaii
    • Kauai Co.
      • Kauai Island
Leveille, Richard J.; Fyfe, William S.; Longstaffe, Fred J. (2000): Unusual secondary Ca-Mg-carbonate-kerolite deposits in basaltic caves, Kauai, Hawaii. Journal of Geology 108, 613-621.
  • Michigan
    • Marquette Co.
George W. Robinson and S.M. Carlson (2009) What's New in Michigan Minerals. Presentation at The 36th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, April 23-26, 2009.
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
Dunn, P.J.: Min.Rec.:10:160-165 (1979); Jenkins, R.E., II: The Picking Table:35(1):16-24 (1994); Dunn(1995):Pt4:622-623.
NSS Bulletin 56:27-24 (1994)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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