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Aphthitalite

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Formula:
(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
Colour:
Colourless (rare), white, grey, bluish, greenish, reddish; colourless in transmitted light
Lustre:
Vitreous, Resinous
Hardness:
3
Specific Gravity:
2.656 - 2.71
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Name:
From the Greek άφθητος ("aphthitos"), "unalterable", and άλας ("halas"), "salt", in allusion to its stability in air.
Occurs in two widely diversified environments, both as an incrustation in volcanic fumaroles and as a constituent of oceanic and lacustrine salt deposits.

As shown by experiments of Africano et al. (2002), it may deposit from volcanic gas in high fO2 conditions during cooling from ca. 800 down to 400oC, together with thénardite.

Glaserite is a common synonym.

Structurally related to bubnovaite.


Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of AphthitaliteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
7.AC.35

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
A : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, without H2O
C : With medium-sized and large cations
28.2.2.1

28 : ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
2 : A2XO4
25.1.7

25 : Sulphates
1 : Sulphates of the alkali metals and ammonium

Physical Properties of AphthitaliteHide

Vitreous, Resinous
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent, Opaque
Colour:
Colourless (rare), white, grey, bluish, greenish, reddish; colourless in transmitted light
Hardness:
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Imperfect/Fair
On {1010} fair; on {0001} poor.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
2.656 - 2.71 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.72 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of AphthitaliteHide

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.487 - 1.491 nε = 1.492 - 1.499
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.005
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate

Chemical Properties of AphthitaliteHide

Formula:
(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2
IMA Formula:
K3Na(SO4)2

Crystallography of AphthitaliteHide

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.67 Å, c = 7.33 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 1.293
Unit Cell V:
204.08 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals commonly thin to thick tabular with pronounced trigonal development. Distorted pseudo-orthorhombic forms. Bladed aggregates; mammilary; crusts; massive.
Twinning:
On {0001} or on {1120}, repeated. Twinned groups on {1120}, similar to aragonite twins.

Crystallographic forms of AphthitaliteHide

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Aphthitalite no.97 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Aphthitalite no.116 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Toggle
Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of AphthitaliteHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Volcanic fumaroles
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of AphthitaliteHide

Other Language Names for AphthitaliteHide

Varieties of AphthitaliteHide

Ammonium-AphthitaliteAn ammonium-bearing variety of Aphthitalite. Occurs as fibrous crusts.
Cuprian Manganoan AphthitaliteA Cu- and Mg-rich variety.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Halite4 photos of Aphthitalite associated with Halite on mindat.org.
D'Ansite-(Mn)1 photo of Aphthitalite associated with D'Ansite-(Mn) on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.AC.Acmonidesite(NH4,K,Pb)8NaFe2+4(SO4)5Cl8Orth. 2 2 2 : C2 2 21
7.AC.05VanthoffiteNa6Mg(SO4)4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
7.AC.08Pyracmonite(NH4)3Fe(SO4)3Trig. 3m : R3c
7.AC.10Efremovite(NH4)2Mg2(SO4)3Iso.
7.AC.10LangbeiniteK2Mg2(SO4)3Iso. 2 3 : P21 3
7.AC.10ManganolangbeiniteK2Mn2(SO4)3Iso. 2 3 : P21 3
7.AC.15YavapaiiteKFe(SO4)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
7.AC.15EldfelliteNaFe3+(SO4)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
7.AC.20Godovikovite(NH4)Al(SO4)2Trig. 3 2 : P3 2 1
7.AC.20Sabieite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2Trig. 3 2 : P3 2 1
7.AC.25ThénarditeNa2SO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Fddd
7.AC.30MetathénarditeNa2SO4Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.1.1ThénarditeNa2SO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Fddd
25.1.2MatteucciteNaHSO4 · H2OMon.
25.1.3MirabiliteNa2SO4 · 10H2OMon. 2/m
25.1.4ArcaniteK2SO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
25.1.5MercalliteKHSO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
25.1.6MiseniteK8H6(SO4)7Mon.
25.1.8Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
25.1.9Letovicite(NH4)3H(SO4)2Tric.
25.1.10Ammonioalunite(NH4)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig.

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Soluble in water and in acids.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for AphthitaliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Smithson, J. (1813) On a saline substance from Mount Vesuvius. Royal Society of London, Philosophical Transactions: 256-262. [as Vesuvian Salt]
Beudant, F.S. (1832) Aphthalose, tartre vitriolé. in: Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 477-478. [as Aphthalose]
Shepard, C.U. (1832) Aphthitalite. Treatise on Mineralogy. First edition: vol. 1, New Haven: 36.
Glocker, E.F. (1839) Handbuch der Mineralogie, 2nd. edition, Nürnberg: 676. [as Schwefelkalisalz]
Breithaupt, A. (1841) Vollständige Handbuch der Mineralogie. Vol. 2: 106.
Hausmann, J.F.L. (1847) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen. Second edition, vol. 2, in two parts: 1137. [as Glaserite]
Scacchi, A. (1873) Aftalosa, o Solfato potassico. Note Mineralogiche, Memoria Prima, Napoli, Stamperia del Fibreno: 29-39.
Bücking (1889) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 15: 561.
Nacken (1907) Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Beil.-Bd.: 24: 21.
Nacken (1910) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 262.
Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 4: 41.
Foshag (1920) American Journal of Science: 49: 367.
Washington, H.S., Merwin, H.E. (1921) Aphthitalite from Kilauea. American Mineralogist: 6: 121-125.
Zambonini, F. (1921) Rendus comitato geologico d’Italia, Rome, Bollettino: 48(3).
Gossner (1928) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Beil.-Bd., Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 57: 89.
Hintze, C. (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 3696.
Koechlin (1934) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 256.
Laskiewicz (1934) Arch. Min. Soc. Warsaw: 10: 117.
Zambonini, F. (1935) Mineralogia Vesuviana. Second edition with Quercigh, 463 pp., Naples: 133.
Bianchini (1937) Reale accademia delle scienze fisische e matematiche, Naples, Rend.: [4] 7: 43.
Wells (1937) USGS Bull. 878: 120.
Druzhinin (1938) Academy of Sciences of the USSR Bull., Ser. Chim.: 1141.
Minguzzi (1938) Periodico de Mineralogia-Roma: 9: 359.
Perrier and Bellanca (1940) Periodico de Mineralogia-Roma: 11: 163.
Bellanca (1942) Periodico de Mineralogia-Roma: 13: 21.
Bellanca A.(1944 [1943?]) Sulla struttura dell'aftitalite. Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma: 14: 67-96.
Bellanca, A. (1946) Ric. sci. e ricostr.: 16: 1254.
Frondel, C. (1950) Notes and news: Notes on arcanite, ammonian aphthitalite and oxammite. American Mineralogist: 35: 596-597.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 400-403.
Okada, K., Ossaka, J. (1980) Structures of potassium sodium sulphate and tripotassium sodium disulphate. Acta Crystallographica: B36: 919-921.
Moore, P.B. (1981) Complex crystal structures related to glaserite, K3Na[SO4]2: evidence for very dense packings among oxysalts. Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie: 104: 536-547.
Egorov-Tismenko, Yu.K., Sokolova, E.V., Smirnova, N.L., Yamnova, N.A. (1984) The crystal chemistry of the glaserite-type structures. Mineralogicheskii Zhurnal, Kiev: 6(6): 3-9. [in Russian]
Africano, F., Van Rompaey, G., Bernard, A., Le Guern, F. (2002): Deposition of trace elements from high temperature gases of Satsuma-Iwojima volcano. Earth Planets Space: 54: 275-286

Internet Links for AphthitaliteHide

Localities for AphthitaliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • Western Australia
    • Dundas Shire
      • Cocklebiddy Roadhouse
Caves: processes, development, and management By David S. Gillieson; Bridge, P.J.(1973):Guano Minerals from Murra-el-Evelyn Cave Western Australia, Mineralogical Magazine (December 1973):39:467-469
      • Madura Roadhouse
Mineralogical Magazine (1977): 41: 33-35.
    • Laverton Shire
      • Lake Rason
Mineralogical Magazine (1973): 39: 346-348.
Austria
 
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Inn valley
        • Innsbruck
          • Hall
            • Hall valley
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993); Spötl (1989)
China
 
  • Hubei Province
    • Wuhan Prefecture
      • Jianghan District
        • Jianghan plain salt deposits
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
    • Alxa League (Alashan Prefecture)
      • Alxa Left Banner (Alashan Zuoqi)
Zhenmi Liu (2000): Journal of Salt Lake Research 29(3), 21-26
  • Tibet Autonomous Region
    • Nagchu Prefecture (Naqu Prefecture)
      • Baingoin Co. (Bange Co.)
Yuanyi Zhao, Mianping Zheng, Xingong Cai, Pingjia Zhao, Wen Zhao, Yunwu Wang, and Xu Ma (2004): Geological Bulletin of China 23(7), 680-685
      • Nyima Co. (Nima Co.)
Qian Wu, Mianping Zheng, Zhen Nie, and Lingzhong Bu (2013): Chinese Journal of Inorganic Chemistry 29(1), 36-44
Xifang Liu and Mianping Zheng (2010): Acta Geologica Sinica 89(11), 1601-1612
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
      • Shuanghu Co.
Yuanyi Zhao (2003): Mineral Deposits 22(1), 99-106
    • Ngari Prefecture
      • Gê'gyai Co. (Geji Co.)
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Xifang Liu and Mianping Zheng (2010): Acta Geologica Sinica 89(11), 1601-1612
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
    • Xigazê Prefecture (Rikaze Prefecture; Shigatse Prefecture)
      • Zhongba Co.
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Yongsheng Zhang, Mianping Zheng, Zhen Nie, and Lingzhong Bu (2005): Sea-Lake Salt and Chemical Industry 34(4), 1-5
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
 
  • Kivu
    • Goma
Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980
France
 
  • Hauts-de-France
    • Pas-de-Calais
Naze-Nancy Masalehdani, M., Mees, F., Dubois, M., Coquinot, Y., Potdevin, J.-L., Fialin, M. & Blanc-Valleron, M.-M. (2009): Condensate minerals from a burning coal-waste heap in Avion, Northern France. Can. Mineral. 47, 573-591.
Germany
 
  • Hesse
    • Fulda
      • Neuhof
Krah, O., (1988): Beobachtungen beim Durchbruch eines Basaltganges durch das Kalilager vom Werk Neuhof-Ellers, Der Aufschluss Vol. 39 (2), 103-113
    • Werra valley
      • Heringen
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Phillippsthal
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Lower Saxony
    • Celle
      • Hänigsen
Bode "Mineralien und Fundstellen BRD" from 1989 ISBN 3-925094-24-5 Pg.9
      • Wathlingen
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Palatinate
      • Hauenstein
        • Wilgartswiesen
Frenzel, Gerhard (1964): Im Buntsandstein des Pfälzerwaldes, Aufschluss 15, 175-200
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Stassfurt Potash deposit
      • Egeln
        • Westeregeln
Naumann, Zirkel: "Elemente der Mineralogie", 13th Ed., 1898; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 402.
      • Stassfurt
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 447.
  • Thuringia
    • Thuringian Forest
      • Merkers-Kieselbach
W.I. Borrisenkow (1968) Zeitschr. für angewandte Geologie 14, 7-10
Iceland
 
  • Southern Region
    • Vestmannaeyjar archipelago (Westman islands)
      • Heimaey island
        • Heimaey
Mitolo, D., Garavelli, A., Pedersen, L., Balić-Žunić, T., Jakobsson, S.P., Vurro, F. (2008): Mineralogy of actually forming sublimates at Eldfell Volcano, Heimaey (Vestmannaeyjar archipelago), Iceland. Plinius, 34, 322.
      • Surtsey Island
Jacobsson et al (1992) Encrustations from Lava Caves in Surtsey, Iceland. A Preliminary Report: Surtsey Research Progress Report X: 73-78 Reykjevik, Iceland.
Indonesia
 
  • Java (Jawa)
    • Yogyakarta Province
Handbook of Mineralogy
Symonds, R. (1993): Scanning electron microscope observations of Merapi Volcano, Indonesia. Geochemical Journal: 26: 337-350
Iran
 
  • Qom Province (Ghom Province)
Rob Lavinsky.
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • Zanjan Province
    • Dandy to Mahneshan road
Philip Simmons (http://www.mindat.org/mesg-7-237193.html)
Italy
 
  • Campania
    • Naples Province
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
        • Monte Somma
          • Ercolano
            • San Vito
aphthitalite
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 402, 404, 435.
  • Latium
    • Rome Province
      • Bracciano Lake
        • Cesano geothermal field
Cavarretta, G., Mottana, A., Tecce, F. (1981): Cesanite, Ca2Na3[(OH)(SO4)3], a sulphate isotypic to apatite, from the Cesano geothermal field (Latium, Italy). Mineral. Mag., 44, 269-273; Stoppani, F.S., Curti, E. (1982): I minerali del Lazio. Editoriale Olimpia, Firenze, 291 pp.
  • Sicily
    • Agrigento Province (Girgenti Province)
      • Racalmuto
        • Racalmuto saliferous deposit
Barresi G. (1857): Dell'aftalosio di Sicilia. Francesco Lao, Palermo, 19 pp.; Rath (vom) G. (1873): Ein Ausflug nach den Schwefelgruben von Girgenti. In: Briefwechsel. Mittheilungen an Professor G. Leonhard. Neues Jahrb. Miner. Geol. Palaeont., 584-603; Rath (vom) G. (1874): Arcanit (Glaserit, schwefelsaures Kali) von Roccalmuto. Poggendorff's Ann. Phys. Chem., Supplement VI, 359-363; Scacchi A. (1875): Briefliche Mittheilungen von Herrn Scacchi an Herrn G. vom Rath. Neues Jahrb. Miner. Geol. Palaeont., 620-621; Rath (vom) G. (1875): Anmerkung. Neues Jahrb. Miner. Geol. Palaeont., 622; Lasaulx (von) A. (1879): Beobachtungen in den Schwefeldistrikten von Sicilien. Neues Jahrb. Miner. Geol. Palaeont., 490-517; Strüver G. (1889): Dell'aftalosio di Racalmuto in Sicilia. Rend. R. Acc. Lincei, 286, ser. 4, 5, 1 sem., 750-754.
    • Catania Province
      • Etna Volcanic Complex
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 402.
  • Tuscany
    • Grosseto Province
      • Massa Marittima
Dill, H. (1979): Lagerstättenkundliche Untersuchungen zur Entstehung der Pyrit-führenden Blei-Kupfer-Zink-Lagerstätte Accesa (SW-Toskana). Mineral. Deposita 14, 57-80.
Japan
 
  • Hokkaido
    • Iburi Province
      • Usu-zan
Akira Kato (1973) Sakurai Koubutsu Hyohon, 40.
  • Kyushu Region
    • Nansei Archipelago
      • Kagoshima Prefecture
        • Mishima village
          • Satsuma-Ioujima (Satsuma-Iwojima; Iou island)
            • Iodake (Iwodake; Ioudake)
Amir Akhavan Collection
Kazakhstan
 
  • Atyrau Province (Atyrau Oblysy; Atyrau Oblast')
    • Atyrau (Gur'yev)
Pekov, I. V. & Abramov, D. V. (1993): Boron deposit of the Inder and its minerals. World of Stones, 1, 23-30.
Tony Nikischer specimen
Mexico
 
  • Michoacan
    • Uruapan del Progreso (Uruapan)
Handbook of Mineralogy
Norway
 
  • Buskerud
Hansteen, T.H. & Burke, E.A. (1994): Aphthitalite in high-temperature fluid inclusions in quartz from the Eikeren-Skrim granite complex, the Oslo paleorift. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 74 (4), 238-240
Peru
 
  • La Libertad Department
    • Virù Province
[var: Ammonium-Aphthitalite] Frondel, C. (1950) American Mineralogist: 35: 596. Palache et al (1951) Dana's Sys. Mineralogy, 7th. ed.: 402.
Réunion Island
 
Vlastélic, I., Staudacher, T., Deniel, C., Devidal, J. L., Devouard, B., Finizola, A., & Telouk, P. (2013). Lead isotopes behavior in the fumarolic environment of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Reunion Island). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 100, 297-314.
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
      • Aldan Shield
        • Aldan
          • Inagli Massif
Naumov, VB and Kamenetsky, VS and Thomas, R and Kononkova, NN and Ryzhenko, BN (2008): Inclusions of silicate and sulfate melts in chrome diopside from the Inagli deposit, Yakutia, Russia. Geochemistry International, 46, 554-564. [http://eprints.utas.edu.au/7673/1/GeochemInt2008-Inagli.pdf]
      • Daldyn-Alakit kimberlite field
        • Daldyn
Sharygin, I. S., Golovin, A. V., Korsakov, A. V., & Pokhilenko, N. P. (2013). Eitelite in sheared peridotite xenoliths from Udachnaya-East kimberlite pipe (Russia)–a new locality and host rock type. European Journal of Mineralogy, 25(5), 825-834.
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Kamchatka Oblast'
http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/conferences/kasp/JKASP04_circular2.pdf
      • Tolbachik volcano
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
found in volcanic fumaroles of the 2012–2013 Tolbachik fissure eruption, Kamchatka peninsula, on the new cinder Naboko cone
          • Northern Breakthrough (North Breach)
            • Second scoria cone
Pekov, I.V., Zubkova, N.V., Yapaskurt, V.O., Belakovskiy, D.I., Lykova, I.S., Vigasina, M.F., Sidorov, E.G., Pushcharovsky, D.Yu. (2014): New arsenate minerals from the Arsenatnaya fumarole, Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. I. Yurmarinite, Na7(Fe3+,Mg,Cu)4(AsO4)6. Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 905-917
Zelenski, M.E., Zubkova, N.V., Pekov, I.V., Polekhovsky, Yu.S. & Pushcharovsky, D.Yu. (2012): Cupromolybdite, Cu3O(MoO4)2, a new fumarolic mineral from the Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. European Journal of Mineralogy, 24, 749-757.
Saudi Arabia
 
  • Mintaqah Makkah
Saudi Geological Survey Open-File Report SGS-OF-2004-12, 68 p.
Sweden
 
  • Medelpad
    • Sundsvall
Kresten, P. (1990): The Alnø area (in Swedish). In: Lundqvist, T. (Ed.), Beskrivning Till Bergrundskartan Over Västernorrlands län. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning, serie Ba, 31, 238–278
Tanzania
 
  • Arusha Region
Mitchell, R.H. (2006) Mineralogy of stalactites formed by subaerial weathering of natrocarbonatite hornitos at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. Mineralogical Magazine: 70: 437-444
UK
 
  • England
    • Co. Durham
      • Billingham
Mineralogical Magazine 1959 32 : 172-175.
    • North Yorkshire
      • Loftus
Handbook of Mineralogy
Ukraine
 
  • Ivano-Frankivs'k Oblast' (Ivanovo-Frankovsk Oblast')
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 402.
  • L'viv Oblast' (Lviv Oblast'; Lwiw Oblast')
    • Drohobych
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 402, 443.
USA
 
  • Alaska
    • Kenai Peninsula Borough
      • Redoubt District
Handbook of Mineralogy
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Deep Springs Valley
Jones, Blair Francis (1961), Zoning of saline minerals at Deep Spring Lake, California: USGS PP 424-B, Article 83: B200; Jones, Blair Francis (1963), Layer sequence of saline minerals at Deep Spring Lake, California (abstract): Geological Society of America Program, New York Meeting: 88A; Jones, Blair Francis (1965), The hydrology and mineralogy of Deep Spring Lake, Inyo County, California. USGS Professional Paper 502-A, 56 pp.: 44; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 279.
    • San Bernardino Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 402, 629; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 8-9; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 279.
Foshag, William Frederick (1920c), Apthitalite (glaserite) from Searles Lake, California: American Journal of Science, 4th. Series: 49: 367-368; Smith, George Irving & W.P. Pratt (1957), Core logs from Owens, China, Searles and Panamint Basins, California: USGS Bulletin 1045-A: 27; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 9.
  • Hawaii
    • Hawaii Co. (Hawaii Island)
      • Kau Desert
American Mineralogist (1921): 6: 121.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 402.
Hon, K., Bove, D.J., Lee, L., and Thornber, C., 2009, The origin and zonation of sublimates and precipitates in active Hawaiian lava tubes: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 41, no. 7, p.193.
  • Nevada
    • Esmeralda Co.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Mexico
    • Eddy and Lea Counties
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 402.
    • Eddy Co.
Philip Simmons (http://www.mindat.org/mesg-7-237193.html)
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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