Log InRegister
Home PageAbout MindatThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusWho We AreContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatCorporate SponsorshipSponsor a PageSponsored PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
Learning CenterWhat is a mineral?The most common minerals on earthInformation for EducatorsMindat Articles
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralRandom LocalitySearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
Mining CompaniesStatisticsThe ElementsUsersBooks & MagazinesMineral MuseumsMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery


This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Hide all sections | Show all sections

About MulliteHide

(x ~ 0.4)
Colourless, white, yellow, pink, red, gray
6 - 7
Specific Gravity:
3.11 - 3.26
Crystal System:
Named after the discovery locality, the Isle of Mull, Scotland.
Synthetic mullite is well-known as a high-performance ceramic.

Compare 'meta-kaolinite', 'pseudomullite', and 'silicon spinel' - a synthetic phases being intermediate product of mullite formation from kaolinite.

Classification of MulliteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
F : Nesosilicates with additional anions; cations in [4], [5] and/or only [6] coordination

52 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
2 : Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination

15 : Silicates of Aluminum

Physical Properties of MulliteHide

Transparent, Translucent
Colourless, white, yellow, pink, red, gray
6 - 7 on Mohs scale
Distinct on {010}
3.11 - 3.26 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.17 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of MulliteHide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.642 - 1.653 nβ = 1.644 - 1.655 nγ = 1.654 - 1.679
Measured: 20° to 50°, Calculated: 34° to 50°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.012 - 0.026
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r > v
X=Y= colorless
Z= rose-pink

Chemical Properties of MulliteHide


(x ~ 0.4)
IMA Formula:
Al4+2xSi2-2xO10-x (x ≈ 0.4)
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of MulliteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.5785(6) Å, b = 7.6817(7) Å, c = 2.8864(3) Å
a:b:c = 0.987 : 1 : 0.376
Unit Cell V:
168.03 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals prismatic to acicular.
On synthetic material. Structure is incommensurately modulated.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
5.39 (50)
3.390 (100)
3.428 (95)
2.694 (40)
2.542 (50)
2.206 (60)
1.5242 (35)
For synthetic material.

Type Occurrence of MulliteHide

Synonyms of MulliteHide

Other Language Names for MulliteHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Hematite17 photos of Mullite associated with Hematite on mindat.org.
Pseudobrookite14 photos of Mullite associated with Pseudobrookite on mindat.org.
Sanidine7 photos of Mullite associated with Sanidine on mindat.org.
Cordierite6 photos of Mullite associated with Cordierite on mindat.org.
Tridymite4 photos of Mullite associated with Tridymite on mindat.org.
Sapphire3 photos of Mullite associated with Sapphire on mindat.org.
Topaz3 photos of Mullite associated with Topaz on mindat.org.
Osumilite3 photos of Mullite associated with Osumilite on mindat.org.
Phlogopite2 photos of Mullite associated with Phlogopite on mindat.org.
Garnet Group2 photos of Mullite associated with Garnet Group on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.AF.05SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AF.10AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
9.AF.10KanonaiteMn3+Al(SiO4)OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
9.AF.15KyaniteAl2(SiO4)OTric. 1 : P1
9.AF.20Krieselite(Al,Ga)2(GeO4)(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
9.AF.23BoromulliteAl9BSi2O19Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
9.AF.25YoderiteMg(Al,Fe3+)3(SiO4)2O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.AF.30MagnesiostauroliteMg(Mg,Li)3(Al,Mg)18Si8O44(OH)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.AF.30StauroliteFe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.AF.30ZincostauroliteZn2Al9Si4O23(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.AF.35TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AF.40NorbergiteMg3(SiO4)(F,OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AF.45AlleghanyiteMn2+5(SiO4)2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.45Chondrodite(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.45ReinhardbraunsiteCa5(SiO4)2(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.45KumtyubeiteCa5(SiO4)2F2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.45HydroxylchondroditeMg5(SiO4)2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.50Humite(Mg,Fe2+)7(SiO4)3(F,OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
9.AF.50Unnamed (Ca-analogue of Humite)Ca7(SiO4)4F2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AF.55ClinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4F2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.55HydroxylclinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4(OH)2Mon. 2/m
9.AF.60LeucophoeniciteMn2+7(SiO4)3(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.70JerrygibbsiteMn2+9(SiO4)4(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
9.AF.75WeliniteMn2+6(W6+,Mg)2(SiO4)2(O,OH)6Trig. 3 : P3
9.AF.85Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.AF.85MagnesiochloritoidMgAl2(SiO4)O(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.AF.90PoldervaartiteCaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
9.AF.90OlmiiteCaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide 2/m : B2/m mm2 : Cmc21

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

15.1AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
15.2KyaniteAl2(SiO4)OTric. 1 : P1
15.3SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
15.5PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1
15.6DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
15.7NacriteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
15.8KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
15.10HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
15.11Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2OAmor.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Mullite in petrologyHide

An essential component of rock names highlighted in red, an accessory component in rock names highlighted in green.

References for MulliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Bowen, N.L., Greig, J.W., Zies, E.G. (1924) Mullite, a silicate of alumina. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences: 14: 183-191 .
Foshag, W.F. (1924) New minerals: new species. American Mineralogist: 9: 211-212.
Agrell, S.O., Smith, J.V. (1957) X-ray crystallography of mullite, sillimanite and praguite. Acta Crystallographica: 10: 761-761.
Brindley, G.W. and Nakahira, M. (1959) The kaolinite-mullite reaction series: I, Survey of outstanding problems. II, Metakaolin. III, The high-temperature phases. Journal of the American Ceramic Society: 42: 311-324.
Durovic, S. (1962) A statistical model for the crystal structure of mullite. Soviet Physics - Crystallography: 7: 271-278.
Ernst, W.G., Calvert, S.E. (1969) An experimental study of the recrystallization of porcelanite and its bearing on the origin of some bedded cherts: American Journal of Science: 267A: 114-133.
Cameron, W.E. (1977) Mullite: a substituted alumina. American Mineralogist: 62: 747-755.
Leonard, A.J. (1977) Structural analysis of the transition phases in the kaolinite-mullite thermal sequence. Journal of the American Ceramic Society: 60: 37-43.
Angel, R.J., Prewitt, C.T. (1986) Crystal structure of mullite: A re-examination of the average structure. American Mineralogist: 71: 1476-1482.
Srikrisna, K., Thomas, G., Martinez, R., Corral, M.P., de Aza, S., and Moya, J.S. (1990) Kaolinite-mullite reaction series: a TEM study. Journal of Materials Science: 25: 607-612.
Angel, R.J., McMullan, R.K., Prewitt, C.T. (1991) Substructure and superstructure of mullite by neutron diffraction. American Mineralogist: 76: 332-342.
Niven, M.L., Waters, D.J., Moore, J.M. (1991) The crystal structure of werdingite, (Mg,Fe)2Al12(Al,Fe)2Si4(B,Al)4O37, and its relationship to sillimanite, mullite, and grandidierite. American Mineralogist: 76: 246-256.
Kahn-Harari, A., Abolhassani, S., Michel, D., Mazerolles, L., Portier, R., Perez-Ramirez, J.G. (1991) Observation of ordering in silicon and germanium mullites. Journal of Solid State Chemistry: 90: 234-248.
Querol, X., Fernandez Turiel, J.L., Lopez Soler, A. (1994): The behaviour of mineral matter during combustion of Spanish subbituminous and brown coals. Mineralogical Magazine: 58: 119-133
Lee, S., Kim, Y.J., Moon, H.S. (1999) Phase transformation sequence from kaolinite to mullite investigated by an energy-filtering transmission electron microscope. Journal of the American Ceramic Society: 82: 2841-2848.
Voll, D., Lengauer, C., Beran, A., Schneider, H. (2001) Infrared band assignment and structural refinement of Al-Si, Al-Ge, and Ga-Ge mullites. European Journal of Mineralogy: 13: 591-604.
Voll, D., Angerer, P., Beran, A., and Schneider, H. (2002) A new assignment of IR vibrational modes in mullite. Vibrational Spectroscopy: 30: 237-243.
Rodriguez-Navarro, C., Cultrone, G., Sanchez-Navas, A., and Sbastian, E. (2003) TEM study of mullite growth after muscovite breakdown. American Mineralogist: 88: 713-724.
Birkenstock, J., Petrícek, V., Pedersen, B., Schneider, H., Fischer, R. X. (2015) The modulated average structure of mullite. Acta Crystallogr: B71: 358-368.
Fischer, R.X., Tikhonova, V., Birkenstock, J., Fischer, L.A., Herrmann, K., Mengel, K., Schneider, H. (2015) A new mineral from the Bellerberg, Eifel, Germany, intermediate between mullite and sillimanite. American Mineralogist: 100: 1493-1501.
Bost, N., Duraipandian, S., Guimbretière, G., Poirier, J. (2016) Raman spectra of synthetic and natural mullite. Vibrational Spectroscopy: 82: 50-52.

Internet Links for MulliteHide

Localities for MulliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Tasmania
    • Huon Valley municipality
      • Huon-Channel region
        • Weld River district
R Bottrill in prep
  • Burgenland
    • Oberpullendorf
      • Kobersdorf
        • Pauliberg
U. Kolitsch, W. Postl, H.-P. Bojar and W. Trattner (2009): Die Mineralvorkommen im Basalt des Pauliberges. In: Autorenkollektiv (Red. M. A. Götzinger und P. Huber) (2009): Die Mineralien des Burgenlandes - Geologie, Mineralogie und mineralische Rohstoffe. – Wissenschaftliche Arbeiten aus dem Burgenland, Band 126, Amt der Burgenländischen Landesregierung, Abteilung 7 - Landesmuseum, Eisenstadt, 83-99.
  • Styria
    • Bad Gleichenberg
      • Wilhelmsdorf
Postl, W., Taucher, J. & Moser, B. (1996): Neue Mineralfunde im oststeirischen Vulkangebiet. Mitt. Abt. Miner. Landesmuseum Joanneum, 60/61, 3-76.
    • Bad Radkersburg
      • Klöch
Postl, W., Taucher, J. & Moser, B. (1996): Neue Mineralfunde im oststeirischen Vulkangebiet. Mitt. Abt. Miner. Landesmuseum Joanneum, 60/61, 3-76.; "Aus der Tiefe der Vulkane", Fritz-Jandl-Postl (2011)
  • Gansu
    • Jiuquan
      • Subei Co.
        • Gongpoquan ore field
Gansu Province Metallurgical and Geological Exploration Team No. 4 (1978): Geology and Prospecting 14(8), 20-23
Guangce Zeng, Baoming Pan, and Shangyue Shen (1993): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 13(1), 84-86
  • Shanxi
    • Yangquan
      • Kuang District
Querol, X.; Izquierdo, M.; Monfort, E.; Alvarez, E.; Font, O.; Moreno, T.; Alastuey, A.; Zhuang, X.; Lu, W.; Wang, Y. (2008): International Journal of Coal Geology 75, 93-104
Czech Republic
  • Central Bohemian Region
Zacek, V., Oplustil, S., Mayova, A. & Meyer, F. R. (1995): Die Mineralien von Kladno in Mittelböhmen, Tschechische Republik. Mineralien-Welt 6 (1), 13-30 (in German).
      • Libušin
David Parfitt collection; Hyrsl J., Korbel P.; Tschechien & Slowakei, Mineralien und Fundstellen. Bode Verlag, 2008. Page 268-273
  • Hradec Králové Region
    • Trutnov District
      • Radvanice
Jirásek, J.: Thermal Changes of the Rocks in the Dump Pile of the Kateřina Colliery in Radvanice (Eastern Bohemia). Ostrava: VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, Institute of Geological Engineering - 541, 2001. 69 p.
  • Ústí nad Labem Region
    • Most District
Ferry FEDIUK, Anna LANGROVÁ and Karel MELKA. 2003. "North Bohemian Porcellanites and their Mineral Composition: the Case of the Dobrčice Quarry, the Most Basin" GeoLines 15, p. 35-43. PDF: http://geolines.gli.cas.cz/fileadmin/volumes/volume15/G15-035.pdf
  • Matruh
    • East Uweinat Desert
Gian Paolo Sighinolfi, Chiara Elmi, Romano Serra, and Gabriele Contini (2014): High density silica phases as evidence of small-scale hypervelocity impacts: the Gebel Kamil Crater (Egypt). Periodico di Mineralogia 83, 299-312.
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Haute-Loire
      • Le Puy-en-Velay
        • Espaly-Saint-Marcel
Barrier D, Pourtier G, Médard P (2004) Minéralogie du mont Denise (Haute-Loire). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs 83: 3-11.
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Franconia
      • Wunsiedel in Fichtelgebirge
        • Marktredwitz
          • Pechbrunn
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Tirschenreuth
        • Kemnath
          • Waldeck
Pöllmann et al. (2007): Aufschluss 58, 227-233.
      • Wiesau
        • Triebendorf
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
  • Hesse
    • Hersfeld-Rotenburg
      • Cornberg
Müller, G. (1967): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 14, 176-189.
  • Lower Saxony
    • Osnabrück
      • Georgsmarienhütte
Schnorrer, G., Stahlmann, W., Mollenkamp, A. (2001): Sekundärmineralisation in den Hochofenschlacken des Hüttenwerkes in Georgsmarienhütte, heutige Georgsmarienhütte GmbH. Aufschluss 52, 99-108.
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Aachen
      • Alsdorf
T. Witzke, F. de Wit, U. Kolitsch and G. Blaß (2015): Mineralogy of the Burning Anna I Coal Mine Dump, Alsdorf, Germany. Chapter 7, 203-240; in: Stracher, G. B., Prakash, A. and Sokol, E. V.: Coal and Peat Fires: A Global Perspective, Volume 3: Case Studies - Coal Fires, Elsevier.
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Ahrweiler
      • Brohltal
        • Burgbrohl
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
    • Mayen-Koblenz
      • Andernach
        • Nickenich
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
      • Maifeld
        • Ochtendung
Lapis 1988(7+8), 70-72
      • Mayen
        • Ettringen
          • Bellerberg volcano
Hentschel, G., Neufunde seltener Minerale im Laacher Vulkangebiet, Aufschluß 28, 129-133, 1977
      • Mendig
        • Bell
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
        • Niedermendig
Blass, G.; Graf, H.W., Neufunde von bekannten Fundorten (X), Mineralien-Welt 5/2, 43, 1994
Blass, G.; Graf, H.W., Neufunde von bekannten Fundorten (X), Mineralien-Welt 5/2, 43, 1994
          • Wingertsberg
Blass, G.; Graf, H.W., Neufunde von bekannten Fundorten (X), Mineralien-Welt 5/2, 43, 1994
      • Pellenz
        • Kruft
Blass, G.; Graf, H.W., Neufunde von bekannten Fundorten (X), Mineralien-Welt 5/2, 43, 1994
Leu, K. (2017): Unbekannte Fundstellen in der Eifel - der Tönchesberg bei Kruft, Mineralienwelt Vol. 28, 6, pp. 24-38
    • Vulkaneifel
      • Daun
        • Oberstadtfeld
Leu, K., Der Vulkanabbau "Auf´m Kopp" bei Oberstadtfeld in der Westeifel, Lapis 2/1995
        • Üdersdorf
Schäfer, H., Die Mineralien der Einschlüsse und Auswürflinge in den Schlacken des Emmelberges bei Üdersdorf / Eifel, Der Aufschluss 30, 273-282, 1979
Guth, G., Interessante Neufunde für den Basaltbruch Liley (Löley) bei Üdersdorf in der Westeifel Mineralien-Welt 2/2000
      • Gerolstein
        • Roth
Blaß, G. & Schüller, W. (2012): Der Rother Kopf in der Vulkaneifel. Lapis, 37 (3), 20-29.
      • Kelberg
        • Drees
Schüller, W., Die Mineralien des Niveligsberges bei Drees in der Eifel, Der Aufschluß SB 33, 1990
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Mansfeld Basin
Gunnar Färber
  • Saxony
    • Zwickau
      • Oelsnitz
T. Witzke (1996): Die Minerale der brennenden Halde der Steinkohlengrube "Deutschland-schacht" in Oelsnitz bei Zwickau.- Aufschluss 47, 41-48
  • Thuringia
    • Gera
      • Ronneburg U deposit
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
  • Vas
    • Kemeneshát
      • Celldömölk
Szakáll & Gatter. Hun. Min. Spec., 1993
  • Odisha
    • Cuttack District
Mallick, B., Rautray, T. R., Nayak, P. K., Vijayan, V., Singh, P., Behera, R. C., ... & Choudhury, R. K. (2005, March). Characterisation of hot material erupted from Mahanadi riverbank using EDXRF and XRD techniques. In INDIAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE INDIAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE CULTIVATION OF SCIENCE-NEW SERIES- (Vol. 79, No. 3, p. 293). NOT KNOWN.
  • Campania
    • Naples
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
        • Monte Somma
          • Ercolano
Russo, M. & Preite, D. (2011): Nuove specie minerali al Monte Somma: IV. Mullite. Micro, 2/2011, 60-61
  • Lazio
    • Viterbo Province
      • Piansano
Burli, M., Nizi, L., Pucci, R., Signoretti, E (2010): Mullite et Cordierite nella cava di Cellere (VT), Il Cercapietre , 1-2 / 2010, pp. 41-48
  • Sardinia
    • Oristano Province
      • Mt. Arci
        • Marrubiu
Bortolozi G. (1986) - Mullite e Pseudobrookite del M. Arci (Or) - Riv. Mineral. Ital. , Milano, Fasc. 3, pag. 136
Bortolozi G. (1986) - Mullite e Pseudobrookite del M. Arci (Or) - Riv. Mineral. Ital. , Milano, Fasc. 3, pag. 136
  • Nagano
Matsubara et al (1998) Ganko-Gakkai Kou'en-Youshi, 34.
  • Makueni County
Ulianov, A., Kalt, A., Pettke, T. (2005) Hibonite, Ca (Al, Cr, Ti, Si, Mg, Fe2+)12 O19, in granulite xenoliths from the Chyulu Hills volcanic field, Kenya. European Journal of Mineralogy, 17:2, 343-356.
  • Limburg
    • Kerkrade
New Zealand
  • Bay of Plenty Region
    • Rotorua District
      • Mount Ngongotaha
Martin Stolworthy Collection
  • Otago Region
    • Clutha District
      • Clinton
Bishop, D.G. (1965) The Geology of the Clinton District South Otago, Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 2, 205-230.
  • Waikato Region
    • Taupo District
      • Atiamuri
Personal collection of Rod Martin
      • Lake Taupo
Collection of Rod Martin
Collection of RJ Martin; ko jansen
Thornton, J. (Ed.), The Micro-Scope, No. 41, February 2002
Essence of Microscope, 2004
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Kłodzko Co.
      • Gmina Nowa Ruda
        • Przygórze
          • Bolesław Mine
Ł. Kruszewski PXRD & EPMA data
      • Nowa Ruda
        • Słupiec Mine
Ciesielczukk, J., Kruszewski, Ł., Fabiańska, M.J., Misz-Kennan, M., Kowalski, A., Mysza, B., 2014: Efflorescences and gas composition emitted from the burning coal-waste dump in Słupiec, Lower Silesian Coal Basin, Poland. Proceedings of the International Symposium CEMC 2014, Skalský Dvůr, April 23-26th, 26-27
  • Silesian Voivodeship
    • Bytom City Co.
Kruszewski, Ł. (2018)(?): Geochemical Behavior of Trace Elements in Upper and Lower Silesian Basin Coal-Fire Gob Piles, Poland. Coal and Peat Fires, vol. 5, xx-xx (in review/correction); Ł. Kruszewski EPMA/PXRD data
    • Katowice City Co.
      • Wełnowiec
Pierwoła, J., Ciesielczuk, J., Misz-Kennan, M., Fabiańska, M.J., Bielińska, A., Kruszewski, Ł., 2018. Structure and thermal history of the Wełnowiec dump, Poland: A municipal dump rehabilitated with coal waste. Int. J. Coal Geol., 197, 1–19.
    • Mikołów Co.
      • Łaziska Górne
Lukasz Kruszewski 2005: Minerals arising in cause of underground fires of "Skalny" coal mine dump in Laziska, Upper Silesia.Mag. Thesis (unpublished)
    • Rybnik City Co.
Ciesielczuk, J., Misz-Kennan, M., Hower, J. C., & Fabiańska, M. J. (2014). Mineralogy and geochemistry of coal wastes from the Starzykowiec coal-waste dump (Upper Silesia, Poland). International Journal of Coal Geology, 127, 42-55.
    • Wodzisław Co.
      • Rydułtowy
        • ROW Ruch Rydułtowy Mine
Ł. Kruszewski PXRD and EPMA data
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
No reference listed
  • Krasnoyarsk Krai
Masaitis, V. L. (1998). Popigai crater: Origin and distribution of diamond‐bearing impactites. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 33(2), 349-359.
  • Košice Region
    • Michalovce Co.
Bacsó,Z.,Ďuďa,R.,1988: Metalogenéza a rudné formácie rudného poľa Remetské Hámre. Min.Slovaca,Bratislava, 3, 193-220p
    • Sobrance Co.
      • Remetské Hámre
[European Journal of Mineralogy 13:177-186]
South Africa
  • Free State
    • Lejweleputswa District
      • Boshof
Mathias, M., Siebert, J.C., and Rickwood, P.C. (1970): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 26, 75-123.
  • Andalusia
    • Almería
Robert A. Jenkins
  • Aragón
    • Teruel
      • Montalbán
- Calvo, M. (2008): Minerales de Aragón. Prames, Zaragoza. 463 pags.
      • Utrillas
-- Calvo, M. (2008): Minerales de Aragón. Prames, Zaragoza. 463 pags.
  • Sughd
    • Zeravshan Range
      • Yagnob River
Sharygin, V.V., Sokol, E.V. and Belakovskii, D.I. (2009): Fayalite-sekaninaite paralava from the Ravat coal fire (central Tajikistan). Russian Geology and Geophysics 50, 703-721.
Nasdala, L., & Pekov, I. V. (1993). Ravatite, C14HIO, a new organic mineral species from Ravat, Tadzhikistan. Eur. J. Mineral, 5, 699-705.
  • Scotland
    • Argyll and Bute
      • Isle of Mull
No reference listed
BMS Database
N L. Bowen, J W. Greig and E G. Zies. Mullite, a silicate of alumina. Jour Wash. Acad. Sci., 14, 183, 1924.
Smith, D.G.W. (1965) The chemistry and mineralogy of some emery-like rocks from Sithean Sluaigh, Strachur, Argyllshire. American Mineralogist 50: 1982-2022.; Livingstone, A. and Macpherson, H.G. (1983) Fifth supplementary list of British minerals (Scottish). Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 47, n° 342, p. 99-105.; BMS Database.
  • Idaho
    • Shoshone Co.
      • Goat Mountain District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
  • Illinois
    • Vermilion Co.
      • Danville
        • Hegeler
Piatak, N. M. & Seal, R. R., II (2010): Mineralogy and the release of trace elements from slag from the Hegeler Zinc smelter, Illinois (USA). Applied Geochemistry, 25, 302-320
  • New Jersey
    • Middlesex Co.
AmMin 10:152-155
  • Wyoming
    • Campbell Co.
      • Reno Junction
Gunnar Färber
Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization. Public Relations by Blytheweigh.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2019, except where stated. Most political location boundaries are © OpenStreetMap contributors. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: April 24, 2019 19:26:38 Page generated: April 24, 2019 17:23:33
Go to top of page