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About MulliteHide

(x ~ 0.4)
Colourless, white, yellow, pink, red, gray
6 - 7
Specific Gravity:
3.11 - 3.26
Crystal System:
Named after the discovery locality, the Isle of Mull, Scotland.
Synthetic mullite is well-known as a high-performance ceramic.

Compare 'meta-kaolinite', 'pseudomullite', and 'silicon spinel' - a synthetic phases being intermediate product of mullite formation from kaolinite.

Classification of MulliteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First published:

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
F : Nesosilicates with additional anions; cations in [4], [5] and/or only [6] coordination

52 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
2 : Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination

15 : Silicates of Aluminum

Physical Properties of MulliteHide

Transparent, Translucent
Colourless, white, yellow, pink, red, gray
6 - 7 on Mohs scale
Distinct on {010}
3.11 - 3.26 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.17 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of MulliteHide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.642 - 1.653 nβ = 1.644 - 1.655 nγ = 1.654 - 1.679
Measured: 20° to 50°, Calculated: 34° to 50°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.012 - 0.026
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r > v
X=Y= colorless
Z= rose-pink

Chemical Properties of MulliteHide


(x ~ 0.4)
IMA Formula:
Al4+2xSi2-2xO10-x (x ≈ 0.4)
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of MulliteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.5785(6) Å, b = 7.6817(7) Å, c = 2.8864(3) Å
a:b:c = 0.987 : 1 : 0.376
Unit Cell V:
168.03 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals prismatic to acicular.
On synthetic material. Structure is incommensurately modulated.

Crystal StructureHide

Unit Cell | Unit Cell Packed
2x2x2 | 3x3x3 | 4x4x4
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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0001059MulliteAngel R J, Prewitt C T (1986) Crystal structure of mullite: A re-examination of the average structure American Mineralogist 71 1476-148219860293
0001351MulliteAngel R J, McMullan R K, Prewitt C T (1991) Substructure and superstructure of mullite by neutron diffraction Model 1 Neutron American Mineralogist 76 332-34219910293
0001352MulliteAngel R J, McMullan R K, Prewitt C T (1991) Substructure and superstructure of mullite by neutron diffraction Model 2 X-ray American Mineralogist 76 332-34219910293
0001618MulliteBalzar D, Ledbetter H (1993) Crystal structure and compressibility of 3:2 mullite American Mineralogist 78 1192-119619930293
0001673MulliteFischer R X, Schneider H, Schmucker M (1994) Crystal structure of Al-rich mullite American Mineralogist 79 983-99019940293
0002492MulliteFischer R X, Schneider H (2000) Crystal structure of Cr-mullite American Mineralogist 85 1175-117920000293
0002749MulliteFischer R X, Schmucker M, Angerer P, Schneider H (2001) Crystal structures of Na and K aluminate mullites American Mineralogist 86 1513-151820010293
0002750MulliteFischer R X, Schmucker M, Angerer P, Schneider H (2001) Crystal structures of Na and K aluminate mullites American Mineralogist 86 1513-151820010293
0004280MullitePopovic J, Tkalcec E, Grzeta B, Kurajica S, Schmauch J (2007) Cobalt incorporation in mullite American Mineralogist 92 408-41120070293
0004281MullitePopovic J, Tkalcec E, Grzeta B, Kurajica S, Schmauch J (2007) Cobalt incorporation in mullite American Mineralogist 92 408-41120070293
0006888MulliteVoll D, Lengauer C, Beran A, Schneider H (2001) Infrared band assignment and structural refinement of Al-Si, Al-Ge, and Ga-Ge mullites European Journal of Mineralogy 13 591-60420010293
0006889MulliteVoll D, Lengauer C, Beran A, Schneider H (2001) Infrared band assignment and structural refinement of Al-Si, Al-Ge, and Ga-Ge mullites European Journal of Mineralogy 13 591-60420010293
0006890MulliteVoll D, Lengauer C, Beran A, Schneider H (2001) Infrared band assignment and structural refinement of Al-Si, Al-Ge, and Ga-Ge mullites European Journal of Mineralogy 13 591-60420010293
0006891MulliteVoll D, Lengauer C, Beran A, Schneider H (2001) Infrared band assignment and structural refinement of Al-Si, Al-Ge, and Ga-Ge mullites European Journal of Mineralogy 13 591-60420010293
0011005MulliteSaalfeld H, Gerlach H (1991) Solid solution and optical properties of (Al,Ge)-mullites Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie 195 65-731991synthetic0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
5.39 Å(50)
3.390 Å(100)
3.428 Å(95)
2.694 Å(40)
2.542 Å(50)
2.206 Å(60)
1.5242 Å(35)
For synthetic material.

Type Occurrence of MulliteHide

Synonyms of MulliteHide

Other Language Names for MulliteHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
17 photos of Mullite associated with HematiteFe2O3
14 photos of Mullite associated with PseudobrookiteFe2TiO5
7 photos of Mullite associated with SanidineK(AlSi3O8)
6 photos of Mullite associated with Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
4 photos of Mullite associated with TridymiteSiO2
3 photos of Mullite associated with SapphireAl2O3
3 photos of Mullite associated with TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
3 photos of Mullite associated with Osumilite(K,Na)(Fe2+,Mg)2(Al,Fe3+)3(Si,Al)12O30
2 photos of Mullite associated with PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
2 photos of Mullite associated with Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.AF.ChegemiteCa7(SiO4)3(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AF.BarwooditeMn2+6Nb5+(SiO4)2O3(OH)3Trig. 3 : P3
9.AF.05SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AF.10AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
9.AF.10KanonaiteMn3+Al(SiO4)OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
9.AF.15KyaniteAl2(SiO4)OTric. 1 : P1
9.AF.20Krieselite(Al,Ga)2(GeO4)(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
9.AF.23BoromulliteAl9BSi2O19Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
9.AF.25YoderiteMg(Al,Fe3+)3(SiO4)2O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.AF.30MagnesiostauroliteMg(Mg,Li)3(Al,Mg)18Si8O44(OH)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.AF.30StauroliteFe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.AF.30ZincostauroliteZn2Al9Si4O23(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.AF.35TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AF.40NorbergiteMg3(SiO4)(F,OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AF.45AlleghanyiteMn2+5(SiO4)2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.45Chondrodite(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.45ReinhardbraunsiteCa5(SiO4)2(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.45KumtyubeiteCa5(SiO4)2F2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.45HydroxylchondroditeMg5(SiO4)2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.50Humite(Mg,Fe2+)7(SiO4)3(F,OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
9.AF.50Unnamed (Ca-analogue of Humite)Ca7(SiO4)4F2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AF.55ClinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4F2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.55SonoliteMn2+9(SiO4)4(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.55HydroxylclinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4(OH)2Mon. 2/m
9.AF.60LeucophoeniciteMn2+7(SiO4)3(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.65RibbeiteMn2+5(SiO4)2(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AF.70JerrygibbsiteMn2+9(SiO4)4(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
9.AF.75WeliniteMn2+6(W6+,Mg)2(SiO4)2(O,OH)6Trig. 3 : P3
9.AF.85Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.AF.85MagnesiochloritoidMgAl2(SiO4)O(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.AF.90PoldervaartiteCaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
9.AF.90OlmiiteCaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide 2/m : B2/m mm2 : Cmc21

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

15.1AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
15.2KyaniteAl2(SiO4)OTric. 1 : P1
15.3SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
15.5PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1
15.6DickiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
15.7NacriteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
15.8KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Tric. 1 : P1
15.10HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4Mon. m : Bb
15.11Allophane(Al2O3)(SiO2)1.3-2 · 2.5-3H2OAmor.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Mullite in petrologyHide

An essential component of rock names highlighted in red, an accessory component in rock names highlighted in green.

References for MulliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Bowen, N.L., Greig, J.W., Zies, E.G. (1924) Mullite, a silicate of alumina. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences: 14: 183-191 .
Foshag, W.F. (1924) New minerals: new species. American Mineralogist: 9: 211-212.
Agrell, S.O., Smith, J.V. (1957) X-ray crystallography of mullite, sillimanite and praguite. Acta Crystallographica: 10: 761-761.
Brindley, G.W. and Nakahira, M. (1959) The kaolinite-mullite reaction series: I, Survey of outstanding problems. II, Metakaolin. III, The high-temperature phases. Journal of the American Ceramic Society: 42: 311-324.
Durovic, S. (1962) A statistical model for the crystal structure of mullite. Soviet Physics - Crystallography: 7: 271-278.
Ernst, W.G., Calvert, S.E. (1969) An experimental study of the recrystallization of porcelanite and its bearing on the origin of some bedded cherts: American Journal of Science: 267A: 114-133.
Cameron, W.E. (1977) Mullite: a substituted alumina. American Mineralogist: 62: 747-755.
Leonard, A.J. (1977) Structural analysis of the transition phases in the kaolinite-mullite thermal sequence. Journal of the American Ceramic Society: 60: 37-43.
Angel, R.J., Prewitt, C.T. (1986) Crystal structure of mullite: A re-examination of the average structure. American Mineralogist: 71: 1476-1482.
Srikrisna, K., Thomas, G., Martinez, R., Corral, M.P., de Aza, S., and Moya, J.S. (1990) Kaolinite-mullite reaction series: a TEM study. Journal of Materials Science: 25: 607-612.
Angel, R.J., McMullan, R.K., Prewitt, C.T. (1991) Substructure and superstructure of mullite by neutron diffraction. American Mineralogist: 76: 332-342.
Niven, M.L., Waters, D.J., Moore, J.M. (1991) The crystal structure of werdingite, (Mg,Fe)2Al12(Al,Fe)2Si4(B,Al)4O37, and its relationship to sillimanite, mullite, and grandidierite. American Mineralogist: 76: 246-256.
Kahn-Harari, A., Abolhassani, S., Michel, D., Mazerolles, L., Portier, R., Perez-Ramirez, J.G. (1991) Observation of ordering in silicon and germanium mullites. Journal of Solid State Chemistry: 90: 234-248.
Querol, X., Fernandez Turiel, J.L., Lopez Soler, A. (1994): The behaviour of mineral matter during combustion of Spanish subbituminous and brown coals. Mineralogical Magazine: 58: 119-133
Lee, S., Kim, Y.J., Moon, H.S. (1999) Phase transformation sequence from kaolinite to mullite investigated by an energy-filtering transmission electron microscope. Journal of the American Ceramic Society: 82: 2841-2848.
Voll, D., Lengauer, C., Beran, A., Schneider, H. (2001) Infrared band assignment and structural refinement of Al-Si, Al-Ge, and Ga-Ge mullites. European Journal of Mineralogy: 13: 591-604.
Voll, D., Angerer, P., Beran, A., and Schneider, H. (2002) A new assignment of IR vibrational modes in mullite. Vibrational Spectroscopy: 30: 237-243.
Rodriguez-Navarro, C., Cultrone, G., Sanchez-Navas, A., and Sbastian, E. (2003) TEM study of mullite growth after muscovite breakdown. American Mineralogist: 88: 713-724.
Birkenstock, J., Petrícek, V., Pedersen, B., Schneider, H., Fischer, R. X. (2015) The modulated average structure of mullite. Acta Crystallogr: B71: 358-368.
Fischer, R.X., Tikhonova, V., Birkenstock, J., Fischer, L.A., Herrmann, K., Mengel, K., Schneider, H. (2015) A new mineral from the Bellerberg, Eifel, Germany, intermediate between mullite and sillimanite. American Mineralogist: 100: 1493-1501.
Bost, N., Duraipandian, S., Guimbretière, G., Poirier, J. (2016) Raman spectra of synthetic and natural mullite. Vibrational Spectroscopy: 82: 50-52.
Lenz, S., Birkenstock, J., Fischer, L.A., Schneider, H., Fischer, R.X. (2020) Mullite-2c – a natural polytype of mullite. European Journal of Mineralogy: 32: 235–249.

Internet Links for MulliteHide

Localities for MulliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Tasmania
    • Central Highlands municipality
      • Apsley
Spry, A.H. and Solomon, M. (1964) Columnar buchites at Apsley, Tasmania. Q J Geol Soc Lond 120: 519-545.
    • Huon Valley municipality
      • Huon-Channel region
        • Weld River district
R Bottrill in prep
  • Burgenland
    • Oberpullendorf District
      • Kobersdorf
        • Pauliberg
U. Kolitsch, W. Postl, H.-P. Bojar and W. Trattner (2009): Die Mineralvorkommen im Basalt des Pauliberges. In: Autorenkollektiv (Red. M. A. Götzinger und P. Huber) (2009): Die Mineralien des Burgenlandes - Geologie, Mineralogie und mineralische Rohstoffe. – Wissenschaftliche Arbeiten aus dem Burgenland, Band 126, Amt der Burgenländischen Landesregierung, Abteilung 7 - Landesmuseum, Eisenstadt, 83-99.; Kolitsch, U., Postl, W., Bernhard, F., Bojar, H.-P., Trattner, W. (2019): 2152) Ägirin, Albit, Alunit, Baryt, Calcit, Chalkopyrit, Cordierit, Corkit, Cristobalit, Diopsid, Dolomit, Dravit, Fayalit, Fluorapatit, Gehlenit, Gips, Goethit, Hämatit, Hauyn, Jarosit, Kaolinit, Kupfer, Laihunit(?), Magnesit, Magnetit, Montmorillonit, Mullit, Natroalunit, Natrojarosit, Nephelin, Opal (Hyalit), Plumbojarosit, Phosphohedyphan, Pyrit, Pyromorphit, Pyrrhotin, Quintinit(?), Rhönit, Rutil, Sodalith, Todorokit, Topas, Tridymit und Uricit aus dem Steinbruch am Pauliberg bei Landsee, Burgenland. Pp. 310-319 in Walter, F. et al. (2019): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXVIII. Carinthia II, 209./129., 237-362.
  • Styria
    • Südoststeiermark District
      • Bad Gleichenberg
        • Wilhelmsdorf
Postl, W., Taucher, J. & Moser, B. (1996): Neue Mineralfunde im oststeirischen Vulkangebiet. Mitt. Abt. Miner. Landesmuseum Joanneum, 60/61, 3-76.
      • Klöch
Postl, W., Taucher, J. & Moser, B. (1996): Neue Mineralfunde im oststeirischen Vulkangebiet. Mitt. Abt. Miner. Landesmuseum Joanneum, 60/61, 3-76.; "Aus der Tiefe der Vulkane", Fritz-Jandl-Postl (2011)
  • Gansu
    • Jiuquan
      • Subei Co.
        • Gongpoquan ore field
Gansu Province Metallurgical and Geological Exploration Team No. 4 (1978): Geology and Prospecting 14(8), 20-23
Guangce Zeng, Baoming Pan, and Shangyue Shen (1993): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 13(1), 84-86
  • Shanxi
    • Yangquan
      • Kuang District
Querol, X.; Izquierdo, M.; Monfort, E.; Alvarez, E.; Font, O.; Moreno, T.; Alastuey, A.; Zhuang, X.; Lu, W.; Wang, Y. (2008): International Journal of Coal Geology 75, 93-104
Czech Republic
  • Central Bohemian Region
Zacek, V., Oplustil, S., Mayova, A. & Meyer, F. R. (1995): Die Mineralien von Kladno in Mittelböhmen, Tschechische Republik. Mineralien-Welt 6 (1), 13-30 (in German).
      • Libušin
David Parfitt collection; Hyrsl J., Korbel P.; Tschechien & Slowakei, Mineralien und Fundstellen. Bode Verlag, 2008. Page 268-273
  • Hradec Králové Region
    • Trutnov District
      • Radvanice
Jirásek, J.: Thermal Changes of the Rocks in the Dump Pile of the Kateřina Colliery in Radvanice (Eastern Bohemia). Ostrava: VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, Institute of Geological Engineering - 541, 2001. 69 p.
  • Ústí nad Labem Region
    • Most District
Ferry FEDIUK, Anna LANGROVÁ and Karel MELKA. 2003. "North Bohemian Porcellanites and their Mineral Composition: the Case of the Dobrčice Quarry, the Most Basin" GeoLines 15, p. 35-43. PDF:
  • New Valley Governorate
    • East Uweinat Desert
Gian Paolo Sighinolfi, Chiara Elmi, Romano Serra, and Gabriele Contini (2014): High density silica phases as evidence of small-scale hypervelocity impacts: the Gebel Kamil Crater (Egypt). Periodico di Mineralogia 83, 299-312.
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Haute-Loire
      • Le Puy-en-Velay
        • Espaly-Saint-Marcel
Barrier D, Pourtier G, Médard P (2004) Minéralogie du mont Denise (Haute-Loire). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs 83: 3-11.
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Tirschenreuth District
        • Kemnath
          • Waldeck
Pöllmann et al. (2007): Aufschluss 58, 227-233.
        • Pechbrunn
Weiss, S. (1990) Mineralfundstellen Atlas, Deutschland West. Weise Verlag, München, 320 pages.
        • Wiesau
          • Triebendorf
Weiss, S. (1990) Mineralfundstellen Atlas, Deutschland West. Weise Verlag, München, 320 pages.
  • Hesse
    • Kassel Region
      • Hersfeld-Rotenburg
        • Cornberg
Müller, G. (1967): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 14, 176-189.
  • Lower Saxony
    • Osnabrück District
      • Georgsmarienhütte
Schnorrer, G., Stahlmann, W., Mollenkamp, A. (2001): Sekundärmineralisation in den Hochofenschlacken des Hüttenwerkes in Georgsmarienhütte, heutige Georgsmarienhütte GmbH. Aufschluss 52, 99-108.
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Cologne
      • Aachen
        • Alsdorf
T. Witzke, F. de Wit, U. Kolitsch and G. Blaß (2015): Mineralogy of the Burning Anna I Coal Mine Dump, Alsdorf, Germany. Chapter 7, 203-240; in: Stracher, G. B., Prakash, A. and Sokol, E. V.: Coal and Peat Fires: A Global Perspective, Volume 3: Case Studies - Coal Fires, Elsevier.
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Ahrweiler District
      • Brohltal
        • Burgbrohl
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
    • Mayen-Koblenz District
      • Maifeld
        • Ochtendung
Personally collected by Günter Frenz
Lapis 1988(7+8), 70-72
      • Mendig
        • Bell
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
        • Mendig
Blass, G.; Graf, H.W., Neufunde von bekannten Fundorten (X), Mineralien-Welt 5/2, 43, 1994
Blass, G.; Graf, H.W., Neufunde von bekannten Fundorten (X), Mineralien-Welt 5/2, 43, 1994
          • Wingertsberg
Blass, G.; Graf, H.W., Neufunde von bekannten Fundorten (X), Mineralien-Welt 5/2, 43, 1994
      • Pellenz
        • Kruft
Blass, G.; Graf, H.W., Neufunde von bekannten Fundorten (X), Mineralien-Welt 5/2, 43, 1994
Leu, K. (2017): Unbekannte Fundstellen in der Eifel - der Tönchesberg bei Kruft, Mineralienwelt Vol. 28, 6, pp. 24-38
        • Nickenich
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
      • Vordereifel
        • Ettringen
Hentschel, G., Neufunde seltener Minerale im Laacher Vulkangebiet, Aufschluß 28, 129-133, 1977
    • Vulkaneifel District
      • Daun
        • Oberstadtfeld
Leu, K., Der Vulkanabbau "Auf´m Kopp" bei Oberstadtfeld in der Westeifel, Lapis 2/1995
        • Üdersdorf
Schäfer, H., Die Mineralien der Einschlüsse und Auswürflinge in den Schlacken des Emmelberges bei Üdersdorf / Eifel, Der Aufschluss 30, 273-282, 1979
Guth, G., Interessante Neufunde für den Basaltbruch Liley (Löley) bei Üdersdorf in der Westeifel Mineralien-Welt 2/2000
      • Gerolstein
        • Gerolstein
          • Roth
Blaß, G. & Schüller, W. (2012): Der Rother Kopf in der Vulkaneifel. Lapis, 37 (3), 20-29.
      • Kelberg
        • Drees
Schüller, W., Die Mineralien des Niveligsberges bei Drees in der Eifel, Der Aufschluß SB 33, 1990
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Mansfeld-Südharz
Gunnar Färber
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirgskreis
      • Oelsnitz
T. Witzke (1996): Die Minerale der brennenden Halde der Steinkohlengrube "Deutschland-schacht" in Oelsnitz bei Zwickau.- Aufschluss 47, 41-48
  • Thuringia
    • Ronneburg U deposit
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
  • Vas County
    • Celldömölk District
      • Celldömölk
Szakáll & Gatter. Hun. Min. Spec., 1993
  • Odisha
    • Anugul District
Mallick, B., Rautray, T. R., Nayak, P. K., Vijayan, V., Singh, P., Behera, R. C., ... & Choudhury, R. K. (2005, March). Characterisation of hot material erupted from Mahanadi riverbank using EDXRF and XRD techniques. In INDIAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE INDIAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE CULTIVATION OF SCIENCE-NEW SERIES- (Vol. 79, No. 3, p. 293). NOT KNOWN.
  • Campania
    • Naples
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
        • Monte Somma
          • Ercolano
Russo, M., and Preite, D. (2011) Nuove specie minerali al Monte Somma: IV. Mullite. Micro, 9, 2-2011, 60-61.
  • Lazio
    • Viterbo Province
      • Cellere
Burli, M., Nizi, L., Pucci, R., Signoretti, E (2010): Mullite et Cordierite nella cava di Cellere (VT), Il Cercapietre , 1-2 / 2010, pp. 41-48
  • Sardinia
    • Oristano Province
      • Marrubiu
Bortolozi G. (1986) - Mullite e Pseudobrookite del M. Arci (Or) - Riv. Mineral. Ital. , Milano, Fasc. 3, pag. 136
Bortolozi G. (1986) - Mullite e Pseudobrookite del M. Arci (Or) - Riv. Mineral. Ital. , Milano, Fasc. 3, pag. 136
  • Nagano Prefecture
Matsubara et al (1998) Ganko-Gakkai Kou'en-Youshi, 34.
  • Makueni County
Ulianov, A., Kalt, A., Pettke, T. (2005) Hibonite, Ca (Al, Cr, Ti, Si, Mg, Fe2+)12 O19, in granulite xenoliths from the Chyulu Hills volcanic field, Kenya. European Journal of Mineralogy, 17:2, 343-356.
  • Limburg
    • Kerkrade Municipality
New Zealand
  • Bay of Plenty Region
    • Rotorua District
      • Mount Ngongotaha
Martin Stolworthy Collection
  • Otago Region
    • Clutha District
      • Clinton
Bishop, D.G. (1965) The Geology of the Clinton District South Otago, Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 2, 205-230.
  • Waikato Region
    • Taupo District
      • Atiamuri
Personal collection of Rod Martin
      • Lake Taupo
Collection of Rod Martin
Collection of RJ Martin; ko jansen
Thornton, J. (Ed.), The Micro-Scope, No. 41, February 2002
Essence of Microscope, 2004
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Kłodzko County
      • Gmina Nowa Ruda
        • Przygórze
          • Bolesław Mine
Ł. Kruszewski PXRD & EPMA data
      • Nowa Ruda
        • Słupiec Mine
Ciesielczukk, J., Kruszewski, Ł., Fabiańska, M.J., Misz-Kennan, M., Kowalski, A., Mysza, B., 2014: Efflorescences and gas composition emitted from the burning coal-waste dump in Słupiec, Lower Silesian Coal Basin, Poland. Proceedings of the International Symposium CEMC 2014, Skalský Dvůr, April 23-26th, 26-27
  • Silesian Voivodeship
    • Bytom City County
Kruszewski, Ł. (2018)(?): Geochemical Behavior of Trace Elements in Upper and Lower Silesian Basin Coal-Fire Gob Piles, Poland. Coal and Peat Fires, vol. 5, xx-xx (in review/correction); Ł. Kruszewski EPMA/PXRD data
    • Dąbrowa Górnicza
Cabała, J.; Warchulski, R.; Rozmus, D.; Środek, D.; Szełęg, E. (2020) Pb-Rich Slags, Minerals, and Pollution Resulted from a Medieval Ag-Pb Smelting and Mining Operation in the Silesian-Cracovian Region (Southern Poland). Minerals 10, 28.
    • Katowice City County
      • Wełnowiec
Pierwoła, J., Ciesielczuk, J., Misz-Kennan, M., Fabiańska, M.J., Bielińska, A., Kruszewski, Ł., 2018. Structure and thermal history of the Wełnowiec dump, Poland: A municipal dump rehabilitated with coal waste. Int. J. Coal Geol., 197, 1–19.
    • Mikołów County
      • Łaziska Górne
Lukasz Kruszewski 2005: Minerals arising in cause of underground fires of "Skalny" coal mine dump in Laziska, Upper Silesia.Mag. Thesis (unpublished)
    • Rybnik City County
Ciesielczuk, J., Misz-Kennan, M., Hower, J. C., & Fabiańska, M. J. (2014). Mineralogy and geochemistry of coal wastes from the Starzykowiec coal-waste dump (Upper Silesia, Poland). International Journal of Coal Geology, 127, 42-55.
    • Wodzisław County
      • Rydułtowy
        • ROW Ruch Rydułtowy Mine
Ł. Kruszewski PXRD and EPMA data
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
No reference listed
  • Krasnoyarsk Krai
    • Taymyrsky Dolgano-Nenetsky District
Masaitis, V. L. (1998). Popigai crater: Origin and distribution of diamond‐bearing impactites. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 33(2), 349-359.
  • Košice Region
    • Michalovce District
      • Poruba pod Vihorlatom
Bacsó,Z.,Ďuďa,R.,1988: Metalogenéza a rudné formácie rudného poľa Remetské Hámre. Min.Slovaca,Bratislava, 3, 193-220p
    • Sobrance District
      • Remetské Hámre
[European Journal of Mineralogy 13:177-186]
South Africa
  • Free State
    • Lejweleputswa District
      • Boshof
Mathias, M., Siebert, J.C., and Rickwood, P.C. (1970): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 26, 75-123.
  • Andalusia
    • Almería
Robert A. Jenkins
  • Aragón
    • Teruel
      • Montalbán
- Calvo, M. (2008): Minerales de Aragón. Prames, Zaragoza. 463 pags.
      • Utrillas
-- Calvo, M. (2008): Minerales de Aragón. Prames, Zaragoza. 463 pags.
  • Castile-La Mancha
    • Albacete
      • Elche de la Sierra
Abad, I.; Sánchez-Gómez, M.; Reolid, M.; López Sánchez-Vizcaíno, V. (2019) Pyrometamorphic Rocks in the Molinicos Basin (Betic Cordillera, SE Spain): Insights into the Generation of Cordierite Paralavas. Minerals 2019, 9, 748.
  • Sughd
    • Zeravshan Range
      • Yagnob River
Sharygin, V.V., Sokol, E.V. and Belakovskii, D.I. (2009): Fayalite-sekaninaite paralava from the Ravat coal fire (central Tajikistan). Russian Geology and Geophysics 50, 703-721.
Nasdala, L., & Pekov, I. V. (1993). Ravatite, C14HIO, a new organic mineral species from Ravat, Tadzhikistan. Eur. J. Mineral, 5, 699-705.
  • Scotland
    • Argyll and Bute
      • Isle of Mull
No reference listed
BMS Database
N L. Bowen, J W. Greig and E G. Zies. Mullite, a silicate of alumina. Jour Wash. Acad. Sci., 14, 183, 1924.
Smith, D.G.W. (1965) The chemistry and mineralogy of some emery-like rocks from Sithean Sluaigh, Strachur, Argyllshire. American Mineralogist 50: 1982-2022.; Livingstone, A. and Macpherson, H.G. (1983) Fifth supplementary list of British minerals (Scottish). Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 47, n° 342, p. 99-105.; BMS Database.
  • Idaho
    • Shoshone Co.
      • Goat Mountain Mining District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
  • Illinois
    • Vermilion Co.
      • Danville
        • Hegeler
Piatak, N. M. & Seal, R. R., II (2010): Mineralogy and the release of trace elements from slag from the Hegeler Zinc smelter, Illinois (USA). Applied Geochemistry, 25, 302-320
  • New Jersey
    • Middlesex Co.
AmMin 10:152-155
  • Pennsylvania
    • Chester Co.
      • Warwick Township
        • Warwick (Saint Marys)
          • Hopewell Mines
Piatak, N. M., & Seal II, R. R. (2012). Mineralogy and environmental geochemistry of historical iron slag, Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Pennsylvania, USA. Applied geochemistry, 27(3), 623-643.
  • Wyoming
    • Campbell Co.
      • Reno Junction
Gunnar Färber
Mineral and/or Locality  
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