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This page kindly sponsored in memory of Laszlo Z. Valachi
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About MuscoviteHide

Muscovite from Northern Karelia in the window of XVII century.

Northern Karelia, Republic of Karelia, Russia
White to colorless, silvery-white, and tinged various colors by impurities.
Vitreous, Silky, Pearly
Specific Gravity:
2.77 - 2.88
Crystal System:
The earliest names attributable to muscovite include Muscovy Glass, Cat Silver, and Lapis Specularis (stone mirror); these names appearing in texts in the seventeenth century and before. The stand-alone name 'Muscovite' was used as early as 1794 by Johann Gottfried Schmeisser in his System of Mineralogy and is derived from the term "Muscovy glass," which was in common use by that time. Muscovy Province in Russia yielded sheet mica for a variety of uses. Muscovite and sometimes similar species were earlier called mica (Phillips and Kersey, 1706), glimmer (Phillips and Kersey, 1706), and isinglass (1747 according to OED) but all of these terms are still in use to some degree. It should be noted that mica, glimmer, and isinglass were also used for a variety of materials before these given dates and in those earlier times did not always indicate what would be a mineral, much less muscovite proper. Isinglass, for example, was originally used for a gelatinous bladder found in sturgeon.
Mica Group.

The most common of the Mica Group minerals, it is typically found as massively crystalline material in "books" or in flaky grains as a constituent of many rock types. It is clear with a pearly luster on cleavage faces, often having a sparkly look in rocks.
Several polytypes are known (see below); the most common one is the 2M1 polytype.

It can form a continuous series with celadonite and aluminoceladonite; intermediates are known as the variety phengite and K-deficient variants as illite.

May be confused with margarite and several lithium micas.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Muscovite.

Classification of MuscoviteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
C : Phyllosilicates with mica sheets, composed of tetrahedral and octahedral nets
Dana 7th ed.:

71 : PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
2 : Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
3 : Aluminosilicates of K

Pronounciation of MuscoviteHide

PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of MuscoviteHide

Vitreous, Silky, Pearly
Transparent, Translucent
White to colorless, silvery-white, and tinged various colors by impurities.
2½ on Mohs scale
Hardness Data:
2.5 parallel to [001], 4 perpendicular to [001]
Perfect on {001}.
On {110} and {010}.
2.77 - 2.88 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.83 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of MuscoviteHide

RI values:
nα = 1.552 - 1.576 nβ = 1.582 - 1.615 nγ = 1.587 - 1.618
Measured: 30° to 47°, Calculated: 38° to 42°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.035 - 0.042
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r > v weak
Weak when colored

Chemical Properties of MuscoviteHide

IMA Formula:
Common Impurities:

Age distributionHide

Recorded ages:
Mesoarchean to Neogene : 2890 Ma to 13.4 Ma - based on 80 recorded ages.

Crystallography of MuscoviteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M)
Space Group:
Space Group Setting:
Cell Parameters:
Unit Cell Volume (calc):
Monoclinic  Monoclinic  Trigonal 
2 - Sphenoidal 2/m - Prismatic 3 2 - Trapezohedral
B2  B2/b  P31 1 2
C2  C2/c   
a = 5.186 Å, b = 8.952 Å, c = 10.12 Å
β = 101.8°

a = 5.19 Å, b = 9.04 Å, c = 20.08 Å
β = 95.5°

a = 5.1963(4) Å, c = 16 Å
a:b:c = 0.579 : 1 : 1.13 a:b:c = 0.574 : 1 : 2.221 a:c = 1 : 3.079
V 459.89 ų
(Calculated from Unit Cell)
 V 937.77 ų
(Calculated from Unit Cell)
 V 374.14 ų
(Calculated from Unit Cell)

Crystallographic forms of MuscoviteHide

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Muscovite no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Muscovite no.12 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Edge Lines | Miller Indices | Axes

Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
10.01 Å(100)
5.02 Å(60)
4.48 Å(60)
4.46 Å(70)
3.35 Å(100)
3.21 Å(50)
2.59 Å(50)
2.56 Å(90)
Data given are for the -2M^1 polytype.

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Muscovite is common in many different rock types as a primary mineral.

Synonyms of MuscoviteHide

Other Language Names for MuscoviteHide

Low Saxon/Low German:Muskovit
Simplified Chinese:白云母

Varieties of MuscoviteHide

AdamsiteA variety of muscovite, classed as a margarodite.
Al-illite-hydromicaVariety of Illite very low in K and high in water.
AlurgiteName introduced by Breithaupt in 1865 and characterized by Penfield in 1893 (vide Knurr and Bailey, 1986). Placed by W. T. Schaller (1950) as an intermediate between leucophyllite (now a synonym of aluminoceladonite) and muscovite. A study of Knurr and Ba...
AmmersooiteA variety of Illite capable of fixing Potassium, from Dutch fields.
AstroliteSpherical aggregates composed of radiating tabular crystals.
AvaliteA chromian variety of Illite.
Originally described from Mt Avala, Belgrade, Serbia.
Barian MuscoviteA barium-rich variety of muscovite.
Barian-Chromian MuscoviteA barium- and chromium-bearing muscovite.
Barium-Vanadium-MuscoviteA barian vanadian variety of Muscovite.
BatcheloriteA green slaty mineral, originally described by W.F. Petterd (1910) from the Mt. Lyell mine, Tasmania. Re-analysis of visually identical material from the same locality by Bothwell and Moss (1957) showed it to be a slightly Cr-bearing muscovite, giving the...
ChacaltaîteA green chlorite-like varety of muscovite.
Chromian SericiteA chromium-bearing variety of sericite. See also fuchsite.
DamouriteVery fine-grained, compact muscovite - with a greasy feel, "serpentine-like," and often a fibrous appearance when viewed from a certain direction.
Ferroan muscoviteAn Fe(II)-bearing variety of muscovite.
FuchsiteGreenish, Cr-bearing variety of muscovite (trivalent Cr replaces Al in the crystal structure). Note that trivalent V can also cause a greenish colour in muscovite (cf. vanadian muscovite, roscoelite).
Compare mariposite, a Cr-bearing phengite.
GieseckitePseudomorphs of muscovite after an unknown mineral.
GilbertiteCompact variety of muscovite.
The original chemical analysis of material from Stenagwyn, Cornwall, indicated no potassium or sodium. There were major amounts of silica and alumina, and minor amounts of CaO, MgO, and FeO. Thomson seems to have doubted the...
IlliteMica Group .
Illite JadeA dense variety of illite with reddish banding (caused by microscopic inclusions of hematite), which is used for carving and as an ornamental stone. In addition to hematite, the material usually also contains small quantities of impurities such as quartz,...
LeverrieriteA kaolinite-group clay.
Originally reported from Saint-Etienne, Loire, Rhône-Alpes, France.
LiebeneriteMuscovite pseudomorphous after nepheline, possibly also after cordierite.
Lithium Muscovite (of Levinson)A lithian muscovite with 3-4% Li2O
MaripositeA greenish Cr-bearing "phengite".
See also fuchsite.
Nickeloan Chromian IlliteThe illite and a Ni-dominant trioctahedral mica are said to contain up to 22.8 wt.% NiO and up to 11.0 wt.% Cr2O3, which would be the largest as for world's micas at all.
OellacheriteA green to colorless, Ba-bearing variety of muscovite intermediate in chemical composition between true mica and brittle mica.
PersbergiteMuscovite pseudomorphous after nepheline.
PhengitePhengite is an aluminous true mica which contains a relatively high amount of tetrahedrally co-ordinated Si (>3.1 apfu). As the Si amount increases, additional octahedrally co-ordinated cations are necessary for charge balance. This is an uncommon conditi...
Pig's EggA pseudomorph of fine-grained muscovite ("sericite") after orthoclase, found in kaolinized granite.
Rubidian MuscoviteRubidium-bearing muscovite with Rb2O contents of 1 and more mass%. Usual rock forming mineral in late stages of the evolution of many granitic rare-metal (Ta,Be,Cs) natro-lithian pegmatites.
SchernikiteA pink variety of muscovite, described by Bowman (1902).
SericiteA term for a fine-grained white, pale green to oily greenish mica, mainly Muscovite (rarely Paragonite).
Star muscoviteMuscovite forming star-shaped crystal aggregates.
Especially nice specimens come from pegmatites in the Jenipapo district, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Vanadian MuscoviteA V-bearing variety of muscovite.
Intermediate member of the muscovite-roscoelite solid-solution range.
VerditeTrade name for a green ornamental stone, primarily an impure fuchsite mica originally from North Kaap river, Kaap Station, South Africa.
WilsoniteDescribed as an Mn-bearing "sericite" or muscovite pseudomorph after scapolite. Hey lists it as an aluminosilicate of Mg and K.
Zincian MuscoviteZn-bearing variety from the "Mixed Series" formation, Nežilovo, Macedonia. Associates, i.a., with ferricoronadite.

Relationship of Muscovite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
Celadonite FamilyA subgroup of the dioctahedral mica group.
ChromphylliteK(Cr,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
IlliteK0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
Montdorite(K,Na)2(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)5(Si4O10)2(OH,F)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
RoscoeliteK(V3+,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
ShirokshiniteKNaMg2(Si4O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
1,167 photos of Muscovite associated with QuartzSiO2
1,013 photos of Muscovite associated with AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
882 photos of Muscovite associated with AquamarineBe3Al2Si6O18
817 photos of Muscovite associated with FluoriteCaF2
652 photos of Muscovite associated with FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
415 photos of Muscovite associated with SpessartineMn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
392 photos of Muscovite associated with SchorlNa(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
384 photos of Muscovite associated with ScheeliteCa(WO4)
349 photos of Muscovite associated with MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
307 photos of Muscovite associated with Smoky QuartzSiO2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.EC.05MinnesotaiteFe2+3Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1 : P1
9.EC.05TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1 : P1
9.EC.9.EC.VoloshiniteRb(LiAl1.51.5)(Al0.5Si3.5)O10F2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.10PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1
9.EC.15CeladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Fe3+(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.15Montdorite(K,Na)2(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)5(Si4O10)2(OH,F)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.15RoscoeliteK(V3+,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.15ChromphylliteK(Cr,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.15FerroaluminoceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Al,Fe3+)(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.15FerroceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Fe3+,Al)(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20AnniteKFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20HendricksiteKZn3(Si3Al)O10(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20NorrishiteKLiMn3+2(Si4O10)O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20PolylithioniteKLi2Al(Si4O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.20FluorotetraferriphlogopiteKMg3(Fe3+Si3O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20Wonesite(Na,K)(Mg,Fe,Al)6((Al,Si)4O10)2(OH,F)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20TrilithioniteK(Li1.5Al1.5)(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.20ShirokshiniteKNaMg2(Si4O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20ShirozuliteKMn2+3(Si3Al)O10(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20AspidoliteNaMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20FluorophlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20Suhailite(NH4)Fe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20YangzhumingiteKMg2.5(Si4O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20OrloviteKLi2Ti(Si4O10)OFMon. 2 : B2
9.EC.20OxyphlogopiteK(Mg,Ti,Fe)3[(Si,Al)4O10](O,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.35Anandite(Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3((Si,Al,Fe)4O10)(S,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.35BityiteLiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.35ClintoniteCa(Mg,Al)3(Al3SiO10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.35Oxykinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Mg,Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(O,OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.35FluorokinoshitaliteBaMg3(Al2Si2O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.40Beidellite(Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.40Kurumsakite(Zn,Ni,Cu)8Al8V5+2Si5O35 · 27H2O (?)Orth.
9.EC.40Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.40NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.40VolkonskoiteCa0.3(Cr,Mg,Fe)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.40Yakhontovite(Ca,Na)0.5(Cu,Fe,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 3H2OMon.
9.EC.45SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.45SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.45SpadaiteMgSiO2(OH)2 · H2O (?)
9.EC.45SwineforditeLi(Al,Li,Mg)4((Si,Al)4O10)2(OH,F)4 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.45ZincsiliteZn3(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.45FerrosaponiteCa0.3(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.50VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2OMon. 2/m
9.EC.55Baileychlore(Zn,Fe2+,Al,Mg)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8Tric. 1
9.EC.55ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.55Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2/m
9.EC.55FranklinfurnaceiteCa2Fe3+Mn2+3Mn3+(Zn2Si2O10)(OH)8Mon. 2 : B2
9.EC.55DonbassiteAl4.33(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2 : B2
9.EC.55GlagoleviteNa(Mg,Al)6(AlSi3O10)(OH,O)8Tric. 1 : P1
9.EC.60AliettiteCa0.2Mg6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.60Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2OOrth.
9.EC.60HydrobiotiteK(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.60Karpinskite(Ni,Mg)2Si2O5(OH)2 (?)Mon.
9.EC.60Rectorite(Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2OMon.
9.EC.60TosuditeNa0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2OMon. 2 : B2
9.EC.60BrinrobertsiteNa0.3Al4(Si4O10)2(OH)4 · 3.5 H2OMon.
9.EC.70BurckhardtitePb2(Fe3+Te6+)[AlSi3O8]O6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
9.EC.75Ferrisurite(Pb,Ca)2.4Fe3+2(Si4O10)(CO3)1.7(OH)3 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.75Niksergievite(Ba,Ca)2Al3(AlSi3O10)(CO3)(OH)6 · nH2OMon.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

71.2.2a.4RoscoeliteK(V3+,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
71.2.2a.5Glauconite(K,Na)(Fe3+,Al,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
71.2.2a.6CeladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Fe3+(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
71.2.2a.10Montdorite(K,Na)2(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)5(Si4O10)2(OH,F)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

16.3.1LithositeK6Al4Si8O25 · 2H2OMon.
16.3.3KalsiliteKAlSiO4Hex. 6 2 2 : P63 2 2
16.3.4LeuciteK(AlSi2O6)Tet. 4/m : I41/a
16.3.5MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)Tric. 1
16.3.6OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
16.3.7SanidineK(AlSi3O8)Mon. 2/m : B2/m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Muscovite in petrologyHide

References for MuscoviteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Woodard, H.H. (1951) The Geology and Paragenesis of the Lord Hill pegmatite, Stoneham, Maine. American Mineralogist: 36: 869-883.
Heinrich, E.W., Levinson, A.A. (1953) Studies in the mica group: mineralogy of the rose muscovites. American Mineralogist: 38: 25-49.
Yoder, H.S., Eugster, H.P. (1955) Synthetic and natural muscovites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 8: 225-280.
Yoder, H.S., jr. (1957): Experimental studies on micas: A synthesis. Clays and Clay Minerals 6, 42-60.
Nicol, A.W. (1964) Topotactic transformation of muscovite under mild hydrothermal conditions. Clays and Clay Minerals: 12: 11-19.
Güven, N. (1967) The crystal structure of 2M1 phengite and 2M1 muscovite. Carnegie Inst. Washington Year Book: 66: 487-492.
Güven, N., Burnham, C. W. (1967): The crystal structure of 3T muscovite. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, 125, 163-183.
Brearley, A.J. (1986) An electron optical study of muscovite breakdown in pelitic xenoliths during pyrometamorphism. Mineralogical Magazine: 50: 385-397.
Guggenheim, S., Chang, Y.-H., and Koster van Groos, A.F. (1987) Muscovite dehydroxylation: High-temperature studies. American Mineralogist: 72: 537-550.
Guidotti, C.V., Mazzoli, C., Sassi, F.P., Blencoe, J.G. (1992) Compositional controls on the cell dimensions of 2M1 muscovite and paragonite. European Journal of Mineralogy: 4: 283-292.
Gaines, R.V., Skinner, H.C.W., Foord, E.E., Mason, B., Rosenzweig, A. (1997) Dana's New Mineralogy: The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: 1448.
Rieder, M., Cavazzani, G., D'Yakonov, Y.S., Frank-Kamenetskii, V.A., Gottardi, G., Guggenheim, S., Koval, P.V., Müller, G., Neiva, A.M.R., Radaslovich, E.W., Robert, J.-L., Sassi, F.P., Takeda, H., Weiss, Z., Wones, D.R. (1998) Nomenclature of the micas. The Canadian Mineralogist: 36: 905-912.
Guidotti, C.V., Sassi, F.P., Comodi, P., Zanazzi, P.F., Blencoe, J.G. (2000): The contrasting responses of muscovite and paragonite to increasing pressure: petrological implications. Canadian Mineralogist 38, 707-712.
Busigny, V., Cartigny, P., Philippot, P., Javoy, M. (2003) Ammonium quantification in muscovite by infrared spectroscopy. Chemical Geology: 198: 21-31.

Internet Links for MuscoviteHide

Significant localities for MuscoviteHide

Showing 21 significant localities out of 28,971 recorded on mindat.org.

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • La Vallée-de-l'Or RCM
        • Réservoir-Dozois
Olivier Langelier Collection
  • Áncash
    • Pallasca Province
      • Pampas District
Mineralogical Record 28, No. 4 (1997); collections of Rock Currier, Jack Crowley, Jaroslav Hyrsl and Alfredo Petrov.
  • Valais
    • Martigny
      • Mont Chemin mining district
  • California
[Phengite var: Mariposite] Bowen, O.E., Jr. & C.H. Gray, Jr. (1957), Mines and mineral deposits of Mariposa County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology: 53(1&2): 34-343; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 425.
    • San Luis Obispo Co.
      • Santa Lucia Mts (Santa Lucia Range)
        • San Simeon
Ron Layton collection
  • Connecticut
    • Fairfield County
      • Redding (Reading)
        • Branchville
Cameron et al (1954) USGS Prof Paper 255; Shainin (1946); Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
    • Hartford Co.
      • Glastonbury
        • South Glastonbury
Rocks & Min 74:121 (1999); Rocks and Minerals (1999) 74:110-121
    • Middlesex Co.
      • East Hampton (Chatham)
LMSCC Newsletter, Sept. 2005 Harold Moritz collection, 1991-2009
      • Haddam
        • Haddam Neck
Mineralogical Magazine 1902 13 : 97-121.; Scovil, Jeffrey A. (1992): Famous Mineral Localities: the Gillette Quarry, Haddam Neck, Connecticut. (Mineralogical Record, 23(1):19-28.); Cameron, Eugene N. and others. (1954) PEGMATITE INVESTIGATIONS 1942-45 NEW ENGLAND. U.S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper 255.
[var: Schernikite] Adam Berlutti collection
      • Portland
        • Collins Hill
          • Strickland pegmatite (Strickland-Cramer Quarry; Strickland-Cramer Mine; Strickland-Cramer Feldspar-Mica Quarries)
Cameron, Eugene N., Larrabee, David M., McNair, Andrew H., Page, James T., Stewart, Glenn W., and Shainin, Vincent E. (1954): Pegmatite Investigations 1942-45 New England; USGS Professional Paper 255: 333-338.; Sterrett, Douglas B. (1923), Mica Deposits Of The United States, USGS Bulletin 740: 65-67.
Januzzi, Ronald. (1976), Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. Taylor Associates/Mineralogical Press, Danbury.
    • New Haven Co.
Anthony Scalzi collection
  • Illinois
    • Calhoun Co.
      • Gilead
[var: Illite] GSA Bulletin; August 2001; v. 113; no. 8; p. 1092-1104
  • Maine
    • Sagadahoc Co.
      • Topsham
[var: Schernikite] Cliff Trebilcock collection; Clara Brennan, Samuel M. Cameron, and Mona-Liza C. Sirbescu (2016) Crystallization of the Fisher Quarry Pegmatite, Sagadahoc Co., Maine: Preliminary Insights from Fluid Inclusions. in Second Eugene E. Foord Pegmatite Symposium July 15-19, 2016 Colorado School of Mines campus, Golden, Colorado
  • North Carolina
    • Catawba Co.
      • Hickory
K. Wood collection
    • Mitchell Co.
      • Spruce Pine Mining District
        • Spruce Pine
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
  • Pennsylvania
    • Delaware Co.
      • Middletown Township
Gordon, Mineralogy of Pennsylvania, 1922 p. 190
  • South Dakota
    • Pennington Co.
      • Keystone Mining District
        • Keystone
Dana 6: 1088; Rocks & Minerals: 10: 121-122,146-147.; USGS Bull 380D; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Norton, James J. (1964) Pegmatites and other Precambrian Rocks in the Southern Black Hills; Geology and mineral deposits of some pegmatites in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota. USGS Professional Paper 297E.
  • Texas
    • Burnet Co.
F Roberts, 2006
Mineral and/or Locality  
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