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5 - 6
Member of:
For Neptune, Roman god of the sea, for close association at type locality with aegirine (named after Aegir, a Scandinavian sea god).

Classification of Neptunite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
H : Transitional structures between phyllosilicate and other silicate units

70 : INOSILICATES Column or Tube Structures
4 : Column or Tube Structures with linked chains forming cages

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
9 : Silicates of Ti

Physical Properties of Neptunite

Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Deep bloodred in splinters
Hardness (Mohs):
5 - 6
on {110}
3.19 - 3.23 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.24 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Neptunite

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.690 - 1.691 nβ = 1.693 - 1.700 nγ = 1.719 - 1.736
Measured: 36° to 49°, Calculated: 36° to 56°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.029 - 0.045
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r < v strong
X= pale yellow
Y= yellow-orange
Z= red-orange to red-brown

Chemical Properties of Neptunite

IMA Formula:
Elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of Neptunite

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
m - Domatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 16.427(2) Å, b = 12.478(2) Å, c = 9.975(1) Å
β = 115.56(1)°
a:b:c = 1.316 : 1 : 0.799
Unit Cell Volume:
V 1,844.54 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Prismatic crystals
Interpenetrant on {301}

Crystallographic forms of Neptunite

Crystal Atlas:
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Click on an icon to view
Neptunite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Neptunite no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Neptunite no.3 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Neptunite no.16 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by

Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

Type Occurrence of Neptunite

Relationship of Neptunite to other Species

Forms a series with Manganoneptunite (see here)
Member of:
Other Members of Group:
Structurally related to group(s):
9.EH.10GrumantiteNa(HSi2O5) · H2O
14.9.3LintisiteLiNa3Ti2(Si2O6)2O2 · 2H2O
14.9.7OhmiliteSr3(Ti,Fe3+)(Si4O12)(O,OH) · 2-3H2O
14.9.12Joaquinite-(Ce)NaBa2Ce2FeTi2[Si4O12]2O2(OH,F) · H2O
14.9.13Orthojoaquinite-(Ce)NaBa2Ce2FeTi2[Si4O12]2O2(O,OH) · H2O
14.9.14StrontiojoaquiniteSr2Ba2(Na,Fe)2Ti2[Si4O12]2O2(O,OH)2 · H2O
14.9.15Bario-orthojoaquinite(Ba,Sr)4Fe2Ti2[Si4O12]2O2 · H2O
14.9.16Strontio-orthojoaquinite(Na,Fe)2Sr2Ba2Ti2[Si4O12]2O2(O,OH)2 · H2O
14.9.19Delindeite(Na,K)2(Ba,Ca)2(Ti,Fe,Al)3(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2 · 2H2O
14.9.25TisinaliteNa3H3(Mn,Ca,Fe)TiSi6(O,OH)18 · 2H2O
14.9.38KoashviteNa6(Ca,Mn)(Ti,Fe)Si6O18 · H2O

Other Names for Neptunite

Name in Other Languages:
Simplified Chinese:柱星叶石
Traditional Chinese:柱星葉石

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Neptunite

Reference List:
Flink, G. (1893): Om några mineral från Grönland. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholms Förhandlingar. 15, 195-208;

Hlawatsch, C. (1909), Bemerkungen zum Aragonit von Rohitsch, Natrolit, und Neptunit von S. Benito: Tschermaks Mitt.: Band 28, pp. 293-296, 1909.

Bradley, W.M. (1909), On the analysis of the mineral neptunite from San Benito County, California: Am. Jour. Sci., 4th. Series: 28: 15-16; & Zeitschr. Kristallographie, band 46: 516-517 (1909).

Ford, William Ebenezer (1909), Neptunite crystals from San Benito, California: Am. Jour. Sci., 4th. Series: 27: 235-240; …Zeitschr. Kristallographie, Band 46: 321-325 (1909).

Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1911), Notes on neptunite: USGS Bull. 490: 55-57.

Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1911), Krystallographische Notizen ueber Albit, Phenakit, und Neptunit: Zeitschr. Kristallographie, Band 48: 550-558; …USGS Bull. 490: 53-56 (1911).

Berry, Leonard G. (1963b), Neptunite: unit cell and X-ray powder data: Canadian Mineralogist:7: 679-681.

Cannillo, E., F. Mazzi & G. Rossi (1966), The crystal structure of neptunite: Acta Crystallographica: 21: 200-208.

Bancroft, G.M., R.G. Burns & A.G. Maddock (1967), Oxidation state of iron in neptunite from Mossbauer spectroscopy: Acta Crystallographica: 22: 394-395.

Laird, J. & A.L. Albee (1972), Chemical composition and physical, optical, and structural properties of benitoite, neptunite and joaquinite: American Mineralogist: 57: 85-102.

Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen (1982): 30: 237-247.

Physics and Chemistry of Minerals (1991): 18: 199.

American Mineralogist (1993): 78: 237.

Petersen, O. V & Johnsen, O. (2005): Minerals first described from Greenland. Canadian Mineralogist, Special Publication. 8, 184p

Internet Links for Neptunite URL:
Please feel free to link to this page.
The following Neptunite specimens are currently listed for sale on

Localities for Neptunite

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
  • New South Wales
    • Darling Co.
      • Barraba
Slansky, E., Glen, R.A. (1981) Neptunite from the Woodsreef Serpentinite, New South Wales: A New Occurrence (A Preliminary Communication), Geological Survey of New South Wales, GS1981/231. Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen 30, 237-247.
  • Minas Gerais
    • Poços de Caldas alkaline complex
      • Poços de Caldas
ATENCIO, D., COUTINHO, J.M.C., ULBRICH, M.N.C., VLACH, S.R.F., RASTVETAEVA, R.K. & PUSHCHAROVSKY, D.Yu. (1999) Hainite from Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Canadian Mineralogist, 37, 91-98.
  • Paraná
    • Tijucas do Sul
      • Morro Redondo complex
Vilalva, F.C.J., and Vlach, S.R.F. (2010): Mineralogical Magazine 74(4), 645-658
  • Santa Catarina
G Traversa et al (1994) Petrology and Mineral Chemistry of the Alkaline District of Lages, SC, Brazil. Geochem Brazil 8:179-214
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Labrador
Curtis, L.W. & Currie, K.L. (1977) Geology and petrology of the Red Wine complex, Central Labrador. GSC Bulletin 287, 61p. + maps
William Heinrich, E. & Quon, Shi H. (1963): Neptunite from Seal Lake, Labrador. Canadian Mineralogist 7, 650-654. ; Nickel, E.H., J.F. Rowland, and D.J. Charette (1964) Niobophyllite - the niobium analogue of astrophyllite; a new mineral from Seal Lake, Labrador. Can. Mineral., 8, 40-52.
\"Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences,\" G.J. Orris and R.I. Grauch, Open File Report 02-189, U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, 2002.; GSC database locality No. 4100
GSC database; GSC database locality No. 4101; Cámara, F., Sokolova, E., Hawthorne, F. C., Rowe, R., Grice, J. D., & Tait, K. T. (2013). Veblenite, K2〈 2Na (Fe2+ 5Fe3+ 4Mn2+ 7〈) Nb3Ti (Si2O7) 2 (Si8O22) 2O6 (OH) 10 (H2O) 3, a new mineral from Seal Lake, Newfoundland and Labrador: mineral description, crystal structure, and a new veblenite Si8O22 ribbon. Mineralogical Magazine, 77(7), 2955-2974.
  • Québec
    • Montérégie
      • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
        • Mont Saint-Hilaire
XRD, WDS Can. Museum of Nature data
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Kaiserstuhl
      • Bötzingen
Uwe Kolitsch (SXRD- and EDS-analysis on material collected by Bernd Gassmann, to be published)
Greenland (TL)
  • Kujalleq
    • Narsaq
      • Igaliku (Igaliko)
        • Narsaarsuk Plateau
Flink, G. (1893): Om några mineral från Grönland. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholms Förhandlingar. 15, 195-208; Petersen, O. V & Johnsen, O. (2005): Minerals first described from Greenland. Canadian Mineralogist, Special Publication. 8, 184p.
Petersen, O.V. (2001): List of all minerals identified in the Ilímaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland. Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin. 190, 25-33
        • Kangerluarsuk Fjord (Kangerdluarssuq Fjord)
          • Head of Kangerluarsuk
            • Lilleelv
Danø, M., Sørensen, H. (1959): An examination of the rare minerals from the Nepheline Syenites of south west Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland.162, Nr.5, Reitzels Forlag, København
          • Qeqertaussaq Island
Soerensen, H. (1962): On the occurrence of Steenstrupine in the Ilimaussaq massif, southwest Greenland, Meddelelser om Groenland, Reitzels Forlag Koebenhavn
Friis, H., Balic-Zunic, T, Pekov, I., Peterson, O. (2004): Kuannersuite-(Ce), a new member of the Apatite-group, from the Ilimaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland, Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 42, 95-106
Petersen, O. V. & Johnsen, O. (2005): Mineral species first described from Greenland. Canadian Mineralogist, Special publication no. 8.
Metcalf-Johansen, J. (1977): Willemite from the Ilimaussaq alkaline Intrusion. Mineralogical Magazine. 41, 71-75
Petersen, O.V., Giester, G., Brandstätter, F., Niedermayr, G. (2002): Nabesite, a new mineral species from the Ilimaussaq alkaline complex. Canadian Mineralogist. 40, 173-181
        • Taseq area
Found by Frank de Wit (2008)
        • Tunulliarfik Fjord (Tunugdliarfik)
Bøggild, O.B. (1953): The Mineralogy of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Reitzels Forlag København. Bd. 149. Nr. 3. 445 pages.; Sørensen, H. (1962): On the occurence of Steenstrupine in the Ilimaussaq massif, southwest Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland. 167. Reitzels Forlag København. 251 p.
Bøggild, O.B. (1953): The Mineralogy of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bd. 149. Nr. 3. 445 pages. (p.256)
Bøggild, O.B. (1953): The Mineralogy of Greenland. Meddelelser om Grønland, Bd. 149. Nr. 3. 445 pages. (p.256)
  • Baranya Co.
    • Mecsek Mts
      • Hosszúhetény
collector: Csaba Papp, XRD: Béla Fehér, WDS: Norbert Zajzon
  • Co. Louth
    • Carlingford
Nockolds, S. R. (1950): The occurrence of neptunite and eudialyte in quartz-bearing syenites from Barnavave, Carlingford, Ireland. Mineralogical Magazine 29, 27-33.
  • Al Jabal al Gharbi District
    • Gharyan (Gharian)
Lustrino, M., Cucciniello, C., Melluso, L., Tassinari, C. C., dè Gennaro, R., & Serracino, M. (2012). Petrogenesis of Cenozoic volcanic rocks in the NW sector of the Gharyan volcanic field, Libya. Lithos, 155, 218-235.
  • Gobi Desert
J Kynický, C Xu, J Mašek, O Jaroš, H Káňová (2009) Arfvedsonite pegmatites of Khan Bogd massif, Mongolia: Zr mineralization. pp222-224 in Czech
Jindrich Kynicky
  • Hovd Aimag (Khovd Aimag)
    • Altai Mts
      • Khaldzan Buragtag massif
U. Kempe, J. Götze, S. Dandar and D. Habermann (1999) Magmatic and Metasomatic Processes During Formation of the Nb-Zr-REE Deposits Khaldzan Buregte and Tsakhir (Mongolian Altai): Indications from a Combined CL-SEM Study. Mineralogical Magazine 63:165-177.
  • Khomas Region
    • Windhoek District
      • Aris
Blass, G. & Tremmel, G. (2014): Neptunit und weitere neue Mineralien aus den Phonolith-Steinbrüchen von Aris, Windhoek. Mineralien-Welt 25 (1), 76-83 (in German); Kolitsch, U., Blaß, G., Jahn, S., Cámara, F., von Bezing, L., Wartha, R. R., Tremmel, G., Sturla, M., Cerea, P., Skebo, M. and Ciriotti, M. E. (2016): Aris - mineralogy of the famous alkaline phonolite. AMI - Associazione Micromineralogica Italiana, Cremona, Italy, 95 pp.
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Buriatia (Buryatia)
        • Mama River Basin
          • Maigunda River
Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
      • Aldan Shield
        • Aldan
          • Inagli Massif
N.V. Chukanov et al.: Zap. Vses. Mineral. Obshch. 133(1):59-72 (2004)
  • Northern Caucasus Region
    • Kabardino-Balkarian Republic
      • Baksan Valley
        • Upper Chegem volcanic caldera (Verkhnechegemskaya caldera)
          • Lakargi Mt.
Zadov, A.E., Gazeev, V.M., Karimova, O.V., Pertsev, K.N., Pekov, I.V., Galuskin, E.V., Galuskina, I.O., Gurbanov, A.G., Belakovsky, D.I., Borisovsky, S.E., Kartashev, P.M., Ivanova, A.G., Yakubovich, O.V. (2011): Magnesioneptunite KNa2Li(Mg,Fe)2Ti2Si8O24 - a new mineral of the neptunite group. Zapiski Rossiiskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva (Proceedings of the Russian Mineralogical Society), 140(1), 57-66 (in Russian). English translation: Geology of Ore Deposits, 53, 775-782.
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaja Oblast'
      • Kola Peninsula
        • Khibiny Massif
PEKOV, I.V. & NIKOLAEV, A.P. (2013) Minerals of the pegmatites and hydrothermal assemblages of the Koashva deposit (Khibiny, Kola Peninsula, Russia). Mineralogical Almanac 189(2), 7-65.
        • Lovozero Massif
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Sorokhtina N.V., Voloshin A.V., Pakhomovskii Ya.A., Selivanova E.A. (2004) The first find of daqingshanite-(Ce) on Kola peninsula, - Trudy 1 Fersmanovskoi Nauchnoi Sessii Kolskogo Otdeleniya VMO, Apatity,pt.1, pp. 34-36 (in Russ.)
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
          • Seidozero Lake
Pekov, I. et al (2003): New Data on Minerals: 38: 20-33.
Pavel M. Kartashov data; Semenov E.I. (1972) Mineralogy of Lovozero alkaline massif, - Moscow, Nauka, p. 308 (in Rus.)
Arzamastseva, L.V., Pakhomovsky, Ya.A. [Арзамасцева, Л.В., Пахомовский Я.А.] (1999): Mineral associations in rocks of Niva agpaitic intrusion (Kola Peninsula) as indicators of its forming conditions [Минеральные ассоциации пород агпаитовой интрузии Нива (Кольский Полуостров) как индикаторы условий ее образования]. Zap. VMO [Зап. ВМО], 128, 6, 1-16 (in Russian); Arzamastsev, A.A., Belyatsky, B.V., Arzamastseva, L.V. (2000): Agpaitic magmatism in the northeastern Baltic Shield: a study of the Niva intrusion, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Lithos, 51, 1, 27-46.
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Lučenec Co.
Huraiová, M., Konečný, P., Holický, I., Nemec, O., Milovská, S., Hurai, V. (2017): Late-magmatic neptunite in composite peralkaline granite syenite nodules within a Pleistocene basalt (Bulhary, Slovakia). Periodico di Mineralogia, 86, 1-17
  • Region of Republican Subordination
    • Tien Shan Mtn
      • Alai Range (Alayskiy)
Agakhanov, A.A., Pautov, L.A., Uvarova, Y.A., Sokolova, E.V., Hawthorne, F.C., Karpenko, V.Yu. (2005): Senkevichite, CsKNaCa2TiO[Si7O18(OH)], a new mineral. New Data on Minerals, 40, 11-16; Agakhanov A.A., Pautov L.A., Karpenko V.Yu., Bekenova G.K., Uvarova Y.A. (2011) Orlovite, KLi2 TiSi4 O11F, a new mineral of the mica group New Mineral Data 46:13-19; Agakhanov, A.A., Pautov, L.A., Sokolova, E., Hawthorne, F.C., Karpenko, V.Yu., Siidra, O.I., Muftakhov, V.A. (2016): Odigitriaite, CsNa5Ca5[Si14B2O38]F2, a new cesium borosilicate mineral from the Darai-Pioz alkaline massif, Tajikistan: Description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 80, (in press).
  • California
    • San Benito Co.
      • Diablo Range
        • New Idria District
          • Picacho Peak
            • Clear Creek area
              • Hernandez
                • Clear Creek; William S. Wise (1982) Strontiojoaquinite and bario-orthojoaquinite: two new members of the joaquinite group . American Mineralogist 67:809-816.
Joseph F. Cooper Jr., Gail E. Dunning, Ted A.Hadley (2003) Minerology of the Victor Claim, Clear Creek Area, New Idria District, San Benito County, California.
          • San Benito Mountain Natural Area
            • San Benito Peak (San Benito Mountain)
William S. Wise (1982) Strontiojoaquinite and bario-orthojoaquinite: two new members of the joaquinite group . American Mineralogist 67:809-816.
          • San Benito River headwaters area
            • Dallas Gem Mine area
Louderback, George Davis & Walter C. Blasdale (1907), Benitoite, a new California gem mineral, with chemical analysis by Walter C. Blasdale: University of California, Department of Geological Sciences Bulletin: 5: 149-153; Arnold, Ralph (1908), Notes on the occurrence of the recently described gem material, benitoite: Science, new series: 27: 312-314; Ford, William Ebenezer (1909), Neptunite crystals from San Benito, California: American Journal of Science, 4th. Series: 27: 235-240; Louderback, George Davis & Walter C. Blasdale (1909), Benitoite, its mineralogy, paragenesis and mode of occurrence: University of California, Department of Geological Sciences Bulletin: 5: 354; Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1911d), Notes on neptunite: USGS Bulletin 490: 55-57; Buttgenbach, H. (1937-38), Sur un crystal de neptunite: Soc. Geol.. de Belgique Liege Annales: 61: 324-325; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 102; Wise, W.S & Gill, R.H. (1977): Minerals of the Benitoite Gem mine. Mineralogical Record 8, 442-452; William S. Wise (1982) Strontiojoaquinite and bario-orthojoaquinite: two new members of the joaquinite group . American Mineralogist 67:809-81
              • North of the Dallas Gem Mine
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 467.
  • Montana
    • Meagher Co.
Chakhmouradian A.R., Mitchell R.H. (2002): The mineralogy of Ba- and Zr-rich alkaline pegmatites from Gordon Butte, Crazy Mountains (Montana, USA): comparisons between potassic and sodic agpaitic pegmatites. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 143, 93-114.
  • New Mexico
    • Colfax Co.
      • Springer
        • Point of Rocks Mesa (Pecks Mesa)
Rocks & Min.:60:229.
  • North Carolina
    • Alexander Co.
Collected & identified by Michael Reynolds
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