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Nesquehonite

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Formula:
MgCO3 · 3H2O
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Colourless to white; ...
Lustre:
Vitreous, Greasy
Hardness:
Name:
For the type locality at Nesquehoning, Carbon County, Pennsylvania, USA.
May exist as a dehydration product of lansfordite.


Classification of Nesquehonite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
5.CA.05

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
C : Carbonates without additional anions, with H2O
A : With medium-sized cations
13.1.5.1

13 : ACID CARBONATES
1 : Miscellaneous
11.3.3

11 : Carbonates
3 : Carbonates of Mg

Physical Properties of Nesquehonite

Vitreous, Greasy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Colourless to white; colourless in transmitted light.
Hardness (Mohs):
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {101}; On {010} good.
Fracture:
Splintery, Fibrous
Density:
1.824 - 1.854 g/cm3 (Measured)    1.856 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Nesquehonite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.412 nβ = 1.501 nγ = 1.526
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.114
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
relatively strong

Chemical Properties of Nesquehonite

Formula:
MgCO3 · 3H2O
Elements listed in formula:

Crystallography of Nesquehonite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.705 Å, b = 5.367 Å, c = 12.121 Å
β = 90.451°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.436 : 1 : 2.258
Unit Cell Volume:
V 501.22 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals prismatic, elongated along [010], {001}, {010}, {011}, {101}. {110} deeply striated parallel to [010]. Forms radial sprays and coatings, also botryoidal.
Twinning:
Twinned on {001} (artificial material).

Occurrences of Nesquehonite

Type Occurrence of Nesquehonite

General Appearance of Type Material:
Bases of stalactites and incrustations, the remainder of which consisted of lansfordite.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Anthracite coal deposit.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Relationship of Nesquehonite to other Species

5.CA.10LansforditeMgCO3 · 5H2O
5.CA.15BarringtoniteMgCO3 · 2H2O
5.CA.20HellyeriteNiCO3 · 5.5H2O
11.3.1MagnesiteMgCO3
11.3.2BarringtoniteMgCO3 · 2H2O
11.3.4LansforditeMgCO3 · 5H2O
11.3.5PokrovskiteMg2(CO3)(OH)2
11.3.6ArtiniteMg2(CO3)(OH)2 · 3H2O
11.3.7HydromagnesiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 4H2O
11.3.8GiorgiositeMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 5-6H2O
11.3.9DypingiteMg5(CO3)4(OH)2 · 5H2O
11.3.10EiteliteNa2Mg(CO3)2
11.3.11Mcguinnessite(Mg,Cu)2(CO3)(OH)2

Other Names for Nesquehonite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Other Information:
Very slightly soluble in water; more so in the presence of CO2. Readily soluble in dilute acids with effervescence.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
None.

References for Nesquehonite

Reference List:
Genth and Penfield (1890) American Journal of Science: 39: 121.

Genth and Penfield (1890) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 17: 561.

Friedel (1891) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 14: 62.

Davis (1906) J. Soc. Chem. Ind.: 25: 788.

Leitmeier (1910) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 47: 108.

Artini (1921) Reale accademia nazionale dei Lincei, Rome, Rend.: 30: 153.

Hintze, C. (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3A]: 3473.

Fenoglio, M. (1930) Reale accademia nazionale dei Lincei, Rome, Rend.: 11: 310.

Fenoglio, M. (1935) Ricerche sulla nesquehonite dele miniere di Cogne in Val D'Aosta. Periodico di Mineralogia: 6: 1.

Beck (1946) Doctoral thesis, Harvard University (unpublished)(dehydration data).

Kinsolving, M.R., MacGillavry, C., Pepinsky, R. (1950) Twinning in nesquehonite, MgCO3·3H2O. American Mineralogist: 35: 127.

Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 225-226.

Stephan, G.W., MacGillavry, C.H. (1972) The crystal structure of nesquehonite, MgCO3·3H2O. Acta Crystallographica: 28(4): 1031-1033.

Gasiunas, K., Kaminskas, A., Kapacauskas, I., Valuziene, B., Kicas, P. (1973) Nature of water in nesquehonite. Zhurnal neorganicheskoi khimii (Russian Journal of Physical Chemistry): 18(9): 2332-2335 (in Russian).

Chemical Abstracts (1974): 80: 154 (abstract of Gasiunas et al).

Internet Links for Nesquehonite

mindat.org URL:
https://www.mindat.org/min-2885.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Localities for Nesquehonite

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Antarctica
 
  • Western Antarctica
    • Thiel Mts.
Vennum, W. (1986) Unusual magnesium- and iron-bearing salts from West Antarctica. Antarctic Journal of the U.S., 21(5), 55-57.
Australia
 
  • Australian Capital Territory
    • Brindabella Range
      • Cotter River
        • Paddy's River Cu Mine
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. IV; McQueen, Ken G.; J. R. Caldwell; P. W. Millsteed (July 1988). "Primary and Secondary Minerals at the Paddy's River Mine, Australian Capital Territory". Australian Mineralogist 3: 83–100.
  • New South Wales
    • Gloucester Co.
      • Barrington Tops
        • Sempill Creek
Mineralogical Magazine 1965 34 : 370-372
  • Tasmania
    • Waratah-Wynyard municipality
R Bottrill, unpub MRT rept
    • West Coast municipality
      • Zeehan district
        • Dundas mineral field
R Bottrill & R Woolley, unpublished data 2017
Austria
 
  • Salzburg
    • Hohe Tauern
      • Stubach valley
Strasser, A. (1989): Die Minerale Salzburgs. Salzburg. 346p
    • Salzburg
      • Untersberg massif
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
  • Styria
    • Leoben
      • Kraubath an der Mur
Meixner, H. (1950): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 2(3), 195-209.
      • St Stefan ob Leoben
Meixner, H. (1950): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 2(3), 195-209.
J.Taucher (2001)
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Inn valley
        • Brixlegg - Schwaz area
          • Brixlegg - Rattenberg
Lapis 19(7/8):13-78 (1994); Schnorrer, G. & Poeverlein, R. (2008): Schwaz-Brixlegger Fundstellen. 6. Die Minerale des Gratlspitz bei Brixlegg in Tirol. Aufschluss 59, 7-28.
  • Upper Austria
    • Gmunden
      • Hallstatt
        • Obertraun
Journal "Die Höhle"
Canada
 
  • Yukon
    • Dawson Mining District
MinRec 23:4-47
Wilson, S.A., Raudsepp, M. & Dipple, G.M. (2006) Verifying and quantifying carbon fixation in minerals from serpentine-rich mine tailings using the Rietveld method with X-ray powder diffraction data. American Mineralogist 91, 1331-1341.
Robinson, G.W., Van Velthuizen, J., Ansell, H.G. & Sturman, B.D. (1992): Mineralogy of the Rapid Creek and Big Fish River area, Yukon Territory. Mineralogical Record 23, 1-47.
China
 
  • Qinghai Province
    • Hainan Autonomous Prefecture
Sun Da-peng, Li Bing-xiao, Ma Yua-hua, and Lin Qun-zhu (2002): Journal of Salt Lake Research 10(4), 1-12.
  • Tibet Autonomous Region
    • Nagchu Prefecture (Naqu Prefecture)
      • Baingoin Co. (Bange Co.)
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Karlovy Vary Region
      • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
        • Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal)
Lapis 2002(7/8), 63-65
France
 
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Cantal
      • Cantal Mts
        • Salers
          • Fontanges
          • Saint-Bonnet-de-Salers
R. Pierrot, P. Picot, J.J. Périchaud : "Inventaire Minéralogique du Cantal", BRGM and Editions G. de Bussac, 1971
          • Saint-Projet-de-Salers
R. Pierrot, P. Picot, J.J. Périchaud : "Inventaire Minéralogique du Cantal", BRGM and Editions G. de Bussac, 1971
    • Haute-Loire
      • Lubilhac
C. Vialaron : La mine d'antimoine de Daü,127p, Le-Puy-en-Velay (1999)
    • Isère
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 226.
  • Occitanie
    • Tarn
Germany
 
  • Bavaria
    • Franconia
      • Bamberg
        • Wiesenttal
Fischbeck, R. & Müller, G. (1971): Monohydrocalcite, hydromagnesite, nesquehonite, dolomite, aragonite, and calcite in speleothems of the Fränkische Schweiz, Western Germany. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 33, 87-92.
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Eifel
      • Mechernich
        • Kall
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    • Siegerland
      • Eiserfeld
Henrich, M. (2008): Neues von der Grube Eisenzecher Zug. Mineralien-Welt 19 (5), 16-25.
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Lahn valley
      • Bad Ems District
        • Frücht
Möhn, G., Frohwein, J. & Blaß, G. (2009): Neue Mineralfunde von der Grube Friedrichssegen bei Bad Ems. Lapis 34 (5), 35-40; 58.
  • Thuringia
    • Gera
      • Ronneburg U deposit
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
Greece
 
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
      • Lavrion District Mines
        • Sounion area
          • Sounion Mines
J. Gröbner und U. Kolitsch (2002): Neufunde von Laurion aus den Jahren 2001 und 2002. Aufschluss 53 (5-6), 363-371. ; Giester, G; Lengauer, CL; Rieck, B: The crystal structure of nesquehonite, MgCO3•3H2O, from Lavrion, Greece. Mineralogy and Petrology 70 (2000), 153-163; Kolitsch, U., Rieck, B., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fabritz, K. H., Blaß, G. & Gröbner, J. (2014): Neufunde aus dem altem Bergbau und den Schlacken von Lavrion (I). Mineralien-Welt 25 (1), 60-75 (in German).
Hungary
 
  • Baranya Co.
    • Mecsek Mts
      • Komló
  • Heves Co.
    • Mátra Mts
      • Recsk
Szakáll & Gatter: Hun. Min.Spec., 1993
Italy
 
  • Aosta Valley
    • Cogne Valley
      • Cogne
Fenoglio, M. (1935) Ricerche sulla nesquehonite dele miniere di Cogne in Val D'Aosta. Periodico di Mineralogia: 6: 1. Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 226. C.M. Gramaccioli (1975) Minerali alpini e Prealpini-Edizioni Atlas Bergamo.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 246.
  • Liguria
    • Genova Province
      • Genova
        • Borzoli
Giuseppe Pipino - L'antica miniera di Monte Ramazzo e i suoi minerali - Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, Milano, vol. 8, fasc. 3, 1977
    • La Spezia Province
      • Beverino
Antofilli, Borgo, Palenzona, 1985. I nostri minerali. Geologia e mineralogia in Liguria. Edizioni Melita, La Spezia
      • Carro
Antofilli, Borgo, Palenzona, 1985. I nostri minerali. Geologia e mineralogia in Liguria. Edizioni Melita, La Spezia
  • Lombardy
    • Sondrio Province
      • Valtellina
        • Malenco Valley
          • Lanterna Valley
            • Lanzada
              • Campo Franscia (Franscia)
Artini, E. (1921) Sulla presenza della nesquehonite nelle cave d’amianto di Franscia in Val Lanterna. Rend. R. Acc. Naz. Lincei Cl. sc. fis. mat. nat., Serie 5, 30, 153-157. Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 227.
              • Campo Moro Valley
Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (2006) I minerali della media-alta Valtellina, delle Orobie valtellinesi e della Val Poschiavo. Aggiornamenti sulle altre località della provincia di Sondrio. Bettini, Sondrio, 255 pp.
  • Piedmont
    • Cuneo Province
      • Varaita Valley
        • Sampeyre
Piccoli, G.C. (2002): I minerali delle Alpi Marittime e Cozie. Provincia di Cuneo. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" di Alba, Ed., Alba, 362 pp.; Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" di Alba, Ed., Alba, 607 pp.
    • Torino Province
      • Canavese District
        • Léssolo
          • Cálea
"Le miniere di Brosso" I.Campostrini 2001 - ed. Museo Regionale Torino
      • Lanzo Valleys
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 226.
          • Viù
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
    • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
      • Ossola Valley
        • Antrona Valley
          • Antrona Schieranco
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
  • Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-Südtirol)
    • Bolzano Province (South Tyrol)
      • Aurina Valley (Ahrnbach Valley)
        • Riva Valley (Rein Valley)
Meixner, H. (1950): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 2(3), 195-209.
  • Tuscany
    • Lucca Province
      • Apuan Alps
        • Stazzema
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Chubu Region
      • Aichi Prefecture
        • Shinshiro city
Suzuki & Ito (1974) Ganseki-Koubutsu-Koshogaku Zasshi, 69, 275-284.; Yamada, S. (2004) Nihonsan-koubutsu Gojuon-hairetsu Sanchi-ichiranhyou (111 pp.)
Norway
 
  • Møre og Romsdal
    • Sunndal
      • Litjdalen
Taagvold, H. (2015): Verket kromgruve i Sunndal kommune, Møre og Romsdal. Stein. 42 (1), 4-6.
    • Vanylven
Knut Edvard Larsen collection MM # 4889 (ex Kjell Myre collection, not analyzed specimen)
  • Sogn og Fjordane
    • Fjaler
      • Hellevika
Raade, G. (1993): Giorgsite, dypingite and nesquehonite from Sunnfjord. In: Interne notater 1990-1993, Mineralogisk-Geologisk Museum- Universitetet i Oslo. Utgitt av Geologisk Museums Venner 1993, p. 188-189. [Not officially published]
  • Sør-Trøndelag
    • Oppdal
Witsø, Tor (1994): Oppdal. Et spennende geologisk område. Oppdal. 24 pp. Published by Fridtjov Witsø, Oppdal.; Selbekk R.S. (2010): Norges mineraler. En revidert utgave av Norges mineraler (Neumann 1985). Tapir-NGU-NHM. 552p (p.211)
      • Vinstradalen
Witsø, T. (2005): Mineraler i Vinstradalen, Oppdal. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter 30: 72-73
    • Røros
Moore, A. C. & Hultin, I. (1980): Petrology, mineralogy, and origin of the Feragen ultramafic body, Sør-Trøndelag, Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 60, 235-254
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
    • Kłodzko District
      • Nowa Ruda (Neurode)
        • Słupiec Mine (John Mine)
Ciesielczukk, J., Kruszewski, Ł., Fabiańska, M.J., Misz-Kennan, M., Kowalski, A., Mysza, B., 2014: Efflorescences and gas composition emitted from the burning coal-waste dump in Słupiec, Lower Silesian Coal Basin, Poland. Proceedings of the International Symposium CEMC 2014, Skalský Dvůr, April 23-26th, 26-27
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Irkutskaya Oblast'
        • Zheleznogorsk (Korshunikha)
Mazurov, M.P., Grishina, S.N., Istomin, V.E., and Titov, A.T. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(4), 271-284.; Mazurov et al (2007) Geology of Ore Deposits, 49, 271–284.
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Kamchatka Oblast'
      • Tolbachik volcano
        • Great Fissure eruption (Main Fracture)
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Revúca Co.
      • Jelšava
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
    • Rimavská Sobota Co.
      • Hnúšťa
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
  • Bratislava Region
    • Pezinok Co.
      • Pezinok
Majzlan J., Števko M., Lánczoš T. (2016): Soluble secondary minerals of antimony in Pezinok and Kremnica (Slovakia) and the question of mobility or immobility of antimony in mine waters. Environmental Chemistry, 13, 6, 927-935.
Slovenia
 
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 227.
South Africa
 
  • Limpopo Province
    • Capricorn District
Minerals of South Africa
Switzerland
 
  • Bern
    • Simme Valley
      • St Stephan
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz. Wepf (Basel), p. 288.
  • Grischun (Grisons; Graubünden)
    • Poschiavo Valley
      • Poschiavo (Puschlav)
        • Selva
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 288.; Romani E. (2000): Andar per cristalli - Tesori nascosti. Centro studi del Museo mineralogico naturalistico di Bormio, 151 p.
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Zermatt - Saas Fee area
      • Matt Valley
        • Zermatt
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 288.
Turkey
 
  • Central Anatolia Region
    • Konya Province
      • Great Konya Basin
Am Min 66:632-635
Lideke Vergouwen (1981) Eugsterite, a new salt mineral. American Mineralogist 66:632-636
Ukraine
 
  • Crimea Oblast'
    • Crimea peninsula
      • Kerch peninsula (Kertch peninsula)
        • Novoselovka Village area
Deyak M.A. Modern water-chemogenic formations of mud volcanoes of Kerch Peninsula. Dissertation to Scientific Candidate Degree in Geological Sciences in speciality 04.00.21 – lithology. –Department of marine geology and sedimentary ore formation of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. – Kyiv, 2010.
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Maricopa Co.
Garvie, L.A.J. (2003) Decay-induced biomineralization of the saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantean). American Mineralogist: 88: 1879-1888. Grant, Raymond W., Bideaux, R.A., and Williams, S.A. (2006) Minerals Added to the Arizona List 1995-2005: 6.
Garvie, L.A.J. (2016): Mineralogy of paloverde (Parkinsonia microphylla) tree ash from the Sonoran Desert: A combined field and laboratory study. American Mineralogist: 101 : 1584-1595; http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=12875 (2016
  • California
    • Alameda Co.
      • Diablo Range
O’Neil, J.R. and Barnes, I. (1971) C13 and O18 compositions in some fresh-water carbonates associated with ultramafic rocks and serpentinites; western United States. Geochimica et Cosmochmica Acta: 35: 695; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 203.
    • Monterey Co.
      • Santa Lucia Mts (Santa Lucia Range)
        • Los Burros District
          • Burro Mountain
O’Neil, J.R. and Barnes, I. (1971) C13 and O18 compositions in some fresh-water carbonates associated with ultramafic rocks and serpentinites; western United States. Geochimica et Cosmochmica Acta: 35: 695; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 203.
    • San Benito Co.
      • Diablo Range
        • New Idria District
          • Picacho Peak
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 279.
    • San Francisco Co.
      • San Francisco
Schlocker, J. (1974) Geology of the San Francisco North quadrangle. USGS Professional Paper 782, 109 pp.: 62; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 203.
    • Sonoma Co.
      • Coast Range
        • Venado
O’Neil, J.R. and Barnes, I. (1971) C13 and O18 compositions in some fresh-water carbonates associated with ultramafic rocks and serpentinites; western United States. Geochimica et Cosmochmica Acta: 35: 695; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 203.
    • Stanislaus Co.
      • Diablo Range
        • Black Wonder District
          • Adobe Creek (Adobe Canyon)
O’Neil, J.R. and Barnes, I. (1971) C13 and O18 compositions in some fresh-water carbonates associated with ultramafic rocks and serpentinites; western United States. Geochimica et Cosmochmica Acta: 35: 695; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 203.
  • Colorado
    • Jefferson Co.
      • Clear Creek pegmatite Province
        • Robinson Gulch pegmatite
Cobban et al., 1997, Minerals of Colorado.
  • Pennsylvania
    • Carbon Co.
      • Lansford
        • Nesquehoning
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 226, 230; The Mineralogy of Pennsylvania 1922-1965, A Montgomery. pgs 64-65. ref.2) The Mineralogy of Pennsylvania (1874-1922); S. Gordon pg. 68; Genth F A, Penfield S L (1890) On lansfordite, nesquehonite, a new mineral, and pseudomorphs of nesquehonite after lansfordite, The American Journal of Science, 139, 121-137
  • Virginia
    • Botetourt Co.
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Mineral and/or Locality  
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