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Spinel Group

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About Spinel GroupHide

A non IMA-approved group name, in use in literature before 2018, for cubic oxides of general formula AE2O4. These species were sub-divided into three series: Spinel series (E = Al), Magnetite series (E = Fe), and the Chromite series (E = Cr). Also known as Spinellid or Spinelid.

A new classification of the spinel supergroup was approved by IMA in march 2018 (Proposal 17-H).

The former spinel group is probably synonym with the new IMA approved Spinel Subgroup.

Chemical Properties of Spinel GroupHide


Synonyms of Spinel GroupHide

Other Language Names for Spinel GroupHide

Simplified Chinese:尖晶石族

Relationship of Spinel Group to other SpeciesHide

Group Members:
Xieite Fe2+Cr2O4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Spinel GroupHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Rinne (1928) Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Beil.-Bd.: 58: 43.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 687-689.
Navrotsky, A., Kleppa, O.J. (1967) The thermodynamics of cation distributions in simple spinels. Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry: 29: 2701-2714.
Hill, R.J., Craig, J.R., and Gibbs, G.V. (1979) Systematics of the spinel structure type. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 4: 317-339.
Essene, E.J., Peacor, D.R. (1983) Crystal chemistry and petrology of coexisting galaxite and jacobsite and other spinel solutions and solvi. American Mineralogist: 68: 449-455.
Grimes, N.W., Thompson, P., Kay, H.F. (1983) New symmetry and structure for spinel. Proceedings of the Royal Society: A386: 333-345.
O'Neill, H. St.C., Navrotsky, A. (1983) Simple spinels: crystallographic parameters, cation radii, lattice energies, and cation distribution. American Mineralogist: 68: 181-194.
Navrotsky, A. (1986) Cation-distribution energetics and heats of mixing in MgFe2O4-MgAl2O4, ZnFe2O4-ZnAl2O4, and NiAl2O4-ZnAl2O4 spinels: study by high-temperature calorimetry. American Mineralogist: 71: 1160-1169.
Princivalle, F., Della Giusta, A., Carbonin, S. (1989) Comparative crystal chemistry of spinels from some suites of ultramafic rocks. Mineralogy and Petrology: 40: 117-126.
O'Neill, H.St.C., Dollase, W.A. (1994) Crystal structures and cation distribution in simple spinels from powder XRD structural refinements: MgCr2O4, ZnCr2O4, Fe3O4, and the temperature dependence of the cation distribution in ZnAl2O4. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 20: 541-555.
Hazen, R.M., Yang, H. (1999) effects of cation substitution and order-disorder on P-V-T equations of state of cubic spinels. American Mineralogist: 84: 1956-1960.
Lavrentiev, M.Y., Purton, J.A., Allan, N.L. (2003) Ordering in spinels - a Monte Carlo study. American Mineralogist: 88: 1522-1531.
Papike, J.J., Karner, J.M., Shearer, C.K. (2005) Comparative planetary mineralogy: Valence-state partitioning of Cr, Fe, Ti and V among crystallographic sites in olivine, pyroxene, and spinel from planetary basalts. American Mineralogist: 90: 277-290.
Bosi, F. (2019): Chemical and structural variability in cubic spinel oxides. Acta Crystallographica B75, 279-285.

Internet Links for Spinel GroupHide

Localities for Spinel GroupHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Mato Grosso
    • Juína kimberlite field
      • Juína
        • Sorriso river
Kaminsky, F.V., Wirth, R., Schreiber, A. (2015): A microinclusion of lower-mantle rock and other minerals and nitrogen lower-mantle inclusions in a diamond. Canadian Mineralogist: 53(1): 83-104
  • Ontario
    • Timiskaming District
      • Gauthier Township
R. H. Mitchell (1978) Composition of spinels in micaceous kimberlite from the Upper Canada Mine, Kirkland Lake, Ontario. Can Mineral 16:591-595
  • Hubei
    • Suizhou
      • Zengdu District (Cengdou District)
        • Xihe
[Xieite] Chen, M., Shu, J., Xie, X., Mao, H. (2003): Natural CaTi2O4-structured FeCr2O4 polymorph in the Suizhou meteorite and its significance in mantle mineralogy. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 67, 3937-3942; IMA website; Chen, M., Shu, J., & Mao, H. K. (2008). Xieite, a new mineral of high-pressure FeCr2O4 polymorph. Chinese Science Bulletin, 53(21), 3341-3345.; Chen, M., & Xie, X. (2015). Shock-produced akimotoite in the Suizhou L6 chondrite. Science China Earth Sciences, 58(6), 876-880.
Czech Republic
  • Plzeň Region
    • Tachov District
      • Bezdružice
Klomínský J. et al.: Fosilní zlatonosné rozsypy v karbonu u Křivců (západní Čechy). Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 1979, 24, 3, 291-300.
  • Ústí nad Labem Region
    • Teplice District
      • Duchcov
Žáček V., Skála R., Chlupáčová M., Dvořák Z. (2005): Ca-Fe3+-rich, Si-undersaturated buchite from Želénky, northern Bohemian Brown Coal Basin, Czech Republic. European Journal of Mineralogy 17, 623-633.
  • South Sinai
Sallam, O. R., Alshami, A. S., Azab, M. S., & El Akeed, I. A. (2014) The Occurrence of Silver-Gold Mineralization Associated With Uranium Bearing Minerals and Base Metal Sulphide, El Sheikh Soliman Area, South Sinai, Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Pure and Applied Science 52(1):47-54
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Aachen
      • Alsdorf
Witzke, T., de Wit, F., Kolitsch, U. and Blaß, G. (2015): Mineralogy of the Burning Anna I Coal Mine Dump, Alsdorf, Germany. Chapter 7, pp. 203-240, in: Stracher, G. B., Prakash, A. and Sokol, E. V.: Coal and Peat Fires: A Global Perspective, Volume 3: Case Studies - Coal Fires, Elsevier, 786 pp.
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge District
      • Seiffen
        • Deutschneudorf
          • Oberlochmühle
Schmädicke, E., and Evans, B.W. (1997): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 127, 57-74.
      • Zöblitz
Schmädicke, E., and Evans, B.W. (1997): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 127, 57-74.
Schmädicke, E., and Evans, B.W. (1997): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 127, 57-74.
  • Thuringia
    • Meiningen
Schüller, A. (1953): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 3(6), 472-494.
  • Uttar Pradesh
    • Gorakhpur district
Ashworth, J.R. (1981) Fine Structure in-group chondrites: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. A374 (1757): 179-194. (Feb 1981).
  • Lazio
    • Metropolitan City of Rome Capital
      • Rome
Gresta, S., Duronio, F., Mancinella D. (2002): Geositi e Sistema delle Aree Protette del Lazio: idee per la geoconservazione. Il Cercapietre. Not. del Gruppo Mineralogico Romano, 1-2: 48-55
  • Tuscany
    • Grosseto Province
      • Monte Argentario
Azzaro E., Caravani L., Di Sabatino B., Negretti G. (1977): Aspetti petrologici delle rocce verdi del Promontorio Argentario (Toscana). Rend. Soc. Ital. Miner. Petrol., 33, 689-698.
North Macedonia
  • Veles
    • Nežilovo
      • Jakupica Mts
        • Babuna Valley
Ermolaeva, V. N., Chukanov, N. V., Jančev, S., & Van, K. V. (2017). Parageneses of Oxygen-bearing Minerals with Chalcophile Elements in Metasomatites of the Pelagonian Massif, Macedonia. In Magmatism of the Earth and related strategic metal deposits (pp. 62-66).
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Kłodzko Co.
      • Gmina Nowa Ruda
        • Przygórze
          • Bolesław Mine
Łukasz Kruszewski PXRD data
  • Silesian Voivodeship
    • Katowice City Co.
Warchulski, R., Gawęda, A., Janeczek, J., Kądziołka-Gaweł, M. (2016): Mineralogy and origin of coarse-grained segregations in the pyrometallurgical Zn-Pb slags from Katowice-Wełnowiec (Poland). Mineralogy and Petrology: 110, (in press); in: http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=12618 (2016)
    • Świętochłowice City Co.
Puziewicz, J., Zainoun, K. and Bril, H. (2007): Primary phases in pyrometallurgical slags from a zinc-smelting waste dump, Świętochłowice, Upper Silesia, Poland. Can. Mineral. 45, 1189-1200.; Tyszka, R., Pietranik, A., Kierczak, J., Zieliński, G., & Darling, J. (2018). Cadmium distribution in Pb-Zn slags from Upper Silesia, Poland: Implications for cadmium mobility from slag phases to the environment. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 186, 215-224.
  • Guarda
    • Gouveia
      • Folgosinho
Piere Rosseel collection
  • Caraş-Severin
    • Banat Mts
      • Gătaia
Seghedi I., Ntaflos T. 2006: G˘ataia lamproite (SW Romania). Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 29, 188-191
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
    • Karabash
      • Soimon Valley
Murzin, V. V., Chudnenko, K. V., Palyanova, G. A., Varlamov, D. A., Naumov, E. A., & Pirajno, F. (2018). Physicochemical model for the genesis of Cu-Ag-Au-Hg solid solutions and intermetallics in the rodingites of the Zolotaya Gora gold deposit (Urals, Russia). Ore Geology Reviews, 93, 81-97.
  • Sakha Republic (Yakutia)
    • Northern Yakutia
      • Olenyok (Olenek) river basin
Koval'skii, V.V., Oleinikov, O.B. (1985): Native metals and natural polymineralic alloys of copper, zinc, lead, tin and antimony in rocks from the "Leningrad" kimberlite pipe. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR: 285: 203-208; in: Hawthorne, F.C., Bladh, K.W., Burke, E.A.J., Grew, E.S., Langley, R.H., Puziewicz, J., Roberts, A.C., Shigley, J.E., Vanko, D.A. (1987): New mineral Names. American Mineralogist: 72: 227
  • Madrid
Angel Ortiz Maellas specimen
Sri Lanka
  • Sabaragamuwa Province
    • Ratnapura District
      • Embilipitiya (Embilipitya; Ambilipitiya)
        • Kolonne (Kolonna; "Kollonne")
Müller, H. D. & Jahn, S. (2006): Kolonne bei Embilipitiya auf Sri Lanka-eine interessante Fundstelle für Olivin, Hornblende und Spinelle. Mineralien Welt 17 (4): 44-51.
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