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Spinel Group

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Formula:
AE2O4
Cubic oxides of general formula AE2O4. These species are sub-divided into three series: Spinel series (E = Al), Magnetite series (E = Fe), and the Chromite series (E = Cr). Also known as Spinellid or Spinelid.

Compare also Thiospinel Group, a group of spinel-type non-oxides.

Compare 'silicon spinel', that may be similar to likely spinel-structured gamma-alumina.


Classification of Spinel Group

Chemical Properties of Spinel Group

Formula:
AE2O4

Relationship of Spinel Group to other Species

Group Members:
Chromite Fe2+Cr23+O4
Cochromite (Co,Ni,Fe)(Cr,Al)2O4
Coulsonite Fe2+V23+O4
Cuprospinel Cu2+Fe23+O4
Filipstadite (Sb0.5Fe0.5)Mn2O4
Franklinite Zn2+Fe23+O4
Gahnite ZnAl2O4
Galaxite Mn2+Al2O4
Hercynite Fe2+Al2O4
Jacobsite Mn2+Fe23+O4
Magnesiochromite MgCr2O4
Magnesiocoulsonite MgV2O4
Magnesioferrite MgFe23+O4
Magnetite Fe2+Fe23+O4
Manganochromite Mn2+Cr2O4
Nichromite (Ni,Co,Fe)(Cr,Fe,Al)2O4
Qandilite (Mg,Fe3+)2(Ti,Fe3+,Al)O4
Spinel MgAl2O4
  Chrome-Spinel (of Dana) 
  Kenomagnetite 
Trevorite Ni2+Fe23+O4
Ulvöspinel Fe2TiO4
Vuorelainenite Mn2+V23+O4
Xieite Fe2+Cr2O4
Zincochromite ZnCr2O4

Other Names for Spinel Group

Name in Other Languages:
Japanese:尖晶石
Simplified Chinese:尖晶石族

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Spinel Group in petrology

An essential component of (items highlighted in red)
Common component of (items highlighted in red)
Accessory component of (items highlighted in red)

References for Spinel Group

Reference List:
Rinne (1928) Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Beil.-Bd.: 58: 43.

Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 687-689.

Navrotsky, A., Kleppa, O.J. (1967) The thermodynamics of cation distributions in simple spinels. Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry: 29: 2701-2714.

Hill, R.J., Craig, J.R., and Gibbs, G.V. (1979) Systematics of the spinel structure type. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 4: 317-339.

Essene, E.J., Peacor, D.R. (1983) Crystal chemistry and petrology of coexisting galaxite and jacobsite and other spinel solutions and solvi. American Mineralogist: 68: 449-455.

Grimes, N.W., Thompson, P., Kay, H.F. (1983) New symmetry and structure for spinel. Proceedings of the Royal Society: A386: 333-345.

O'Neill, H. St.C., Navrotsky, A. (1983) Simple spinels: crystallographic parameters, cation radii, lattice energies, and cation distribution. American Mineralogist: 68: 181-194.

Navrotsky, A. (1986) Cation-distribution energetics and heats of mixing in MgFe2O4-MgAl2O4, ZnFe2O4-ZnAl2O4, and NiAl2O4-ZnAl2O4 spinels: study by high-temperature calorimetry. American Mineralogist: 71: 1160-1169.

Princivalle, F., Della Giusta, A., Carbonin, S. (1989) Comparative crystal chemistry of spinels from some suites of ultramafic rocks. Mineralogy and Petrology: 40: 117-126.

O'Neill, H.St.C., Dollase, W.A. (1994) Crystal structures and cation distribution in simple spinels from powder XRD structural refinements: MgCr2O4, ZnCr2O4, Fe3O4, and the temperature dependence of the cation distribution in ZnAl2O4. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 20: 541-555.

Hazen, R.M., Yang, H. (1999) effects of cation substitution and order-disorder on P-V-T equations of state of cubic spinels. American Mineralogist: 84: 1956-1960.

Lavrentiev, M.Y., Purton, J.A., Allan, N.L. (2003) Ordering in spinels - a Monte Carlo study. American Mineralogist: 88: 1522-1531.

Papike, J.J., Karner, J.M., Shearer, C.K. (2005) Comparative planetary mineralogy: Valence-state partitioning of Cr, Fe, Ti and V among crystallographic sites in olivine, pyroxene, and spinel from planetary basalts. American Mineralogist: 90: 277-290.

Internet Links for Spinel Group

mindat.org URL:
https://www.mindat.org/min-29156.html
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Significant localities for Spinel Group

Showing 56 significant localities out of 23,015 recorded on mindat.org.

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • South Australia
    • Mt Lofty Ranges
      • South Mt Lofty Ranges (Adelaide Hills)
        • Mount Barker
          • Nairne
[Manganochromite] Grieco, G., & Merlini, A. (2012). Chromite alteration processes within Vourinos ophiolite. International journal of earth sciences, 101(6), 1523-1533. Graham, J. (1978) Manganochromite, palladium antimonide, and some unusual mineral associations at the Nairne pyrite deposit, South Australia. American Mineralogist, Vol. 63, pp. 1166-1174.
  • Tasmania
    • Burnie City
      • Hampshire district
        • Kara Mines
[Magnetite] Whitehead, 1990; Ralph Bottrill 6/10/2005.; MINERALOGICAL MAGAZINE, SEPTEMBER 1984, VOL. 48, PP. 397-400; Singoyi, B. (1995). Mineral paragenesis, geochemistry and fluid characteristics of the Kara scheelite-magnetite skarn deposit, Northwestern Tasmania (Masters dissertation, University of Tasmania).
Canada
 
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Newfoundland
      • Baie Verte Peninsula
        • Baie Verte
[Cuprospinel] NICKEL, E.H. (1973): The new mineral cuprospinel (CuFe2O4 ) and other spinels from an oxidized ore dump at Baie Verte, Newfoundland. Canadian Mineralogist 11, 1003-1007.
  • Ontario
    • Hastings Co.
      • Faraday Township
[Magnetite] Robinson & Chamberlain (1982) - Mineralogical Record v14 n2; Joyce, D. K. (2006) Calcite Vein-Dikes of the Grenville Geological Province, Ontario, Canada. Rocks and Minerals 81:34-42; Ontario Ministry of Northern Development and Mines,MDI Number: MDI31F04SW00297
    • Lanark Co.
      • Ramsay Township
[Spinel] GSC misc report 41
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • La Vallée-de-l'Or RCM
        • Réservoir-Dozois
[Magnetite] Olivier Langelier Collection; Hudon, P., Friedman, R.M., Gauthier, G. & Martignole, J. (2006) Age of the Cabonga nepheline syenite, Grenville Province, western Quebec. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 43(9), 1237-1249.
China
 
  • Hubei Province
    • Suizhou Prefecture
      • Zengdu District (Cengdou District)
        • Xihe
[Xieite] Chen, M., Shu, J., Xie, X., Mao, H. (2003): Natural CaTi2O4-structured FeCr2O4 polymorph in the Suizhou meteorite and its significance in mantle mineralogy. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 67, 3937-3942; IMA website; Chen, M., Shu, J., & Mao, H. K. (2008). Xieite, a new mineral of high-pressure FeCr2O4 polymorph. Chinese Science Bulletin, 53(21), 3341-3345.; Chen, M., & Xie, X. (2015). Shock-produced akimotoite in the Suizhou L6 chondrite. Science China Earth Sciences, 58(6), 876-880.
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Plzeň Region
[Hercynite] [AM 69 (1984), 937; Clark, 1993, "Hey's Mineral Index"]
Ethiopia
 
  • Benshangul-Gumaz Region
    • Asosa region (Assosa region)
[Magnesiochromite] Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2004)
France
 
  • Brittany
    • Côtes-d'Armor
[Magnetite] Pierrot R., Chauris L., Laforêt C. (1975), Inventaire minéralogique de la France, Ed. BRGM, n°5, Côtes du Nord, pp: 110-113
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Var
      • Gassin
[Chromite] Pontier (1799)
Germany
 
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
[Magnesiochromite] Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 29 (1976), 7
Iraq
 
  • Iraqi Kurdistan
    • Sulaymaniyah province
      • Qala-Diz (Qala-Dizeh; Qala-Diza)
        • Hero
[Qandilite] Mineralogical Magazine(1985) 49, 739-744
Italy
 
  • Campania
    • Naples Province
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
[Magnesioferrite] Rammelsberg, C. (1858): Über die Zusammensetzung des Titaneisens sowie der rhomboedrisch und oktaedrisch krystallisierten Eisenoxyde überhaupt, VII Octaedrisches Eisenerz vom Vesuv, Annalen der Physik und Chemie, Vol. 180/F2-104, 497-552.
Namibia
 
  • Otjozondjupa Region
    • Otjiwarongo District
[Spinel] A. Wohlschläger, U. Kolitsch and E. Libowitzky (2001): Large "gahnites" from near Okahua, Namibia: only Fe- and Zn-bearing spinels. Mitt. Österr. Mineral. Ges. 146, 323.
Nigeria
 
  • Kaduna State
[Gahnite] MINERALOGICAL MAGAZINE, SEPTEMBER 1984, VOL. 48, PP. 425 9; D'Ippolito, V.; Andreozzi, G. B.; Bosi, F.; Halenius, U.; Mantovani, L.; Bersani, D.; Fregola, R. A. (2013): Crystallographic and spectroscopic characterization of a natural Zn-rich spinel approaching the endmember gahnite (ZnAl2O4) composition. Mineralogical Magazine 77, 2941-2953.
Norway
 
  • Nordland
    • Hemnes
      • Bleikvassli
[Gahnite] Vokes, F.M. (1962): Contributions to the mineralogy of Norway. No. 15. Gahnite in the Bleikvassli ore. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 42,317-329 + Neumann (1985, p. 55).
Portugal
 
  • Leiria District
    • Nazaré
      • Nazaré
[Magnetite] Collected by Rui Nunes in several visits to the locality
  • Viana do Castelo District
[Gahnite]
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Irkutskaya Oblast'
        • Lake Baikal area
          • Slyudyanka (Sludyanka)
[Magnesiocoulsonite] ZVMO,(1995) 124, n4, 91-98
  • Northern Region
    • Karelia Republic
      • Lake Onega
        • Zaonezhie peninsula
          • Velikaya Guba uran-vanadium deposit
[Zincochromite] Zapiski Vses. Mineralog. Obshch., 116(3),367-371; The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 40, pp. 1001-1020 (2002)
South Africa
 
  • Mpumalanga Province
    • Ehlanzeni District
      • Barberton
        • Bon Accord
[Cochromite] Am Min 65 (1980), 811; O'Driscoll, B., Clay, P. L., Cawthorn, R. G., Lenaz, D., Adetunji, J., & Kronz, A. (2014). Trevorite: Ni-rich spinel formed by metasomatism and desulfurization processes at Bon Accord, South Africa?. Mineralogical Magazine, 78(1), 145-163.
Sweden
 
  • Ångermanland
    • Örnsköldsvik
      • Södra Ulvön (Ulvö)
[Ulvöspinel] Mogensen, F. (1946): A ferro-ortho-titanate ore from Södra Ulvön. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar. 68: 578-588; Can. Mineral. (1980) 18, 339–341
  • Dalarna
    • Falun
[Gahnite] [ZK 120 (1964), 476; Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index"]; Lucchesi, S., Della Giusta, A., & Russo, U. (1998). Cation distribution in natural Zn-aluminate spinels. Mineralogical Magazine, 62(1), 41-54.; Lasskogen, J. (2010). Volcanological and volcano-sedimentary facies stratigraphical interpretation of the Falun Cu-Zn-Pb-(Ag-Au) sulphide deposit, Bergslagen district, Sweden. MS Thesis
  • Östergötland
    • Finspång
      • Doverstorp ore field
[Vuorelainenite] Zakrzewski, M.A., Burke, E.A.J., and Lustenhouwer, W.J. (1982): Vuorelainenite, a new spinel, and associated minerals from the Satra (Doverstorp) pyrite deposit, central Sweden. Canadian Mineralogist. 20, 281-290.
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
[Filipstadite] Amer.Min.(1988) 73, 413-419; Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183.
      • Nordmark district
        • Jakobsberg ore field
[Jacobsite] Dunn,P.J., Peacor, D.R., Valley, J.W. and Randall, C.W. (1985): Ganomalite from Franklin, New Jersey, and Jakobsberg, Sweden: New Chemical and Crystallographic Data. Mineralogical Magazine. 49: 579-582
UK
 
  • Scotland
    • Shetland Islands
      • Mainland
        • Fethaland Point
[Magnetite] [Specimen in the Natural History Museum, London]
USA
 
  • Alaska
    • Prince of Wales-Outer Ketchikan Borough
      • Ketchikan District
        • Prince of Wales Island
[Magnetite] Min Rec 35:5 pp383-404, 419-420
  • Colorado
    • Clear Creek Co.
[Gahnite] "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; Meeves, H., et al (1966), Reconnaissance of beryllium-bearing pegmatite deposits in six western states, US Bur. Mines Info. Circ. 8298: 24 (Table A-1).
    • Park Co.
      • Guffey District
[Gahnite] Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.; The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 43, pp. 601-622 (2005)
  • Connecticut
    • Middlesex Co.
      • Haddam
        • Higganum
[Magnetite] Foye (1922); Rice and Foye (1927); Williams (circa 1945)
[Magnetite] Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
  • Maine
    • Androscoggin Co.
      • Auburn
        • West Mount Apatite District
[Gahnite] King, V., and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, v. 1.
  • Massachusetts
    • Franklin Co.
      • Charlemont
[Gahnite] Flint, George M. (1908): Gahnite from Charlemont, Mass. American Journal of Science: 25: 584.
    • Middlesex Co.
[Magnetite] Dale, T. Nelson (1910). Supplementary Notes on the Commercial Granites of New England. (USGS Bulletin 470).
  • Nevada
    • Churchill Co.
      • Mineral Basin District
[Coulsonite] Am Min 47:1284-1291
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
[Franklinite] Palache(1935):47-48; Dunn(1995):Pt4:566-578.
[Franklinite] Palache(1935):47; Dunn(1995):Pt5:668.
[Franklinite] Palache(1935):47.
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
[Franklinite] Common knowledge of occurrence.; Leavens, P. B., Zullo, J., & Verbeek, E. (2009). A complex, genthelvite-bearing skarn from the Passaic pit, Sterling Hill mine, Ogdensburg, New Jersey. Axis, 5, 26.
[Franklinite] Palache(1935):47-48; Dunn(1995):Pt4:566-578.
      • Sparta Township
[Spinel] A Quest for New Jersey Minerals, Robert Speiser (1978):9.
  • New York
    • Orange Co.
      • Town of Warwick
        • Amity
[Spinel] George Robinson & Steven Chamberlain (2007) Gazetteer of major New York State mineral localities. Rocks & Minerals, 82, #6, 472-483.
        • Edenville
          • Edenite Hill
[Spinel] Van King
    • Putnam Co.
      • Town of Southeast
        • Brewster
[Magnetite] (Dana, 1874) (Januzzi, 1966, 1989) (Man¬chester, 1931) (Trainer, 1938, 1941) (Whitlock, 1903) (Nightingale 2001) Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 214..
  • North Carolina
    • Alleghany Co.
      • Sparta
        • Bald Knob
[Galaxite] Rocks & Min.: 60:130-135.
  • Pennsylvania
    • Lebanon Co.
      • Cornwall Borough (Cornwall)
[Magnetite] Rocks & Min.: 13:213.; Econ Geol (1985) 80:418-443
  • Rhode Island
    • Providence Co.
      • Providence
        • Manton
[Magnetite] Miller, C. E. (1971) Rhode Island Minerals and Their Locations, University of Rhode Island, Kingston
  • Wisconsin
    • Dodge Co.
      • Iron Ridge District (Neda Iron District)
        • Iron Ridge Mines
[Magnetite] Hawley, J. & A. Bevan (1934) Mineralogy and genesis of the Mayville iron ore of Wisconsin: american Mineralogist: 19 (11): 493- 514.
[Magnetite] Hawley, J. & A. Bevan (1934) Mineralogy and genesis of the Mayville iron ore of Wisconsin: american Mineralogist: 19 (11): 493- 514.
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