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Spinel Group

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About Spinel GroupHide

Probably synonym with the new IMA approved Spinel Subgroup

Cubic oxides of general formula AE2O4. These species are sub-divided into three series: Spinel series (E = Al), Magnetite series (E = Fe), and the Chromite series (E = Cr). Also known as Spinellid or Spinelid.

Compare also Thiospinel Group, a group of spinel-type non-oxides.

Compare 'silicon spinel', that may be similar to likely spinel-structured gamma-alumina.

Chemical Properties of Spinel GroupHide


Synonyms of Spinel GroupHide

Other Language Names for Spinel GroupHide

Simplified Chinese:尖晶石族

Relationship of Spinel Group to other SpeciesHide

Group Members:
Nichromite (Ni,Co,Fe)(Cr,Fe,Al)2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Xieite Fe2+Cr2O4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Spinel GroupHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Rinne (1928) Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Beil.-Bd.: 58: 43.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 687-689.
Navrotsky, A., Kleppa, O.J. (1967) The thermodynamics of cation distributions in simple spinels. Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry: 29: 2701-2714.
Hill, R.J., Craig, J.R., and Gibbs, G.V. (1979) Systematics of the spinel structure type. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 4: 317-339.
Essene, E.J., Peacor, D.R. (1983) Crystal chemistry and petrology of coexisting galaxite and jacobsite and other spinel solutions and solvi. American Mineralogist: 68: 449-455.
Grimes, N.W., Thompson, P., Kay, H.F. (1983) New symmetry and structure for spinel. Proceedings of the Royal Society: A386: 333-345.
O'Neill, H. St.C., Navrotsky, A. (1983) Simple spinels: crystallographic parameters, cation radii, lattice energies, and cation distribution. American Mineralogist: 68: 181-194.
Navrotsky, A. (1986) Cation-distribution energetics and heats of mixing in MgFe2O4-MgAl2O4, ZnFe2O4-ZnAl2O4, and NiAl2O4-ZnAl2O4 spinels: study by high-temperature calorimetry. American Mineralogist: 71: 1160-1169.
Princivalle, F., Della Giusta, A., Carbonin, S. (1989) Comparative crystal chemistry of spinels from some suites of ultramafic rocks. Mineralogy and Petrology: 40: 117-126.
O'Neill, H.St.C., Dollase, W.A. (1994) Crystal structures and cation distribution in simple spinels from powder XRD structural refinements: MgCr2O4, ZnCr2O4, Fe3O4, and the temperature dependence of the cation distribution in ZnAl2O4. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 20: 541-555.
Hazen, R.M., Yang, H. (1999) effects of cation substitution and order-disorder on P-V-T equations of state of cubic spinels. American Mineralogist: 84: 1956-1960.
Lavrentiev, M.Y., Purton, J.A., Allan, N.L. (2003) Ordering in spinels - a Monte Carlo study. American Mineralogist: 88: 1522-1531.
Papike, J.J., Karner, J.M., Shearer, C.K. (2005) Comparative planetary mineralogy: Valence-state partitioning of Cr, Fe, Ti and V among crystallographic sites in olivine, pyroxene, and spinel from planetary basalts. American Mineralogist: 90: 277-290.

Internet Links for Spinel GroupHide

Localities for Spinel GroupHide

ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Mato Grosso
    • Juína
      • Sorriso river
Kaminsky, F.V., Wirth, R., Schreiber, A. (2015): A microinclusion of lower-mantle rock and other minerals and nitrogen lower-mantle inclusions in a diamond. Canadian Mineralogist: 53(1): 83-104
  • Ontario
    • Timiskaming District
      • Gauthier Township
R. H. Mitchell (1978) Composition of spinels in micaceous kimberlite from the Upper Canada Mine, Kirkland Lake, Ontario. Can Mineral 16:591-595
  • Hubei Province
    • Suizhou Prefecture
      • Zengdu District (Cengdou District)
        • Xihe
[Xieite] Chen, M., Shu, J., Xie, X., Mao, H. (2003): Natural CaTi2O4-structured FeCr2O4 polymorph in the Suizhou meteorite and its significance in mantle mineralogy. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 67, 3937-3942; IMA website; Chen, M., Shu, J., & Mao, H. K. (2008). Xieite, a new mineral of high-pressure FeCr2O4 polymorph. Chinese Science Bulletin, 53(21), 3341-3345.; Chen, M., & Xie, X. (2015). Shock-produced akimotoite in the Suizhou L6 chondrite. Science China Earth Sciences, 58(6), 876-880.
Czech Republic
  • Plzeň Region
    • Bezdružice
Klomínský J. et al.: Fosilní zlatonosné rozsypy v karbonu u Křivců (západní Čechy). Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 1979, 24, 3, 291-300.
  • Ústí Region
    • Duchcov (Dux)
Žáček V., Skála R., Chlupáčová M., Dvořák Z. (2005): Ca-Fe3+-rich, Si-undersaturated buchite from Želénky, northern Bohemian Brown Coal Basin, Czech Republic. European Journal of Mineralogy 17, 623-633.
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Aachen
      • Alsdorf
Witzke, T., de Wit, F., Kolitsch, U. and Blaß, G. (2015): Mineralogy of the Burning Anna I Coal Mine Dump, Alsdorf, Germany. Chapter 7, pp. 203-240, in: Stracher, G. B., Prakash, A. and Sokol, E. V.: Coal and Peat Fires: A Global Perspective, Volume 3: Case Studies - Coal Fires, Elsevier, 786 pp.
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge District
      • Seiffen
        • Deutschneudorf
          • Oberlochmühle
Schmädicke, E., and Evans, B.W. (1997): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 127, 57-74.
      • Zöblitz
Schmädicke, E., and Evans, B.W. (1997): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 127, 57-74.
Schmädicke, E., and Evans, B.W. (1997): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 127, 57-74.
  • Thuringia
    • Meiningen
Schüller, A. (1953): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 3(6), 472-494.
  • Uttar Pradesh
    • Gorakhpur district
Ashworth, J.R. (1981) Fine Structure in-group chondrites: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. A374 (1757): 179-194. (Feb 1981).
  • Latium
    • Rome Province
      • Rome
Gresta, S., Duronio, F., Mancinella D. (2002): Geositi e Sistema delle Aree Protette del Lazio: idee per la geoconservazione. Il Cercapietre. Not. del Gruppo Mineralogico Romano, 1-2: 48-55
  • Tuscany
    • Grosseto Province
      • Monte Argentario
Azzaro E., Caravani L., Di Sabatino B., Negretti G. (1977): Aspetti petrologici delle rocce verdi del Promontorio Argentario (Toscana). Rend. Soc. Ital. Miner. Petrol., 33, 689-698.
  • Upper Silesia (Śląskie)
    • Katowice
      • Świętochłowice
Puziewicz, J., Zainoun, K. and Bril, H. (2007): Primary phases in pyrometallurgical slags from a zinc-smelting waste dump, Świętochłowice, Upper Silesia, Poland. Can. Mineral. 45, 1189-1200.; Tyszka, R., Pietranik, A., Kierczak, J., Zieliński, G., & Darling, J. (2018). Cadmium distribution in Pb-Zn slags from Upper Silesia, Poland: Implications for cadmium mobility from slag phases to the environment. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 186, 215-224.
Warchulski, R., Gawęda, A., Janeczek, J., Kądziołka-Gaweł, M. (2016): Mineralogy and origin of coarse-grained segregations in the pyrometallurgical Zn-Pb slags from Katowice-Wełnowiec (Poland). Mineralogy and Petrology: 110, (in press); in: (2016)
  • Guarda District
    • Gouveia
      • Folgosinho
Piere Rosseel collection
  • Caraş-Severin Co.
    • Banat Mts
      • Gătaia
Seghedi I., Ntaflos T. 2006: G˘ataia lamproite (SW Romania). Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 29, 188-191
  • Sakha Republic (Yakutia)
    • Northern Yakutia
      • Olenyok (Olenek) river basin
Koval'skii, V.V., Oleinikov, O.B. (1985): Native metals and natural polymineralic alloys of copper, zinc, lead, tin and antimony in rocks from the "Leningrad" kimberlite pipe. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR: 285: 203-208; in: Hawthorne, F.C., Bladh, K.W., Burke, E.A.J., Grew, E.S., Langley, R.H., Puziewicz, J., Roberts, A.C., Shigley, J.E., Vanko, D.A. (1987): New mineral Names. American Mineralogist: 72: 227
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast
        • Karabash (Karabasch)
          • Soimon Valley
Murzin, V. V., Chudnenko, K. V., Palyanova, G. A., Varlamov, D. A., Naumov, E. A., & Pirajno, F. (2018). Physicochemical model for the genesis of Cu-Ag-Au-Hg solid solutions and intermetallics in the rodingites of the Zolotaya Gora gold deposit (Urals, Russia). Ore Geology Reviews, 93, 81-97.
South Africa
  • Mpumalanga Province
    • Ehlanzeni District
      • Barberton
        • Bon Accord
[Nichromite] Minerals of South Africa
  • Madrid
Angel Ortiz Maellas specimen
Sri Lanka
  • Sabaragamuwa Province
    • Ratnapura District
      • Embilipitiya (Embilipitya; Ambilipitiya)
        • Kolonne (Kolonna; "Kollonne")
Müller, H. D. & Jahn, S. (2006): Kolonne bei Embilipitiya auf Sri Lanka-eine interessante Fundstelle für Olivin, Hornblende und Spinelle. Mineralien Welt 17 (4): 44-51.
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