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Spinel Group

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Cubic oxides of general formula AE2O4. These species are sub-divided into three series: Spinel series (E = Al), Magnetite series (E = Fe), and the Chromite series (E = Cr). Also known as Spinellid or Spinelid.

Compare also Thiospinel Group, a group of spinel-type non-oxides.

Compare 'silicon spinel', that may be similar to likely spinel-structured gamma-alumina.

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Chemical Properties of Spinel GroupHide


Synonyms of Spinel GroupHide

Other Language Names for Spinel GroupHide

Simplified Chinese:尖晶石族

Relationship of Spinel Group to other SpeciesHide

Group Members:
Chromite Fe2+Cr3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Cochromite (Co,Ni,Fe)(Cr,Al)2O4
Coulsonite Fe2+V3+2O4
Cuprospinel Cu2+Fe3+2O4Iso.
Filipstadite (Sb0.5Fe0.5)Mn2O4Iso.
Franklinite Zn2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Gahnite ZnAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Galaxite Mn2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Hercynite Fe2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Jacobsite Mn2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Magnesiochromite MgCr2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Magnesiocoulsonite MgV2O4Iso.
Magnesioferrite MgFe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Magnetite Fe2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Manganochromite Mn2+Cr2O4
Nichromite (Ni,Co,Fe)(Cr,Fe,Al)2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Qandilite (Mg,Fe3+)2(Ti,Fe3+,Al)O4
Spinel MgAl2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
  Chrome-Spinel (of Dana) 
Trevorite Ni2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Ulvöspinel Fe2TiO4Iso.
Vuorelainenite Mn2+V3+2O4
Xieite Fe2+Cr2O4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
Zincochromite ZnCr2O4Iso.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Spinel Group in petrologyHide

An essential component of rock names highlighted in red, an accessory component in rock names highlighted in green.

References for Spinel GroupHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Rinne (1928) Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Beil.-Bd.: 58: 43.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 687-689.
Navrotsky, A., Kleppa, O.J. (1967) The thermodynamics of cation distributions in simple spinels. Journal of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry: 29: 2701-2714.
Hill, R.J., Craig, J.R., and Gibbs, G.V. (1979) Systematics of the spinel structure type. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 4: 317-339.
Essene, E.J., Peacor, D.R. (1983) Crystal chemistry and petrology of coexisting galaxite and jacobsite and other spinel solutions and solvi. American Mineralogist: 68: 449-455.
Grimes, N.W., Thompson, P., Kay, H.F. (1983) New symmetry and structure for spinel. Proceedings of the Royal Society: A386: 333-345.
O'Neill, H. St.C., Navrotsky, A. (1983) Simple spinels: crystallographic parameters, cation radii, lattice energies, and cation distribution. American Mineralogist: 68: 181-194.
Navrotsky, A. (1986) Cation-distribution energetics and heats of mixing in MgFe2O4-MgAl2O4, ZnFe2O4-ZnAl2O4, and NiAl2O4-ZnAl2O4 spinels: study by high-temperature calorimetry. American Mineralogist: 71: 1160-1169.
Princivalle, F., Della Giusta, A., Carbonin, S. (1989) Comparative crystal chemistry of spinels from some suites of ultramafic rocks. Mineralogy and Petrology: 40: 117-126.
O'Neill, H.St.C., Dollase, W.A. (1994) Crystal structures and cation distribution in simple spinels from powder XRD structural refinements: MgCr2O4, ZnCr2O4, Fe3O4, and the temperature dependence of the cation distribution in ZnAl2O4. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 20: 541-555.
Hazen, R.M., Yang, H. (1999) effects of cation substitution and order-disorder on P-V-T equations of state of cubic spinels. American Mineralogist: 84: 1956-1960.
Lavrentiev, M.Y., Purton, J.A., Allan, N.L. (2003) Ordering in spinels - a Monte Carlo study. American Mineralogist: 88: 1522-1531.
Papike, J.J., Karner, J.M., Shearer, C.K. (2005) Comparative planetary mineralogy: Valence-state partitioning of Cr, Fe, Ti and V among crystallographic sites in olivine, pyroxene, and spinel from planetary basalts. American Mineralogist: 90: 277-290.

Internet Links for Spinel GroupHide

Significant localities for Spinel GroupHide

Showing 56 significant localities out of 23,876 recorded on

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • South Australia
    • Mt Lofty Ranges
      • South Mt Lofty Ranges (Adelaide Hills)
        • Mount Barker
          • Nairne
[Manganochromite] Grieco, G., & Merlini, A. (2012). Chromite alteration processes within Vourinos ophiolite. International journal of earth sciences, 101(6), 1523-1533. Graham, J. (1978) Manganochromite, palladium antimonide, and some unusual mineral associations at the Nairne pyrite deposit, South Australia. American Mineralogist, Vol. 63, pp. 1166-1174.
  • Tasmania
    • Burnie City
      • Hampshire district
        • Kara Mines
[Magnetite] Whitehead, 1990; Ralph Bottrill 6/10/2005.; MINERALOGICAL MAGAZINE, SEPTEMBER 1984, VOL. 48, PP. 397-400; Singoyi, B. (1995). Mineral paragenesis, geochemistry and fluid characteristics of the Kara scheelite-magnetite skarn deposit, Northwestern Tasmania (Masters dissertation, University of Tasmania).
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Newfoundland
      • Baie Verte Peninsula
        • Baie Verte
[Cuprospinel] NICKEL, E.H. (1973): The new mineral cuprospinel (CuFe2O4 ) and other spinels from an oxidized ore dump at Baie Verte, Newfoundland. Canadian Mineralogist 11, 1003-1007.
  • Ontario
    • Hastings Co.
      • Faraday Township
[Magnetite] Robinson & Chamberlain (1982) - Mineralogical Record v14 n2; Joyce, D. K. (2006) Calcite Vein-Dikes of the Grenville Geological Province, Ontario, Canada. Rocks and Minerals 81:34-42; Ontario Ministry of Northern Development and Mines,MDI Number: MDI31F04SW00297
    • Lanark Co.
      • Ramsay Township
[Spinel] GSC misc report 41
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • La Vallée-de-l'Or RCM
        • Réservoir-Dozois
[Magnetite] Olivier Langelier Collection; Hudon, P., Friedman, R.M., Gauthier, G. & Martignole, J. (2006) Age of the Cabonga nepheline syenite, Grenville Province, western Quebec. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences, vol. 43(9), 1237-1249.
  • Hubei Province
    • Suizhou Prefecture
      • Zengdu District (Cengdou District)
        • Xihe
[Xieite] Chen, M., Shu, J., Xie, X., Mao, H. (2003): Natural CaTi2O4-structured FeCr2O4 polymorph in the Suizhou meteorite and its significance in mantle mineralogy. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 67, 3937-3942; IMA website; Chen, M., Shu, J., & Mao, H. K. (2008). Xieite, a new mineral of high-pressure FeCr2O4 polymorph. Chinese Science Bulletin, 53(21), 3341-3345.; Chen, M., & Xie, X. (2015). Shock-produced akimotoite in the Suizhou L6 chondrite. Science China Earth Sciences, 58(6), 876-880.
Czech Republic
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Plzeň Region
[Hercynite] [AM 69 (1984), 937; Clark, 1993, "Hey's Mineral Index"]
  • Benshangul-Gumaz Region
    • Asosa region (Assosa region)
[Magnesiochromite] Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2004)
  • Brittany
    • Côtes-d'Armor
      • Plestin-les-Grèves
[Magnetite] Pierrot R., Chauris L., Laforêt C. (1975), Inventaire minéralogique de la France, Ed. BRGM, n°5, Côtes du Nord, pp: 110-113
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Var
      • Cavalaire-sur-Mer
[Chromite] "Mémoire sur le gisement de fer chromaté" in "Journal des Mines", Brumaire, An X, n°LXII - Citoyen Pontier (1799) (in French)
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
[Magnesiochromite] Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 29 (1976), 7
  • Iraqi Kurdistan
    • Sulaymaniyah province
      • Qala-Diz (Qala-Dizeh; Qala-Diza)
        • Hero
[Qandilite] Mineralogical Magazine(1985) 49, 739-744
  • Campania
    • Naples Province
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
[Magnesioferrite] Rammelsberg, C. (1858): Über die Zusammensetzung des Titaneisens sowie der rhomboedrisch und oktaedrisch krystallisierten Eisenoxyde überhaupt, VII Octaedrisches Eisenerz vom Vesuv, Annalen der Physik und Chemie, Vol. 180/F2-104, 497-552.
  • Otjozondjupa Region
    • Omatako
[Spinel] A. Wohlschläger, U. Kolitsch and E. Libowitzky (2001): Large "gahnites" from near Okahua, Namibia: only Fe- and Zn-bearing spinels. Mitt. Österr. Mineral. Ges. 146, 323.
  • Kaduna State
[Gahnite] MINERALOGICAL MAGAZINE, SEPTEMBER 1984, VOL. 48, PP. 425 9; D'Ippolito, V.; Andreozzi, G. B.; Bosi, F.; Halenius, U.; Mantovani, L.; Bersani, D.; Fregola, R. A. (2013): Crystallographic and spectroscopic characterization of a natural Zn-rich spinel approaching the endmember gahnite (ZnAl2O4) composition. Mineralogical Magazine 77, 2941-2953.
  • Nordland
    • Hemnes
      • Bleikvassli
[Gahnite] Vokes, F.M. (1962): Contributions to the mineralogy of Norway. No. 15. Gahnite in the Bleikvassli ore. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 42,317-329 + Neumann (1985, p. 55).
  • Leiria District
    • Nazaré
      • Nazaré
[Magnetite] Collected by Rui Nunes in several visits to the locality
  • Viana do Castelo District
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Irkutskaya Oblast'
        • Lake Baikal area
          • Slyudyanka (Sludyanka)
[Magnesiocoulsonite] ZVMO,(1995) 124, n4, 91-98
  • Northern Region
    • Karelia Republic
      • Lake Onega
        • Zaonezhie peninsula
          • Velikaya Guba uran-vanadium deposit
[Zincochromite] Zapiski Vses. Mineralog. Obshch., 116(3),367-371; The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 40, pp. 1001-1020 (2002)
South Africa
  • Mpumalanga Province
    • Ehlanzeni District
      • Barberton
        • Bon Accord
[Cochromite] Am Min 65 (1980), 811; O'Driscoll, B., Clay, P. L., Cawthorn, R. G., Lenaz, D., Adetunji, J., & Kronz, A. (2014). Trevorite: Ni-rich spinel formed by metasomatism and desulfurization processes at Bon Accord, South Africa?. Mineralogical Magazine, 78(1), 145-163.
  • Ångermanland
    • Örnsköldsvik
      • Södra Ulvön (Ulvö)
[Ulvöspinel] Mogensen, F. (1946): A ferro-ortho-titanate ore from Södra Ulvön. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar. 68: 578-588; Can. Mineral. (1980) 18, 339–341
  • Dalarna
    • Falun
[Gahnite] [ZK 120 (1964), 476; Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index"]; Lucchesi, S., Della Giusta, A., & Russo, U. (1998). Cation distribution in natural Zn-aluminate spinels. Mineralogical Magazine, 62(1), 41-54.; Lasskogen, J. (2010). Volcanological and volcano-sedimentary facies stratigraphical interpretation of the Falun Cu-Zn-Pb-(Ag-Au) sulphide deposit, Bergslagen district, Sweden. MS Thesis; Kampmann, T. C., Stephens, M. B., & Weihed, P. (2016). 3D modelling and sheath folding at the Falun pyritic Zn-Pb-Cu-(Au-Ag) sulphide deposit and implications for exploration in a 1.9 Ga ore district, Fennoscandian Shield, Sweden. Mineralium Deposita, 51(5), 665-680.
  • Östergötland
    • Finspång
      • Doverstorp ore field
[Vuorelainenite] Zakrzewski, M.A., Burke, E.A.J., and Lustenhouwer, W.J. (1982): Vuorelainenite, a new spinel, and associated minerals from the Satra (Doverstorp) pyrite deposit, central Sweden. Canadian Mineralogist. 20, 281-290.
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
[Filipstadite] Amer.Min.(1988) 73, 413-419; Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183.
      • Nordmark district
        • Jakobsberg ore field
[Jacobsite] Dunn,P.J., Peacor, D.R., Valley, J.W. and Randall, C.W. (1985): Ganomalite from Franklin, New Jersey, and Jakobsberg, Sweden: New Chemical and Crystallographic Data. Mineralogical Magazine. 49: 579-582
  • Scotland
    • Shetland Islands
      • Mainland
        • Fethaland Point
[Magnetite] [Specimen in the Natural History Museum, London]
  • Alaska
    • Prince of Wales-Outer Ketchikan Borough
      • Ketchikan District
        • Prince of Wales Island
[Magnetite] Min Rec 35:5 pp383-404, 419-420
  • Colorado
    • Clear Creek Co.
[Gahnite] "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; Meeves, H., et al (1966), Reconnaissance of beryllium-bearing pegmatite deposits in six western states, US Bur. Mines Info. Circ. 8298: 24 (Table A-1).
    • Park Co.
      • Guffey District
[Gahnite] Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.; The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 43, pp. 601-622 (2005)
  • Connecticut
    • Middlesex Co.
      • Haddam
        • Higganum
[Magnetite] Foye (1922); Rice and Foye (1927); Williams (circa 1945)
[Magnetite] Schooner, Richard. (circa 1985), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
  • Maine
    • Androscoggin Co.
      • Auburn
        • West Mount Apatite District
[Gahnite] King, V., and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, v. 1.
  • Massachusetts
    • Franklin Co.
      • Charlemont
[Gahnite] Flint, George M. (1908): Gahnite from Charlemont, Mass. American Journal of Science: 25: 584.
    • Middlesex Co.
[Magnetite] Dale, T. Nelson (1910). Supplementary Notes on the Commercial Granites of New England. (USGS Bulletin 470).
  • Nevada
    • Churchill Co.
      • Mineral Basin District
[Coulsonite] Am Min 47:1284-1291
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
[Franklinite] Palache(1935):47-48; Dunn(1995):Pt4:566-578.
[Franklinite] Palache(1935):47; Dunn(1995):Pt5:668.
[Franklinite] Palache(1935):47.
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
[Franklinite] Common knowledge of occurrence.; Leavens, P. B., Zullo, J., & Verbeek, E. (2009). A complex, genthelvite-bearing skarn from the Passaic pit, Sterling Hill mine, Ogdensburg, New Jersey. Axis, 5, 26.
[Franklinite] Palache(1935):47-48; Dunn(1995):Pt4:566-578.
      • Sparta Township
        • Franklin Marble
[Spinel] A Quest for New Jersey Minerals, Robert Speiser (1978):9.
  • New York
    • Orange Co.
      • Town of Warwick
        • Amity
[Spinel] George Robinson & Steven Chamberlain (2007) Gazetteer of major New York State mineral localities. Rocks & Minerals, 82, #6, 472-483.
        • Edenville
          • Edenite Hill
[Spinel] Van King
    • Putnam Co.
      • Town of Southeast
        • Brewster
[Magnetite] (Dana, 1874) (Januzzi, 1966, 1989) (Man¬chester, 1931) (Trainer, 1938, 1941) (Whitlock, 1903) (Nightingale 2001) Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 214..
  • North Carolina
    • Alleghany Co.
      • Sparta
        • Bald Knob
[Galaxite] Rocks & Min.: 60:130-135.
  • Pennsylvania
    • Lebanon Co.
      • Cornwall Borough (Cornwall)
[Magnetite] Rocks & Min.: 13:213.; Econ Geol (1985) 80:418-443
  • Rhode Island
    • Providence Co.
      • Providence
        • Manton
[Magnetite] Miller, C. E. (1971) Rhode Island Minerals and Their Locations, University of Rhode Island, Kingston
  • Wisconsin
    • Dodge Co.
      • Iron Ridge District (Neda Iron District)
        • Iron Ridge Mines
[Magnetite] Hawley, J. & A. Bevan (1934) Mineralogy and genesis of the Mayville iron ore of Wisconsin: american Mineralogist: 19 (11): 493- 514.
[Magnetite] Hawley, J. & A. Bevan (1934) Mineralogy and genesis of the Mayville iron ore of Wisconsin: american Mineralogist: 19 (11): 493- 514.
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