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Niter

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Formula:
KNO3
Colour:
Colorless or white, light yellow, very light gray
Lustre:
Sub-Vitreous
Hardness:
2
Specific Gravity:
2.11 (Calculated)
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Evolved from "neter" or "nether" (Hebraic), which derived from "natar," a substance that effervesces, which corresponds to the "nitron" of the Greeks and the "nitrum" of the Romans.
Niter, potassium nitrate, is found as an efflorescence in hot, dry regions. Also known as saltpeter.

Chemically it is the K-analogue of nitratine.


Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of NiterHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
5.NA.10

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
N : NITRATES
A : Without OH or H2O
Dana 7th ed.:
18.1.2.1
18.1.2.1

18 : NORMAL NITRATES
1 : AXO3·xH2O, where x can equal zero
13.2

13 : Nitrates

Physical Properties of NiterHide

Sub-Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Colorless or white, light yellow, very light gray
Streak:
White
Hardness:
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Very Good
On {011} nearly perfect; on {010} fairly good; on {110} imperfect.
Parting:
Twin gliding with K1 (110), K2 (130).
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
2.11 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of NiterHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.332 nβ = 1.504 nγ = 1.504
2V:
Measured: 7°
Birefringence:
0.172
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.172
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
r
Optical Extinction:
Parallel
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of NiterHide

Formula:
KNO3
Common Impurities:
Na,Li

Crystallography of NiterHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pmma
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.414 Å, b = 9.164 Å, c = 6.431 Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.591 : 1 : 0.702
Unit Cell V:
319.07 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Massive, granular, earthy, mealy. Crusts, silky tufts, and delicate acicular crystallization. Artificial crystals are prismatic [001].
Twinning:
Common on {110}, frequently as pseudo-hexagonal groupings.
Comment:
Pmcm

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
4.66(20)
3.78 (100)
3.73 (60)
3.03 (60)
2.76 (30)
2.71 (20)
2.66 (40)
2.65 (60)
Comments:
5-377 (synthetic)

Synonyms of NiterHide

Other Language Names for NiterHide

Common AssociatesHide

EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
NitrocalciteCa(NO3)2 · 4H2O

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

5.NA.05NitratineNaNO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.NA.15Gwihabaite(NH4,K)NO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.NA.20NitrobariteBa(NO3)2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

13.1NitratineNaNO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
13.3GerhardtiteCu2(NO3)(OH)3Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
13.4NitromagnesiteMg(NO3)2 · 6H2OMon. 2/m
13.5NitrocalciteCa(NO3)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
13.6NitrobariteBa(NO3)2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
13.7ButtgenbachiteCu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
13.8SveiteKAl7(NO3)4(OH)16Cl2 · 8H2OMon.
13.9DarapskiteNa3(SO4)(NO3) · H2OMon. 2/m
13.10HumberstoniteNa7K3Mg2(SO4)6(NO3)2 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
13.11Mbobomkulite(Ni,Cu)Al4((NO3)2,SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2OMon.
13.12Hydrombobomkulite(Ni,Cu)Al4((NO3)2,SO4)(OH)12 · 13-14H2OMon.
13.13Nickelalumite(Ni,Cu)Al4(SO4,(NO3)2)(OH)12 · 3H2OMon.

Fluorescence of NiterHide

Not fluorescent

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Readily soluble in water.
Health Risks:
DETONATES WITH COMBUSTIBLE SUBSTANCES!!

References for NiterHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Reuss, F.A. (1803) Lehrbuch der Mineralogie. Leipzig. part 2, volumes 3: 21 (as Salpeter).
Philips (1818): 137 (as Nitrate of Potash).
Leonhard, K.C. (1826) Handbuch der Oryktognosie. second edition, Heidelberg: 247 (as Kalisalpeter).
Naumann, C.F. (1828) Lehrbuch der Mineralogie, Berlin: 261.
Breithaupt, A. (1832) Vollständige Characteristik etc., 2nd. Ed.: 27 (as Kalinitrat).
Miller (1840) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 17: 38.
Hausmann, J.F.L. (1847) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen. Second edition, vol. 2, in two parts: 1416.
Breithaupt, A. (1847) Vollständige Handbuch der Mineralogie. Dresden and Leipzig. Vol. 2: 94.
Schrauf (1860) Konigliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Sitzber.: 41: 790.
Retgers (1889) Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, Leipzig, Berlin: 3: 313.
Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 871.
Gossner (1903) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 38: 143.
Günther (1912) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 50: 92 (density - artif. xls.)(abstract).
Haigh (1912) Journal of the American Chemical Society: 34: 1137.
Johnsen (1914) Jahrb. Radioakt. Und Elektronik: 11: 246.
Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 5: 3.
Frood and Hall (1919) Union of South Africa Geological Survey Memorandum 14.
Edwards (1930) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 154.
Hintze, Carl (1930) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3A]: 2713.
Merwin (1930) Int. Crit. Tables: 7: 27.
Mansfield and Boardman (1932) U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 838.
Larsen, E.S. and Berman, H. (1934) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, Second edition, USGS Bulletin 848: 152.
Gibbs (1938) Ann. Sc. London: 3: 213.
Northrop (1942) University of New Mexico Bulletin, Geology Series, 6, no. 1: 227.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 303.
Janz, G.J. (1980) Molten-salts data as reference-standards for density, surface-tension viscosity and electrical conductance - KNO3 and NaCl. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data: 9: 791-829.
Chem. Geol. (1988): 67: 85.

Internet Links for NiterHide

Localities for NiterHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • Australian Capital Territory
    • Brindabella Range
      • Cotter River
        • Paddy's River Cu Mine
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. IV; McQueen, Ken G.; J. R. Caldwell; P. W. Millsteed (July 1988). "Primary and Secondary Minerals at the Paddy's River Mine, Australian Capital Territory". Australian Mineralogist 3: 83–100.
  • New South Wales
    • Westmoreland Co.
      • Oberon
Podgson RE, Osborne RAL, Colchester DM, Minerals of Jenolan Caves, New South Wales, Australia: Geological and Biological Interactions, Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South Wales 134, 1-18.
Bahamas
 
  • San Salvador District
    • San Salvador Island
Onac B.P., Mylroie J.E., White W.B. (2001): Mineralogy of cave deposits on San Salvador Island, Bahamas. Carbonates and Evaporites, 16, 1, 8-16.; Onac B.P., Sumrall J., Mylroie J.E., Kearns J. (2009): Cave minerals of San Salvador Island, Bahamas. The University of South Florida karst studies series, 1, 70 pp.
Bolivia
 
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 304.
Brazil
 
  • Sergipe
    • Rosário do Catete
http://www.cetem.gov.br/publicacao/CTs/CT2002-158-00.pdf
Bulgaria
 
  • Kardzhali Oblast (Kurdzhali; Kărdžali; Kurdjali)
    • Momchilgrad Obshtina
Kunov, A. & Mandova, E. (1997): Supergene minerals of the Obichnik Au-Ag deposit (Eastern Rhodopes). Spisanie na Bulgarskoto Geologichesko Druzhestvo 58, 19-24. (in Bulgarian)
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta Region
    • Antofagasta Province
      • Sierra Gorda District
http://www.minsocam.org/MSA/AmMin/TOC/Articles_Free/1998/Cooper_p390-399_98.pdf
    • Tocopilla Province
http://www.albumdesierto.cl/aleman/1melena.htm
      • Pedro de Valdivia
Pueyo, J. J., Chong, G. & Vega, M. (1998): Mineralogy and parental brine evolution in the Pedro de Valdivia nitrate deposit, Antofagasta, Chile. Revista Geologica de Chile 25, 3-15. (in Spanish)
  • Tarapacá Region
    • El Tamarugal Province
      • Pozo Almonte
collected by Reynaldo Contreira
Personally collected by Reynaldo Contreira in 2006
China
 
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Ruoqiang Co. (Qakilik Co.; Chaqiliq Co.)
Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
    • Tulufan Prefecture (Turfan Prefecture; Turpan Prefecture)
      • Shanshan Co. (Piqan Co.; Pichan Co.)
        • Kanggur-Xifengshan gold belt
Zhaoxin Han, Lijun Luan, and Chaoyou Wang (2004): Journal of Xi'an University of Science and Technology 24(3), 324-327; Kaiyin Bai and Zhaoxin Han (2007): Northwestern Geology 40(2), 114-117
      • Tulufan Co. (Turfan Co.; Turpan Co.)
Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
      • Tuokexun Co. (Toksun Co.; Toqsun Co.)
Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
Germany
 
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Eifel
      • Mayen
        • Ettringen
          • Bellerberg volcano
Blass, G., Graf, HW., Kolitsch, U., Sebold, D., Über neue Mineralfunde aus der Vulkaneifel, MW 6/2005
Greece
 
  • Aegean Islands Department (Aiyaíon)
    • Sámos Prefecture
      • Sámos Island
Helvaci, C., Stamatakis, M. G., Zagouroglou, C., & Kanaris, J. (1993). Borate minerals and related authigenic silicates in northeastern Mediterranean Late Miocene continental basins. Exploration and Mining Geology, 2(2), 171-178.
Italy
 
  • Apulia
    • Bari Province
      • Molfetta
        • Pulo di Molfetta
Giornate di studio sul Pulo di Molfetta, 25 -27 Maggio 2012
  • Calabria
    • Reggio Calabria Province
      • Aspromonte Massif
Cataldo V.(2012) - Contratti e rapporti di produzione nella Calabria del XVIII secolo. ESI ed., Napoli. pp.240 (cap.III/6 pp.96-98 - La produzione del salnitro)
  • Sicily
    • Agrigento Province (Girgenti Province)
      • Sciacca
Jervis G. (1881): I tesori sotterranei dell'Italia. Vol. 3: Regioni delle Isole. Sardegna e Sicilia. Addenda ai precedenti volumi. Loescher, Torino, XXII+539 pp.
Mexico
 
  • Coahuila
    • Mun. de Cuatrociénegas
      • Cuatro Ciénegas (Cuatrociénegas de Carranza; Venustiano Carranza)
        • Limestone caves
Forti, P. et al. (2006): ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1, 79–98.
Philippines
 
  • Luzon
    • Bicol Region
      • Camarines Norte Province
        • Jose Panganiban (Mambulao)
Jianmin Chen (2011): Global Geology 30(2), 145-153
South Africa
 
  • Northern Cape Province
    • Pixley ka Seme District
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 304.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 304.
Turkmenistan
 
  • Lebap Province
    • South Tien-Shan Mts
      • Kugitangtau Ridge
Vladimir A. Maltsev (1993) Minerals of the Cupp-Coutunn Karst Cave System, Southeast Turkmenistan. World of Stone 2:5-30
Ukraine
 
  • Crimea Oblast'
    • Crimea peninsula
      • Bakhchisaray area
        • Skalistoye Village
Dvoichenko P.A. The minerals of Crimea (1914) - Zapiski Krymskogo obshchestva estestvoispytatelei (Proceeding of the Crimea Society of Naturalistes), 1914, vol. 4, p. 1-208 (Rus.) - Popov S.P. Mineralogy of the Crimea (1938). - M.-L., AN SSSR, 1938, 352 p. (Rus.)
USA
 
  • Alabama
    • Calhoun Co.
      • Weaver Station
Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
    • Jackson Co.
Rocks & Min 70:5 pp 320-333
Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
    • Lawrence Co.
Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
    • Limestone Co.
Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
    • Marshall Co.
      • Newsome Sinks
Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
    • Morgan Co.
      • Trinity
Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
    • Winston Co.
      • Black Warrior River
Mineralogy of Alabama Geol Surv Ala. Bull 120
  • Arizona
    • Coconino Co.
      • Winona
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 313; Guild, F.N. (1910), Mineralogy of Arizona; Galbraith, F.W. & Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 56.
    • Greenlee Co.
      • Peloncillo Mts
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 199, 313; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 56.
    • Pinal Co.
      • Galiuro Mts
        • Aravaipa Creek area
Galbraith, F.W. & Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 56.
  • Arkansas
    • Baxter Co.
Plemons, Douglas (2006) The United States Saltpeter Cave Survey, 2006 : Journal of Spelean History, Vol.40,No.2, Issue 132 (July-December ,2007
Plemons, Douglas (2006) The United States Saltpeter Cave Survey, 2006 : Journal of Spelean History, Vol.40,No.2, Issue 132 (July-December ,2007
    • Carroll Co.
Plemons, Douglas (2006) The United States Saltpeter Cave Survey, 2006 : Journal of Spelean History, Vol.40,No.2, Issue 132 (July-December ,2007
    • Independence Co.
Plemons, Douglas (2006) The United States Saltpeter Cave Survey, 2006 : Journal of Spelean History, Vol.40,No.2, Issue 132 (July-December ,2007
    • Marion Co.
Plemons, Douglas (2006) The United States Saltpeter Cave Survey, 2006 : Journal of Spelean History, Vol.40,No.2, Issue 132 (July-December ,2007
Plemons, Douglas (2006) The United States Saltpeter Cave Survey, 2006 : Journal of Spelean History, Vol.40,No.2, Issue 132 (July-December ,2007
Plemons, Douglas (2006) The United States Saltpeter Cave Survey, 2006 : Journal of Spelean History, Vol.40,No.2, Issue 132 (July-December ,2007
    • Newton Co.
Plemons, Douglas (2006) The United States Saltpeter Cave Survey, 2006 : Journal of Spelean History, Vol.40,No.2, Issue 132 (July-December ,2007
Plemons, Douglas (2006) The United States Saltpeter Cave Survey, 2006 : Journal of Spelean History, Vol.40,No.2, Issue 132 (July-December ,2007
Plemons, Douglas (2006) The United States Saltpeter Cave Survey, 2006 : Journal of Spelean History, Vol.40,No.2, Issue 132 (July-December ,2007
Plemons, Douglas (2006) The United States Saltpeter Cave Survey, 2006 : Journal of Spelean History, Vol.40,No.2, Issue 132 (July-December ,2007
The Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture (http://encyclopediaofarkansas.net)
Plemons, Douglas (2006) The United States Saltpeter Cave Survey, 2006 : Journal of Spelean History, Vol.40,No.2, Issue 132 (July-December ,2007
Plemons, Douglas (2006) The United States Saltpeter Cave Survey, 2006 : Journal of Spelean History, Vol.40,No.2, Issue 132 (July-December ,2007
Plemons, Douglas (2006) The United States Saltpeter Cave Survey, 2006 : Journal of Spelean History, Vol.40,No.2, Issue 132 (July-December ,2007
    • Stone Co.
Plemons, Douglas (2006) The United States Saltpeter Cave Survey, 2006 : Journal of Spelean History, Vol.40,No.2, Issue 132 (July-December ,2007
Plemons, Douglas (2006) The United States Saltpeter Cave Survey, 2006 : Journal of Spelean History, Vol.40,No.2, Issue 132 (July-December ,2007
Plemons, Douglas (2006) The United States Saltpeter Cave Survey, 2006 : Journal of Spelean History, Vol.40,No.2, Issue 132 (July-December ,2007
  • California
    • Imperial Co.
Merrill, Frederick James Hamilton (1916), San Diego, Imperial Counties: California Mining Bureau. Report 14: 741; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 279.
    • Inyo Co.
      • China Ranch (Morrison Ranch)
Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 165-174; Phalen, William Clifton (1913), Potash salts; summary for 1912: Mineral Resources U.S., 1912, part 2: 894; Noble, Levi Fatzinger, George Rogers Mansfield, et al (1922), Nitrate deposits in the Amargosa region, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 724: 22-88; Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 10; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
      • Death Valley
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 304; Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 169; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 279, 341.
Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 69; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 279.
      • Saratoga District (Tecopa Mountain District; Shoshone District ?)
        • Dublin Hills
          • Shoshone
Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 71; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 341.
    • Kern Co.
      • Tehachapi Mts
        • Monolith (Manolith)
Mansfield, George Rogers & Leona Boardman (1927), Potash: Mineral Resources US, 1924: 25; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 279.
    • Modoc Co.
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 279.
    • Riverside Co.
Noble, Levi Fatzinger (1931), Nitrate deposits in southeastern California, with notes on deposits in southeastern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico: USGS Bulletin 820: 31; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 279; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 342.
      • Salton
Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 169; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 279.
      • Vivet Eye
Turner, Henry Ward (1907), The sodium nitrate deposits of the Colorado: Mining and Scientific Press: 94: 634-636; Ingalls, Walter Renton, ed. (1908) The Mineral Industry, Its Statistics, Technology and Trade during 1907, Vol. XVI, Hill Publishing Co., New York & London: 833.
    • San Bernardino Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 310.; Ericksen & Mrose (1970) American Mineralogist 55:1500-1517
      • Owlshead Mts
        • Owl Hole Springs
Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 62; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 154.
      • Slate Range
Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 63; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 154.
    • San Mateo Co.
      • Menlo Park
        • Sharon Heights
Pampeyan, E.H. (2010): USGS Open-File Report 10-1053
  • Georgia
    • Bartow Co.
      • Kingston
Minerals of Georgia: Their properties and occurrences. Robert Cook GGWRD Bull 92
  • Idaho
    • Clark Co.
      • Dubois
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 304; Rocks & Minerals: 70(4): 242-263.
  • Illinois
    • Jackson Co.
Plemons, Douglas (2006) The United States Saltpeter Cave Survey, 2006 : Journal of Spelean History, Vol.40,No.2, Issue 132 (July-December ,2007
    • Monroe Co.
Plemons, Douglas (2006) The United States Saltpeter Cave Survey, 2006 : Journal of Spelean History, Vol.40,No.2, Issue 132 (July-December ,2007
Anderson (1994) Kentucky Geol. Survey Ser. XI Spec. Pub 20
    • Rockcastle Co.
http://www.rkci.org/library/gsp/engle.htm
  • Missouri
    • Callaway Co.
      • Portland
R&M 73:2 pp 98-117
    • Maries Co.
R&M 73:2 pp 98-117
  • Nevada
    • Churchill Co.
      • Lake District
U.S. Bureau of Mines Circular 7093 (1939).
    • Clark Co.
      • Spring Mts
        • Charleston District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Esmeralda Co.
      • Silver Peak District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Lander Co.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Washoe Co.
      • Leadville District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Mexico
    • Eddy Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Hidalgo Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 306; Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
      • Animas Valley
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
NSS Bull. 43:127-132
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 304; Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Burke Co.
      • Linville Gorge
Plemons, Douglas (2006)The United States Saltpeter Cave Survey
Genth,F.A and Kerr,W.C,1885,Minerals and Mineral Localities of North Carolina,Geologic Survey,Vol.2,p.81
Gale, Hoyt S. (1912) Nitrate Deposits : USGS Geological Bulletion 523
    • Swain Co.
Mineralogical Record March - April 2000
Pough,Fredrick H., 1996, Rocks and Minerals,pg#204
    • Cannon Co.
www.nashvillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
www.nashevillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
www.nashevillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
    • Claiborne Co.
www.nashevillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
www.nashvillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
www.nashevillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
    • Coffee Co.
www.nashvillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
    • Cumberland Co.
www.nashvillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
    • DeKalb Co.
      • Dowelltown
www.nashvillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
    • Fentress Co.
      • Buffalo Cove
www.nashvillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
www.nashvillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
www.nashvillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
www.nashvillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
www.nashvillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
    • Franklin Co.
www.nashvillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
www.nashvillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
www.nashvillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
    • Grainger Co.
www.nashvillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
    • Hamilton Co.
www.mtsuedu/~cwtech/saltpeter/Saltpeter.html
    • Hickman Co.
www.nashvillefossils.com/resources/pages/saltpeter.html
    • Knox Co.
www.mtsuedu/~cwtech/saltpeter/Saltpeter.html
    • Marion Co.
www.mtsuedu/~cwtech/saltpeter/Saltpeter.html
www.mtsuedu / ~ cwtech / saltpeter / Saltpeter. html
    • Monroe Co.
www.mtsuedu/~cwtech/saltpeter/Saltpeter.html
www.mtsuedu/~cwtech/saltpeter/Saltpeter.html
www.mtsuedu/~cwtech/saltpeter/Saltpeter.html
    • Roane Co.
www.mtsuedu/~cwtech/saltpeter/Saltpeter.html
    • Robertson Co.
Travis A. Paris (2011) Tennessee mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 86, #4, 300-328.
    • Shelby Co.
www.mtsuedu/~cwtech/saltpeter/Saltpeter.html
    • Smith Co.
Travis A. Paris (2011) Tennessee mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 86, #4, 300-328.
Travis A. Paris (2011) Tennessee mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 86, #4, 300-328.
    • Van Buren Co.
www.mtsuedu/~cwtech/saltpeter/Saltpeter.html
    • White Co.
www.mtsuedu/~cwtech/saltpeter/Saltpeter.html
www.mtsuedu/~cwtech/saltpeter/Saltpeter.html
  • Texas
    • Brewster Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 302.; American Mineralogist (1926) 11:189-190
    • Presidio Co.
BEG Min Res Circ 73
  • Utah
    • Iron Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    • Millard Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
  • Virginia
    • Augusta Co.
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Bath Co.
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Bland Co.
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Botetourt Co.
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Craig Co.
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Giles Co.
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Highland Co.
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Lee Co.
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Page Co.
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Pulaski Co.
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Rockbridge Co.
      • Glasgow
Rocks & Min.: 60:157.
    • Scott Co.
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Smyth Co.
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich; Robert C. Whisonant (2001) GEOLOGY AND HISTORY OF CONFEDERATE SALTPETER CAVE OPERATIONS IN WESTERN VIRGINIA, Virginia Minerals Vol 47 No. 4
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Wise Co.
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Wythe Co.
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
  • West Virginia
    • Grant Co.
Davies, William E Caverns of West Virginia West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey Volume 19A (July 1958)
    • Greenbrier Co.
Davies, William E Caverns of West Virginia West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey Volume 19A (July 1958)
Johnson, 1960. Source Book for the Rock & Mineral Collector.
    • Pendleton Co.
Burton Faust, 1964, Saltpetre Caves and Virginia History, Econo Print, Falls Church, VA, pp. 56.
Burton Faust, 1964, Saltpetre Caves and Virginia History, Econo Print, Falls Church, VA, pp. 56.
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