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Nontronite

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Formula:
Na0.3Fe23+(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2 · nH2O
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Green, olive-green, ...
Lustre:
Resinous, Waxy, Dull
Hardness:
1½ - 2
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1827 by Pierre Berthier for the type locality at Nontron, Dordogne, France. Originally named chloropal in 1822 by Dr. Johann Jacob Bernhardi and Dr. Rudolph Brandes for chlor- and opal suggesting it was a green waxy mineral somewhat resembling common opal.

Classification of Nontronite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.EC.40

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
C : Phyllosilicates with mica sheets, composed of tetrahedral and octahedral nets
71.3.1a.3

71 : PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
3 : Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
16.18.1

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
18 : Aluminosilicates of Fe and alkalis

Physical Properties of Nontronite

Resinous, Waxy, Dull
Colour:
Green, olive-green, yellow-green, yellow, orange, brown
Hardness (Mohs):
1½ - 2

Optical Data of Nontronite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.530 - 1.580 nβ = 1.555 - 1.612 nγ = 1.560 - 1.615
2V:
Measured: 5° to 66°, Calculated: 32° to 46°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.030 - 0.035
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r > v strong

Chemical Properties of Nontronite

IMA Formula:
Na0.3Fe23+(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2 · nH2O
Elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Ti,Mg,Ca

Crystallography of Nontronite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.23 Å, b = 9.11 Å, c = 15.5 Å
β = 90°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.574 : 1 : 1.701
Unit Cell Volume:
V 738.50 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Type Occurrence of Nontronite

Relationship of Nontronite to other Species

Member of:
Other Members of Group:
AliettiteCa0.2Mg6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 4H2O
Beidellite(Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
FerrosaponiteCa0.3(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
HectoriteNa0.3(Mg,Li)3(Si4O10)(F,OH)2
Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
PimeliteNi3Si4O10(OH)2·4H2O
Saliotite(Li,Na)Al3(AlSi3O10)(OH)5
SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Stevensite(Ca,Na)xMg3-x(Si4O10)(OH)2
SwineforditeLi(Al,Li,Mg)4((Si,Al)4O10)2(OH,F)4 · nH2O
VolkonskoiteCa0.3(Cr,Mg,Fe)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Yakhontovite(Ca,Na)0.5(Cu,Fe,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 3H2O
ZincsiliteZn3(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.05MinnesotaiteFe32+Si4O10(OH)2
9.EC.05TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2
9.EC.05WillemseiteNi3Si4O10(OH)2
9.EC.10FerripyrophylliteFe3+Si2O5(OH)
9.EC.10PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2
9.EC.15BoromuscoviteKAl2(Si3B)O10(OH)2
9.EC.15CeladoniteKMgFe3+Si4O10(OH)2
9.EC.15ChernykhiteBaV23+(Si2Al2)O10(OH)2
9.EC.15MontdoriteKFe2+1.5Mn2+0.5Mg0.5Si4O10(F,OH)2
9.EC.15MuscoviteKAl2(Si3Al)O10(OH)2
9.EC.15NanpingiteCsAl2(Si3Al)O10(OH)2
9.EC.15ParagoniteNaAl2(Si3Al)O10(OH)2
9.EC.15RoscoeliteKV23+(Si3Al)O10(OH)2
9.EC.15Tobelite(NH4)Al2(Si3Al)O10(OH)2
9.EC.15AluminoceladoniteKMgAlSi4O10(OH)2
9.EC.15ChromphylliteKCr2(Si3Al)O10(OH)2
9.EC.15FerroaluminoceladoniteKFe2+AlSi4O10(OH)2
9.EC.15FerroceladoniteKFe2+Fe3+Si4O10(OH)2
9.EC.15ChromceladoniteKMgCrSi4O10(OH)2
9.EC.15TainioliteKLiMg2Si4O10F2
9.EC.15GanteriteBa0.5(Na,K)0.5Al2(Si2.5Al1.5)O10(OH)2
9.EC.20AnniteKFe32+AlSi3O10(OH)2
9.EC.20EphesiteNaLiAl2(Si2Al2)O10(OH)2
9.EC.20HendricksiteKZn3(Si3Al)O10(OH)2
9.EC.20MasutomiliteKLiAlMn2+(Si3Al)O10(F,OH)2
9.EC.20NorrishiteKLiMn23+Si4O12
9.EC.20PhlogopiteKMg3(Si3Al)O10(OH)2
9.EC.20PolylithioniteKLi2AlSi4O10F2
9.EC.20PreiswerkiteNaAlMg2(Si2Al2)O10(OH)2
9.EC.20SiderophylliteKFe22+Al(Si2Al2)O10(OH)2
9.EC.20TetraferriphlogopiteKMg3(Si3Fe3+)O10(OH)2
9.EC.20FluorotetraferriphlogopiteKMg3Fe3+Si3O10F2
9.EC.20Wonesite(Na,K,◻)(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH,F)4
9.EC.20EastoniteKAlMg2(Si2Al2)O10(OH)2
9.EC.20TetraferrianniteKFe32+(Si3Fe3+)O10(OH)2
9.EC.20TrilithioniteKLi1.5Al1.5(Si3Al)O10F2
9.EC.20FluoranniteKFe32+(Si3Al)O10F2
9.EC.20ShirokshiniteK(Mg2Na)Si4O10F2
9.EC.20ShirozuliteKMn32+(Si3Al)O10(OH)2
9.EC.20SokolovaiteCsLi2AlSi4O10F2
9.EC.20AspidoliteNaMg3(Si3Al)O10(OH)2
9.EC.20FluorophlogopiteKMg3(Si3Al)O10F2
9.EC.20UM2004-49-SiO:AlCsFHKLi(Cs,K)(Al,Li)2.6((Si,Al)4O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.20Suhailite(NH4)Fe32+(Si3Al)O10(OH)2
9.EC.20YangzhumingiteKMg2.5Si4O10F2
9.EC.20OrloviteKLi2TiSi4O10(OF)
9.EC.20OxyphlogopiteK(Mg,Ti,Fe)3[(Si,Al)4O10](O,F)2
9.EC.25Brammallite(Na,H3O)(Al,Mg,Fe)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2
9.EC.30MargariteCaAl2(Si2Al2)O10(OH)2
9.EC.35AnanditeBaFe32+(Si3Fe3+)O10S(OH)
9.EC.35BityiteCaLiAl2(Si2BeAl)O10(OH)2
9.EC.35ClintoniteCaAlMg2(SiAl3)O10(OH)2
9.EC.35KinoshitaliteBaMg3(Si2Al2)O10(OH)2
9.EC.35FerrokinoshitaliteBaFe32+(Si2Al2)O10(OH)2
9.EC.35OxykinoshitaliteBaMg2Ti4+O2(Si2Al2)O10
9.EC.35FluorokinoshitaliteBaMg3Al2Si2O10F2
9.EC.40Beidellite(Na,Ca)0.3Al2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2 · nH2O
9.EC.40KurumsakiteZn8Al8V25+Si5O35 · 27H2O
9.EC.40Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.3(Al,Mg)2Si4O10(OH)2 · nH2O
9.EC.40VolkonskoiteCa0.3(Cr,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.40Yakhontovite(Ca,Na,K)0.2(Cu,Fe,Mg)2Si4O10(OH)2 · 3H2O
9.EC.45HectoriteNa0.3(Mg,Li)3Si4O10(F,OH)2 · nH2O
9.EC.45Saponite(Ca,Na)0.3(Mg,Fe2+)3(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.45SauconiteNa0.3Zn3(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.45SpadaiteMgSiO2(OH)2 · H2O(?)
9.EC.45Stevensite(Ca,Na)xMg3-ySi4O10(OH)2
9.EC.45SwineforditeCa0.2(Li,Al,Mg,Fe)3(Si,Al)4O10(OH,F)2 · nH2O
9.EC.45ZincsiliteZn3Si4O10(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.45FerrosaponiteCa0.3(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)3(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.50VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe3+,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
9.EC.55Baileychlore(Zn,Fe2+,Al,Mg)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
9.EC.55Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8
9.EC.55ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55Cookeite(Al,Li)3Al2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
9.EC.55FranklinfurnaceiteCa2Mn32+Mn3+Fe3+Zn2Si2O10(OH)8
9.EC.55GonyeriteMn52+Fe3+(Si3Fe3+O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55Nimite(Ni,Mg,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
9.EC.55Orthochamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH,O)8
9.EC.55Pennantite(Mn2+,Al)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8
9.EC.55SudoiteMg2Al3(Si3Al)O10(OH)8
9.EC.55DonbassiteAl2(Si3Al)O10(OH)2 · Al2.33(OH)6
9.EC.55GlagoleviteNa(Mg,Al)6(Si3Al)O10(OH,O)8
9.EC.55BorocookeiteLiAl4(Si3B)O10(OH)8
9.EC.60AliettiteCa0.2Mg6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 4H2O
9.EC.60Corrensite(Ca,Na,K)1-x(Mg,Fe,Al)9(Si,Al)8O20(OH)10 · nH2O
9.EC.60DozyiteMg7Al2(Si4Al2)O15(OH)12
9.EC.60HydrobiotiteK(Mg,Fe2+)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · nH2O
9.EC.60Karpinskite(Mg,Ni)2Si2O5(OH)2(?)
9.EC.60KulkeiteNa0.3Mg8Al(Si,Al)8O20(OH)10
9.EC.60LunijianlaiteLi0.7Al6.2(Si7Al)20(OH,O)10
9.EC.60Rectorite(Na,Ca)Al4(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 2H2O
9.EC.60Saliotite(Li,Na)Al3(Si3Al)O10(OH)5
9.EC.60TosuditeNa0.5(Al,Mg)6(Si,Al)8O18(OH)12 · 5H2O
9.EC.60Brinrobertsite(Na,K,Ca)0.3(Al,Fe,Mg)4(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 3.5H2O
9.EC.65MacaulayiteFe243+Si4O43(OH)2
9.EC.70BurckhardtitePb2(Fe3+Te6+)[AlSi3O8]O6
9.EC.75FerrisuritePb2.4Fe23+Si4O10(CO3)1.7(OH)3 · nH2O
9.EC.75Surite(Pb,Ca)3Al2(Si,Al)4O10(CO3)2(OH)3 · 0.3H2O
9.EC.75NiksergieviteBa2Al3(Si,Al)4O10(CO3)(OH)6 · nH2O
9.EC.80KegelitePb4Al2Si4O10(SO4)(CO3)2(OH)4
16.18.2Ferro-glaucophane◻Na2(Fe32+Al2)Si8O22(OH)2
16.18.3TuhualiteNaFe2+Fe3+Si6O15
16.18.4AnniteKFe32+AlSi3O10(OH)2
16.18.5SiderophylliteKFe22+Al(Si2Al2)O10(OH)2

Other Names for Nontronite

Name in Other Languages:
Aragonese:Nontronite
German:Nontronit
Simplified Chinese:绿脱石
绿高岭石
Spanish:Nontronita
Traditional Chinese:綠脫石
綠高嶺石

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Nontronite

Reference List:
Berthier, P. (1827) Nontronite, nouveau minéral découvert dans le département de la Dordogne. Annales de Chimie et de Physique: 36: 22-27.

Larsen, E.S., Steiger, G. (1928) Dehydration and optical studies of alunogen, nontronite, and griffithite. American Journal of Science, 5th. series: 15: 1-19.

Foshag, W.F. (1928) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 13: 491-494.

Goodman, B. A., Russell, J. D., Fraser, A. R. and Woodhams, F. W. D. (1976) A Mossbauer and infrared spectroscopic study of the structure of nontronite: Clays & Clay Minerals 24, 53-59.

Russell, J.D., Clarke, D.R. (1978) The effect of Fe-for-Si substitution on the b-dimension of nontronite. Clay Minerals: 13: 133-137.

Tsipursky, S.I., Drits, V.A., Chekin, S.S. (1978) Study of structural ordering of nontronite by oblique texture electron diffraction. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, Seriya Geologicheskaya: 10: 105-113. [in Russian]

Besson, G., Bookin, A.S., Dainyak, L.G., Rautureau, M., Tsipursky, S.I., Tchoubar, C., Drits, V.A. (1983), Use of diffraction and Mössbauer methods for the structural and crystallochemical characterizations of nontronites. Journal of Applied Crystallography: 16: 374-383.

Aufschuss (1983): 34: 295.

Dainyak, L.G., Drits, V.A. (1987) Interpretation of Mössbauer spectra of nontronite, celadonite, and glauconite. Clays and Clay Minerals: 35: 363-372.

Sherman, D.M., Vergo, N. (1988) Optical (diffuse reflectance) and Mössbauer spectroscopic study of nontronite and related Fe-bearing smectites. American Mineralogist: 73: 1346-1354.

Murad, E., Cashion, J.D. and Brown, L.J. (1990) Magnetic ordering in Garfield nontronite under applied magnetic fields. Clay Minerals: 25: 261-269.

Köster, H.M., Ehrlicher, U., Gilg, H.A., Jordan, R., Murad, E., Onnich, K. (1999) Mineralogical and chemical characteristics of five nontronites and Fe-rich smectites. Clay Minerals: 34: 579-599.

Manceau, A., B. Lanson, B., Drits, V.A., Chateigner, D., Gates, W.P., Wu, J., Huo, D., Stucki, J.W. (2001) Oxidation-reduction mechanism of iron in dioctahedral smectites. I. Crystal chemistry of oxidized reference nontronites. American Mineralogist: 85: 133-152.

Dainyak, L.G., Zviagina, B.B., Rusakov, V.S., Drits, V.A. (2006) Interpretation of the nontronite-dehydroxylate Mössbauer spectrum using EFG calculations. European Journal of Mineralogy: 18: 753-764.

Gailhanou, H., Blanc, P., Rogez, J., Mikaelian, G., Horiuchi, K., Yamamura, Y., Saito, K., Kawaji, H., Warmont, F., Grenèche, J.M., Vieillard, P., Fialips, C.I., Giffaut, E., Gaucher, E.C. (2013) Thermodynamic properties of saponite, nontronite, and vermiculite derived from calorimetric measurements. American Mineralogist: 98: 1834-1847.

Internet Links for Nontronite

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https://www.mindat.org/min-2924.html
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Localities for Nontronite

Mineral and/or Locality  
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