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About NorbergiteHide

Orange-yellow, yellow, orange to brown.
Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy
6 - 6½
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named in 1926 by Per Geijer after the type locality: The Östanmoss Mine, Norberg, Västmanland, Sweden.
Usually isolated rounded grains, rarely as crude crystals, well-formed crystals very rare.

Visit for gemological information about Norbergite.

Classification of NorbergiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
F : Nesosilicates with additional anions; cations in [4], [5] and/or only [6] coordination

52 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
3 : Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
1 : Silicates with fluoride (not containing Al)

Physical Properties of NorbergiteHide

Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy
Transparent, Translucent
Orange-yellow, yellow, orange to brown.
6 - 6½ on Mohs scale
None Observed
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
3.177 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.186 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of NorbergiteHide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.563 - 1.567 nβ = 1.567 - 1.579 nγ = 1.590 - 1.593
Measured: 44° to 50°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.027
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r>v, slight to strong

Chemical Properties of NorbergiteHide

IMA Formula:
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of NorbergiteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.747(6) Å, b = 4.710(4) Å, c = 10.271(8) Å
a:b:c = 1.857 : 1 : 2.181
Unit Cell V:
423.15 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Space-group Pmcn (non-standard setting); data for synthetic material

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0000190NorbergiteGibbs G V, Ribbe P H (1969) The crystal structures of the humite minerals: I. Norbergite American Mineralogist 54 376-39019690293
0005535NorbergiteCamara F (1997) New data on the structure of norbergite: location of hydrogen by X-ray diffraction The Canadian Mineralogist 35 1523-153019970293
0005536NorbergiteCamara F (1997) New data on the structure of norbergite: location of hydrogen by X-ray diffraction The Canadian Mineralogist 35 1523-153019970293
0017920NorbergiteTaylor W, West J (1929) The Structure of Norbergite _cod_database_code 1011009 Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie 70 461-47419290293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
5.14 Å(18)
4.43 Å(10)
4.371 Å(30)
4.283 Å(12)
4.149 Å(20)
3.327 Å(20)
3.227 Å(25)
3.058 Å(100)
2.771 Å(14)
2.716 Å(12)
2.639 Å(75)
2.466 Å(16)
2.408 Å(35)
2.337 Å(35)
2.296 Å(16)
2.255 Å(70)
2.230 Å(80)
2.214 Å(8)
2.184 Å(8)
2.032 Å(10)
2.0068 Å(6)
1.9442 Å(14)
1.9243 Å(6)
1.9201 Å(6)
1.8472 Å(8)
1.8408 Å(10)
1.7733 Å(4)
1.7357 Å(30)
1.7241 Å(50)
1.7125 Å(6)
1.7022 Å(14)
1.6529 Å(10)
1.6160 Å(8)
1.6125 Å(10)
1.6004 Å(10)
1.5938 Å(10)
1.5808 Å(6)
1.5678 Å(4)
1.5518 Å(2)
1.4763 Å(45)
ICDD 11-686, For synthetic material

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
High grade marble

Type Occurrence of NorbergiteHide

Geijer, P. (1926) Norbergite and fluoborite, two new minerals from the Norberg mining district. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar: 48: 84-85.

Synonyms of NorbergiteHide

Other Language Names for NorbergiteHide

Simplified Chinese:块硅镁石

Varieties of NorbergiteHide

MaclureiteMaclureite variety of "chondrodite" is apparently what is now considered to be brownish yellow to orange norbergite. "[']It occurs occasionally in small four-sided prisms, (of a paler colour than the amorphous masses,) with rhombic bases of 124° and 56°...

Relationship of Norbergite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
Chondrodite(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
ClinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4F2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
Humite(Mg,Fe2+)7(SiO4)3(F,OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
HydroxylchondroditeMg5(SiO4)2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
HydroxylclinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4(OH)2Mon. 2/m

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
66 photos of Norbergite associated with CalciteCaCO3
40 photos of Norbergite associated with GraphiteC
27 photos of Norbergite associated with DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
18 photos of Norbergite associated with SpinelMgAl2O4
7 photos of Norbergite associated with PyriteFeS2
6 photos of Norbergite associated with PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
6 photos of Norbergite associated with FluoboriteMg3(BO3)(F,OH)3
3 photos of Norbergite associated with Marble
3 photos of Norbergite associated with DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
2 photos of Norbergite associated with FluoriteCaF2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.AF.ChegemiteCa7(SiO4)3(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AF.BarwooditeMn2+6Nb5+(SiO4)2O3(OH)3Trig. 3 : P3
9.AF.05SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AF.10AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
9.AF.10KanonaiteMn3+Al(SiO4)OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
9.AF.15KyaniteAl2(SiO4)OTric. 1 : P1
9.AF.20MulliteAl4+2xSi2-2xO10-xOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbam
9.AF.20Krieselite(Al,Ga)2(GeO4)(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
9.AF.23BoromulliteAl9BSi2O19Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
9.AF.25YoderiteMg(Al,Fe3+)3(SiO4)2O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.AF.30MagnesiostauroliteMg(Mg,Li)3(Al,Mg)18Si8O44(OH)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.AF.30StauroliteFe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.AF.30ZincostauroliteZn2Al9Si4O23(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.AF.35TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AF.45AlleghanyiteMn2+5(SiO4)2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.45Chondrodite(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.45ReinhardbraunsiteCa5(SiO4)2(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.45KumtyubeiteCa5(SiO4)2F2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.45HydroxylchondroditeMg5(SiO4)2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.50Humite(Mg,Fe2+)7(SiO4)3(F,OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
9.AF.50Unnamed (Ca-analogue of Humite)Ca7(SiO4)4F2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AF.55ClinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4F2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.55SonoliteMn2+9(SiO4)4(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.55HydroxylclinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4(OH)2Mon. 2/m
9.AF.60LeucophoeniciteMn2+7(SiO4)3(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.65RibbeiteMn2+5(SiO4)2(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AF.70JerrygibbsiteMn2+9(SiO4)4(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
9.AF.75WeliniteMn2+6(W6+,Mg)2(SiO4)2(O,OH)6Trig. 3 : P3
9.AF.85Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.AF.85MagnesiochloritoidMgAl2(SiO4)O(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.AF.90PoldervaartiteCaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
9.AF.90OlmiiteCaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

17.1.4Fluorapophyllite-(Na)NaCa4(Si8O20)F · 8H2OOrth.
17.1.5Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/mnc
17.1.6Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2OTet.
17.1.7HsianghualiteCa3Li2(Be3Si3O12)F2Iso. 4 3 2 : I41 3 2
17.1.8LeucophaniteNaCaBeSi2O6FOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
17.1.10Chondrodite(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.1.11Humite(Mg,Fe2+)7(SiO4)3(F,OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
17.1.12ClinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4F2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.1.14Charoite(K,Sr)15-16(Ca,Na)32[Si6O11(O,OH)6]2[Si12O18(O,OH)12]2[Si17O25(O,OH)18]2(OH,F)4 · ~3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
17.1.15CuspidineCa4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.1.16BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2OTric.
17.1.17ZeophylliteCa13Si10O28(OH)2F8 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
17.1.18Rowlandite-(Y)(Y,Ce)4Fe2+(Si2O7)2F2 (?)Tric.
17.1.21Mosandrite-(Ce)(Ca3REE)[(H2O)2Ca0.50.5]Ti(Si2O7)2(OH)2(H2O)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.1.22Hiortdahlite(Na,Ca)2Ca4Zr(Mn,Ti,Fe)(Si2O7)2(F,O)4Tric. 1 : P1
17.1.25Thorosteenstrupine(Ca,Th,Mn)3Si4O11F · 6H2O
17.1.27JinshajiangiteBaNaFe2+4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2FTric. 1 : P1
17.1.28RosenbuschiteNa6Ca6Zr3Ti(Si2O7)4O2F6Tric. 1 : P1
17.1.30SonoliteMn2+9(SiO4)4(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b

Fluorescence of NorbergiteHide

May fluoresce bright to weak yellow to pale yellow in SW; less bright in mid-wave UV, not fluorescent in long wave.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for NorbergiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Geijer, P. (1926) Norbergite and fluoborite, two new minerals from the Norberg mining district. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlingar: 48: 84-85.
Foshag, W.F. (1927) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 12: 265-266.
Larsen, Esper S., Bauer, Lawson H., and Berman, Harry (1928) Norbergite from Franklin, New Jersey. American Mineralogist: 13: 349-353.
Rankama, K. (1947) Synthesis of norbergite and chondrodite by direct dry fusion. American Mineralogist: 32(3-4): 146–157.
Valkenburg, A.V. (1961) Synthesis of the humites nMg2SiO4·Mg(F, OH)2. Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards - A. Physics and Chemistry: 65A: 415-428.
Gibbs, G.V., Ribbe, P.H. (1969) The crystal structure of the humite minerals: I. Norbergite. American Mineralogist: 54: 376-390.
Ribbe, P.H., Gibbs, G.V. (1971) Crystal structures of the humite minerals: III. Mg/Fe ordering in humite and its relation to other ferromagnesian silicates. American Mineralogist: 56: 1155-1173.
Peterson, E.U., Essene, E.J., Peacor, D.R., Valley, J.W. (1982) Fluorine end-member micas and amphiboles. American Mineralogist: 67(5-6): 538-544.
Cámara, F. (1997) New data on the structure of norbergite: location of hydrogen by X-ray diffraction. The Canadian Mineralogist: 35: 1523-1530.
Liu, L.G., Lin, C.C., Mernagh, T.P. (1999) Raman spectra of norbergite at various pressures and temperatures. European Journal of Mineralogy: 11: 1011-1021.

Internet Links for NorbergiteHide

Localities for NorbergiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Tasmania
    • Waratah-Wynyard municipality
      • Waratah district
        • Waratah
  • Ontario
    • Haliburton County
      • Cardiff Township
Sabina, A.P. (1986) Rocks and Minerals for the Collector, Bancroft-Parry Sound Area and Southern Ontario. Geological Survey of Canada, Miscellaneous Report 39.
      • Monmouth Township
Reiner Mielke 2017
    • Peterborough County
      • Galway Township
Geological Survey of Canada Miscellaneous Survey 39.
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • Témiscamingue RCM
        • Les Lacs-du-Témiscamingue
Strübel, Zimmer: "Lexikon der Minerale", 2nd Ed., 1991; Kenneth L. Currie and Otto van Breemen (1996)The origin of rare minerals in the Kipawa syenite complex, western Quebec. Can Mineral 34:435-451
    • Outaouais
      • Pontiac RCM
        • Otter Lake
Lafontaine, M.A.G. (1979) Uranium-Thorium Deposit at the Yates Mine, Huddersfield Township, Quebec. Master of Science thesis, University of Ottawa.
  • Inner Mongolia
    • Baotou City (Baotou Prefecture)
      • Bayan Obo mining district
        • Bayan Obo
          • Bayan Obo deposit (Bayun-Obo deposit; Baiyunebo deposit)
Miyawaki R, Shimazaki H, Shigeoka M, Yokoyama K, Matsubara S, Yurimoto H (2011) Yangzhumingite, KMg2.5Si4O10F2, a new mineral in the mica group from Bayan Obo, Inner Mongolia, China. European Journal of Mineralogy 23, 467-473
  • Southwest Finland
    • Pargas
No reference listed
Harwood Mineral Collection, University Of Manchester, reference nr. 553
Joel Dyer collection and photo, photo-id:536808
  • Sermersooq
    • Dove Bugt
Friend, C., George, M., & Perkins, W. (1993). A new occurrence of musgravite, a rare beryllium oxide, in the Caledonides of North-East Greenland. Mineralogical Magazine, 57, 121-129.
  • Campania
    • Naples
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
        • Monte Somma
          • Ercolano
            • San Vito
Cassinelli C. (1986) - Norbergite e Thaumasite della Cava San Vito. Due nuove specie del Vesuvio - Rivista Min. Italiana, Milano, fasc. 1, 1986, pp. 36-39
    • Salerno
      • Nocera Inferiore
Zambonini, F. (1913): Grothina, un nuovo minerale. Atti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei, serie 5, Rendiconti, Classe di scienze fisiche, matematiche e naturali, 22, 1, 801-803; Zambonini, F. (1919): Il tufo piperinoide della Campania e i suoi minerali. Memorie per servire alla descrizione della Carta geologica d'Italia, 7, 2, 130 pp.; White, J.S. (1981): Grothine discredited, equals norbergite. Mineralogical Record, 12, 6, 377-378; Carati, M. (1988): I minerali degli inclusi metamorfosati nel Tufo Grigio Campano. Notiziario del Gruppo Mineralogico Geologico Napoletano, 18, 5-12.
  • Trentino-Alto Adige
    • Trento Province (Trentino)
      • Predazzo
Ferry J.M., Wing B.A., Penniston-Dorland S.C., Rumble D. (2002): The direction of fluid flow during contact metamorphism of siliceous carbonate rocks: new data for the Monzoni and Predazzo aureoles, northern Italy, and a global review. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 142, 679–699.
  • Mandalay Region
    • Pyin-Oo-Lwin District
      • Mogok Township
        • Mogok Valley
Moore, T. (2004): What's New in Minerals. Denver Show 2003. Mineralogical Record. 35 (2), 151-156
  • Gilgit-Baltistan
    • Hunza District
      • Hunza Valley
Bernard and Hyršl, 2004. Minerals and Their Localities
  • Bihor
    • Nucet
No reference listed
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
    • Plastovsky District
      • Plast
Local geolofist S.V.Kolesnichenko data; Kissin, A.; Gottman, I.; Sustavov, S.; Murzin, V.; Kiseleva, D. (2020) The First Find of Cr2O3 Eskolaite Associated with Marble-Hosted Ruby in the Southern Urals and the Problem of Al and Cr Sources. Minerals 10, 101.
  • Republic of Karelia
    • Ladoga Region
No reference listed
  • Västmanland County
    • Norberg
Holtstam, D., Andersson, U.B. (2007): The REE minerals of the Bastnäs-type deposits, South-Central Sweden. Canadian Mineralogist. 45, 1073-1114
No reference listed
      • Röberg ore field
Geijer, P. (1926): Norbergite and Fluoborite, two new minerals from the Norberg mining district. Preliminary report. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlinger. 48, 84-85; Jansson, M. Förekomster med ceriummineral i stråket Möklinta, Norberg, Riddarhyttan och Nora.
No reference listed
  • Scotland
Livingstone, A. and Macpherson, H.G. (1983) Fifth supplementary list of British minerals (Scottish). Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 47, n° 342, p. 99-105.
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex County
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
          • Franklin Marble
Palache(1935):102-103; Dunn(1995):Pt2:163 & Pt3:346.
Rocks & Min.: 21:760-761.
Betancourt, P.P. (The Picking Table, Vol. 27(2):2-10; Dunn(1995):Pt3:346.
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
        • Sparta
          • Sterling Hill
            • Franklin Marble
Sight identigfication by experienced local collectors and museum officials.
      • Hamburg
Dunn, P.J. (1995), Pt 2: 169.
      • Hardyston Township
        • Rudeville
Sinhalite = personal communication with Dr. Paulus Moore (unpublished); remainder - common knowledge among local collectors.
      • Sparta Township
        • Franklin Marble
A Quest for New Jersey Minerals, Robert Speiser (1978):9.
      • Vernon Township
        • McAfee
Observed David S. Bernstein, February of 2012
  • New York
    • Orange Co.
      • Town of Warwick
        • Amity
Rhein Collection
    • St. Lawrence Co.
      • Balmat-Edwards Zinc Mining District
NY State Museum spec. no. 12664
Petersen, E., Essene, D., Peacor, D. (1982): Fluorine end-member micas and amphiboles, American mineralogist, Vol. 67, 538-544
A.Mathauser collection
      • Gouverneur
Fredric Schuster
  • Vermont
    • Windham Co.
      • Townshend
Rocks & Min. Vol. 71, (1996)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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