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Colorless, cloudy white
Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Pearly
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Member of:
Named in 1959 by Mary Emma Mrose, E. C. T. Chao, Joseph James Fahey, and Charles Milton in honor of Keith Norseth (1927–1991), geologist for the Westvaco Mine, west of Green River, Wyoming, USA.
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Classification of NorsethiteHide


A : Carbonates without additional anions, without H2O
B : Alkali-earth (and other M2+) carbonates

2 : AB(XO3)2

11 : Carbonates
5 : Carbonates of Sr and Ba

Physical Properties of NorsethiteHide

Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Pearly
Transparent, Translucent
Colorless, cloudy white
3½ on Mohs scale
Very Good
3.84 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.84 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of NorsethiteHide

Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.694 nε = 1.519
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.175
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of NorsethiteHide


Chemical AnalysisHide

Oxide wt%:
BaO53.11 %
MgO11.28 %
MnO4.68 %
Total:69.07 %

Crystallography of NorsethiteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
3 2 - Trapezohedral
Space Group:
R3 2
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.02 Å, c = 16.75 Å
a:c = 1 : 3.337
Unit Cell V:
365.56 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Usually tabular plates with large (0001), rarely Rhombohedral with (0001), {1011}, {1010}, and {1120}

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
5.584 (25)
4.21 (30)
3.86 (35)
3.02 (100)
2.66 (35)
2.51 (35)
2.10 (35)
1.931 (35)
1.864 (35)
ICDD 12-530

Type Occurrence of NorsethiteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Flat tablets to 0.2-2.0 mm, rarely rhombohedra
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Black shale in Bentonite-hosted alkali mineral deposit
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for NorsethiteHide

Simplified Chinese:菱钡镁石
Traditional Chinese:菱鋇鎂石

Relationship of Norsethite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
KutnohoriteCa(Mn,Mg,Fe)(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
MinrecorditeCaZn(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

5.AB.05CalciteCaCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.AB.05MagnesiteMgCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.AB.05OtaviteCdCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
5.AB.05RhodochrositeMnCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.AB.05SideriteFeCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.AB.05SmithsoniteZnCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.AB.05SpherocobaltiteCoCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.AB.10AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
5.AB.10DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
5.AB.10KutnohoriteCa(Mn,Mg,Fe)(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
5.AB.10MinrecorditeCaZn(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
5.AB.15AragoniteCaCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.AB.15CerussitePbCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.AB.15StrontianiteSrCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.AB.15WitheriteBaCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.AB.20VateriteCaCO3Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
5.AB.25HuntiteCaMg3(CO3)4Trig. 3 2 : R3 2
5.AB.45BarytocalciteBaCa(CO3)2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.AB.50Carbocernaite(Ca,Na)(Sr,Ce,Ba)(CO3)2Orth. mm2
5.AB.55BenstoniteBa6Ca6Mg(CO3)13Trig. 3 : R3
5.AB.60JuangodoyiteNa2Cu(CO3)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide,Ca,Ba)(CO3)2Trig.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

11.5.1StrontianiteSrCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
11.5.2WitheriteBaCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
11.5.6BarytocalciteBaCa(CO3)2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
11.5.7BenstoniteBa6Ca6Mg(CO3)13Trig. 3 : R3

Fluorescence of NorsethiteHide

Not fluorescent

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for NorsethiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Mrose M E, Chao E C T, Fahey J J, Milton C (1961) Norsethite, BaMg(CO3)2, a new mineral from the Green River formation, Wyoming. American Mineralogist 46, 420-429
Lippmann F (1967) Die kristallstruktur des norsethit, BaMg(CO3)2, im vergleich zum dolomit, CaMg(CO3)2. Naturwissenschaften 54, 514-514
Effenberger H, Zemann J (1985) Single crystal X-Ray investigation of norsethite, BaMg(CO3)2: one more mineral with an aplanar carbonate group. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie (1985): 171: 275-280.
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1999): 87.
Zidarov, N., Petrov, O., Tarassov, M., Damyanov, Z., Tarassova, E., Petkova, V., Kalvachev, Y., and Zlatev, Z. (2009) Mn-rich norsethite from the Kremikovtsi ore deposit, Bulgaria. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen 186, 321-331.
Effenberger, H., Pippinger, T., Libowitzky, E., Lengauer, C. L., & Miletich, R. (2014) Synthetic norsethite, BaMg (CO3) 2: revised crystal structure, thermal behaviour and displacive phase transition. Mineralogical Magazine, 78(7), 1589-1611.

Internet Links for NorsethiteHide

Localities for NorsethiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Minas Gerais
    • Araxá
Traversa, G., Gomes, C. B., Brotzu, P., Buraglini, N., Morbidelli, L., Principato, M. S., ... & Ruberti, E. (2001). Petrography and mineral chemistry of carbonatites and mica-rich rocks from the Araxá complex (Alto Paranaíba Province, Brazil). Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 73(1), 71-98.; Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J., 2009, Carbonatites of the world, explored deposits of Nb and REE; database and grade and tonnage models: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1139, 17 p. and database.
    • Tapira
Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
  • São Paulo
    • Cajati
Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139; Costanzo, A., Moore, K. R., Wall, F., & Feely, M. (2006). Fluid inclusions in apatite from Jacupiranga calcite carbonatites: evidence for a fluid-stratified carbonatite magma chamber. Lithos, 91(1), 208-228.
    • Registro
  • Sofiya Oblast (Sofia Oblast)
Zidarov, N., Petrov, O., Tarassov, M., Damyanov, Z., Tarassova, E., Petkova, V., Kalvachev, Y., and Zlatev, Z. (2009) Mn-rich norsethite from the Kremikovtsi ore deposit, Bulgaria. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen 186, 321-331.
  • British Columbia
    • Liard Mining Division
      • Sifton Pass
        • Kechika River
Scott, J. D., & Peatfield, G. R. (1986). Mannardite [Ba.H2O](Ti6V3+2)O16, a new mineral species, and new data on redledgeite. Canadian Mineralogist, 24, 55-66.
  • Northwest Territories
    • Lac de Gras
Sharygin, I. S., Golovin, A. V., Korsakov, A. V., & Pokhilenko, N. P. (2013). Eitelite in sheared peridotite xenoliths from Udachnaya-East kimberlite pipe (Russia)–a new locality and host rock type. European Journal of Mineralogy, 25(5), 825-834.
  • Ontario
    • Thunder Bay District
      • O'Meara Township
Platt & Wooley (1990)
  • Yukon
    • Watson Lake Mining District
      • Macmillan Pass
Econ Geol (1985) 80:1257-1276
Econ Geol (1989)84:841-856
  • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
    • Baotou League (Baotou Prefecture)
      • Bayan Obo Mining District
        • Bayan Obo
          • Bayan Obo deposit (Bayun-Obo deposit; Baiyunebo deposit)
Miyawaki R, Shimazaki H, Shigeoka M, Yokoyama K, Matsubara S, Yurimoto H (2011) Yangzhumingite, KMg2.5Si4O10F2, a new mineral in the mica group from Bayan Obo, Inner Mongolia, China. European Journal of Mineralogy 23, 467-473
Youbin Liang, Zhonglong Xu, and Zhiyin Hu (1981): Geology and Prospecting 17(9), 29-33
  • Shaanxi Province
    • Ankang Prefecture
      • Ziyang Co.
Zhongcheng Wang (1996), In: Zhonghe Pang, Jindong Zhang, and Jianhong Sun (eds.): Advances in Solid Earth Sciences. Science Press (Beijing), 202-209
Czech Republic
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • Olomouc Region
Zimák, J.: Norsethit z ložiska Zlaté Hory - východ. Minerál, 1998, roč. 6, č. 3, s. 204 - 205
  • Hesse
    • Richelsdorf District
      • Nentershausen
        • Süß
          • Richelsdorf Smelter
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Lower Saxony
    • Osnabrück
      • Georgsmarienhütte
Schnorrer, G., Stahlmann, W., Mollenkamp, A. (2001): Sekundärmineralisation in den Hochofenschlacken des Hüttenwerkes in Georgsmarienhütte, heutige Georgsmarienhütte GmbH. Aufschluss 52, 99-108.
  • Karas Region
    • Lüderitz District
      • Rosh Pinah
Econ Geol (1985) 80:1257-1276
New Zealand
  • South Island
    • West Coast (Westland)
      • Burke River
Mineralogical Magazine 1996 60 : 473-482
Mineralogical Magazine 1996 60 : 473-482
      • Okuru River
Mineralogical Magazine 1996 60 : 473-482
      • South Westland
A. F Cooper (1971) Carbonatites and Fenitization Associated with a Lamprophyric Dike-Swarm Intrusive into Schists of the New Zealand Geosyncline. GSA Bulletin 82:1327-1340
  • Bihor Co.
    • Nucet
      • Băiţa Mining District (Baita Bihor; Rézbánya)
        • Codreanu Mine
Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 40, pp. 1693-1703 (2002)
        • Tony Mine
Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 40, pp. 1693-1703 (2002)
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Irkutskaya Oblast'
        • Vitim Plateau
          • Biraya and Bya Rivers confluence area (Chara Basin)
Koneva A.A., Konev A.A., Vladykin N.V. (2010) Vein complex of the Biraya carbonatite deposit. in Abstracts of XXVII International conference School «Geochemistry of Alkaline rocks». – Moscow-Koktebel’. pp. 240 pp.
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
      • Daldyn-Alakit kimberlite field
        • Daldyn
Sharygin, I. S., Golovin, A. V., Korsakov, A. V., & Pokhilenko, N. P. (2013). Eitelite in sheared peridotite xenoliths from Udachnaya-East kimberlite pipe (Russia)–a new locality and host rock type. European Journal of Mineralogy, 25(5), 825-834.
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaya Oblast'
      • Kovdor Massif; Yakovenchuk V N, Ivanyuk G Y, Mikhailova Y A, Selivanova E A, Krivovichev S V (2006) Pakhomovskyite, Co3(PO4)2·8H2O, a new mineral species from Kovdor, Kola Peninsula, Russia, The Canadian Mineralogist 44, 117-123
      • Northern Karelia
New Data on Minerals (2004): 39: 50-64
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183.
  • Colorado
    • Gunnison Co.
      • White Earth District (Powderhorn District)
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
  • Wyoming
    • Sweetwater Co.
      • Green River formation
Am Min 46:420-429
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