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About NukundamiteHide

Empirical formulae are:
Cu3.37Fe0.66S3.97 (type material); Cu3.39Fe0.61S4 (synthetic material).
Crystal System:
Named after the type locality
Nukundamite is stable within a highly limited range of a(Fe2+)/a(H+) activity ratio, S2 and O2 fugacities, at temperatures between 501° and 224°C at very high sulfidation states (Seal et al., 2001; Esra Inan and Einaudi, 2002).
It may be replaced by chalcopyrite and bornite.

One of the Cu-Fe sulfides that has been referred to as the grandfathered but inadequately described idaite; type locality nukundamite was first called "idaite" (cf. Rice et al., 1979).

Classification of NukundamiteHide


2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
C : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 1: 1 (and similar)
A : With Cu

9 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
1 : Sulphides etc. of Cu

Physical Properties of NukundamiteHide

3½ on Mohs scale
VHN100=103 - 110 - Vickers
(0001) perfect

Chemical Properties of NukundamiteHide


Empirical formulae are:
Cu3.37Fe0.66S3.97 (type material); Cu3.39Fe0.61S4 (synthetic material).
IMA Formula:
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of NukundamiteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 3.782(4) Å, c = 11.187(8) Å
a:c = 1 : 2.958
Unit Cell V:
138.58 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
hexagonal plates, dendritic aggregates

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0000828NukundamiteSugaki A, Shima H, Kitakaze A, Mizota T (1981) Hydrothermal synthesis of nukundamite and its crystal structure American Mineralogist 66 398-40219810293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
3.143 Å(100)
2.826 Å(70)
1.891 Å(60)
1.847 Å(55)
2.796 Å(45)
3.273 Å(30)
1.568 Å(25)

Type Occurrence of NukundamiteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Masses, dendritic aggregates, lamellae in sphalerite
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
The Natural History Museum, London, England, 1974,5, E1455; National
Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., USA, 148128.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Kuroko-type ore deposit. Cavity fills in pyrite breccia,alteration of chalcopyrite, lamellae in sphalerite.
Rice et al. (1979)

Synonyms of NukundamiteHide

Other Language Names for NukundamiteHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
4 photos of Nukundamite associated with PyriteFeS2
4 photos of Nukundamite associated with StannoiditeCu+6Cu2+2(Fe2+,Zn)3Sn2S12
4 photos of Nukundamite associated with MawsoniteCu6Fe2SnS8
4 photos of Nukundamite associated with ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
4 photos of Nukundamite associated with HematiteFe2O3
3 photos of Nukundamite associated with CovelliteCuS
2 photos of Nukundamite associated with ClausthalitePbSe
1 photo of Nukundamite associated with IdaiteCu5FeS6

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.CA.05aCovelliteCuSHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
2.CA.05bKlockmanniteCuSeHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
2.CA.05cSpionkopiteCu39S28Hex. 6 2 2
2.CA.05dYarrowiteCu9S8Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
2.CA.15CalvertiteCu5Ge0.5S4Iso. 4 3m : F4 3m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

3.1.1ChalcociteCu2SMon. 2/m : P21/b
3.1.2DjurleiteCu31S16Mon. 2/m
3.1.3DigeniteCu9S5Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.1.4AniliteCu7S4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.1.5RoxbyiteCu9S5Tric. 1 : P1
3.1.6SpionkopiteCu39S28Hex. 6 2 2
3.1.7GeeriteCu8S5Trig. 3
3.1.8CovelliteCuSHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.1.9BerzelianiteCu2SeIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
3.1.10BellidoiteCu2SeTet. 4/m : P42/n
3.1.12YarrowiteCu9S8Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
3.1.14KlockmanniteCuSeHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.1.15Krut'aiteCuSe2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.1.20LautiteCuAsSOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.1.21MgriiteCu3AsSe3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
3.1.22CubaniteCuFe2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.1.23BorniteCu5FeS4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
3.1.24FukuchiliteCu3FeS8Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.1.25ChalcopyriteCuFeS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
3.1.27HaycockiteCu4Fe5S8Orth. 2 2 2
3.1.28IsocubaniteCuFe2S3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
3.1.32Orickite2CuFeS2 · H2OHex.
3.1.35TalnakhiteCu9(Fe,Ni)8S16Iso. 4 3m : I4 3m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for NukundamiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Rice, C. M., Atkin, D., Bowles, J. F. W. and Criddle, A. J. (1979): Nukundamite, a new mineral, and idaite. Mineralogical Magazine 43, 193-200.
American Mineralogist (1980): 65: 407.
Sugaki, A., H. Shima, A. Kitakaze, and T. Mizota (1981) Hydrothermal synthesis of nukundamite and its crystal structure. Amer. Mineral., 66, 398–402.
Seal, R. R., Inan, E. E. & Hemingway, B. S. (2001) The Gibbs free energy of nukundamite (Cu3.38Fe0.62S4): a correction and implications for phase equilbria. Canadian Mineralogist 39, 1635-1640.
Esra Inan, E. and Einaudi, M. T. (2002): Nukundamite (Cu3.38Fe0.62S4)-bearing copper ore in the Bingham porphyry deposit, Utah: Result of upflow through quartzite. Economic Geology, 97, 499-515.

Internet Links for NukundamiteHide

Localities for NukundamiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Atlantic Ocean
  • Mid-Atlantic Ridge complex
    • Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse hydrothermal field (TAG)
Proceedings of the 30th International Geological Congress: Mineralogy By Huang Yunhui, Cao Yawen p 239
  • South Australia
    • Stuart Shelf
      • Pernatty Lagoon
        • Mount Gunson Copper mines (Pernatty Lagoon - Mount Gunson Cu Deposits)
J F Carpenter specimen; J F Carpenter specimen
  • Salzburg
    • Tamsweg District
      • Muhr (Murwinkel)
        • Rotgülden
          • Silbereck - Altenbergkar area
Horner, J., Neubauer, F., Paar, W.H., Hansmann, W., Koeppel, V., and Robl, K. (1997): Mineralium Deposita 32, 555-568.
    • Zell am See District
      • Leogang
        • Hütten
          • Schwarzleograben
            • Schwarzleo mining district
Paar, W. H. & Chen, T. T. (1985): Zur Mineralogie von Cu-Ni(Co)-Pb-Ag-Hg-Erzen im Revier Schwarzleo bei Leogang, Salzburg, Österreich. Mitt. österr. geol. Ges. 78, 125-148.; A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
Ferenc, Š., & Rojkovič, I. (2001). Copper mineralization in the Permian basalts of the Hronicum unit, Slovakia. Geolines, Acad. Sci. Czech Republic, 13, 22-27.
Fiji (TL)
  • Vanua Levu
    • Nukundamu
Mineralogical Magazine(1979) 43, 193-200
  • Thuringia
XRD and SEM-EDX analysis (T. Witzke)
  • Papua Province
Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Pollard, P. J., & Taylor, R. G. (2002). Paragenesis of the Grasberg Cu–Au deposit, Irian Jaya, Indonesia: results from logging section 13. Mineralium Deposita, 37(1), 117-136.
New, B. T. (2006). Controls of copper and gold distribution in the Kucing Liar deposit, Ertsberg mining district, West Papua, Indonesia (Doctoral dissertation, James Cook University).
  • Sistan and Baluchestan Province
    • Iranshahr County
      • Bazman Volcano
DALIRAN, F., PAAR, W.H., NEUBAUER, F., RASCHIDI, B. (2005): New Discovery of Epithermal Gold at Chahnali Prospect, Bazman Volcano, SE-Iran. In: Mao, J. & Bierlein, F. P. (eds.): Mineral deposit research: Meeting the global challenge. Springer, Berlin – Heidelberg, 917–919.
  • Okayama Prefecture
    • Mimasaka city
      • Miyahara
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2012), Hiromi Yamasaki specimen
  • Okinawa Prefecture
    • Ishigaki City
      • Senkaku Islands (Diaoyudao Islands; Diaoyutai Islands)
        • Okinawa Trough
Kaul, G., Chiba, I., & Katsuo, K. (2005) Tin-bearing chalcopyrite and platinum-bearing bismuthinite in the active Tiger chimney, Yonaguni Knoll IV seafloor hydrothermal system, South Okinawa Trough, Japan. Earth Science Reports, 12:1-5
  • Perak
    • Klian Intan
Ariffin, K. S. (2009). Sediment hosted primary tin deposit associated with biotite granite and fault zone at Gunung Paku, Klian Intan, Upper Perak, Malaysia. Resource geology, 59(3), 282-294.
  • Buskerud
    • Drammen
      • Konnerud
Segalstad, T. V. & Telstø, L. (2002): Mineraldannelsen i Konnerudkollen gruver. Bergverksmuseets Skrift 20, 35-49
  • Oslo
    • Grorud
Kvamsdal, L. O. (1999): Mineralene fra Huken pukkverk i Oslo. STEIN 26 (4), 14-47
M. Lupulescu, E. B. Watson, D.Wark (1993) Unusual nukundamite occurrence in an iron deposit from Romania and its metallogenetic implications -"Current Research in Geology Applied to Ore Deposits", Eds.Fenoll Hach-Ali, Torres-Ruiz & Gervilla, Granada, Spain. p. 155-158.
  • Arizona
    • Pinal Co.
      • Superior Mining District
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 315.
  • Utah
    • Salt Lake Co.
      • Oquirrh Mountains
Economic Geology; May 2002; v. 97; no. 3; p. 499-515
Esra Inan, E. and Einaudi, M. T. (2002): Nukundamite (Cu3.38Fe0.62S4)-bearing copper ore in the Bingham porphyry deposit, Utah: Result of upflow through quartzite. Economic Geology, 97, 499-515.; North, Jerry (2010) Displays of Nature : History, Minerals & Crystals of Utah's Bingham Canyon Copper Mine.
    • Tooele Co.
      • Oquirrh Mountains
Economic Geology (2002) 97, 499–515
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