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Nukundamite

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Formula:
Cu3.4Fe0.6S4
System:
Trigonal
Hardness:
Nukundamite is stable within a highly limited range of a(Fe2+)/a(H+) activity ratio, S2 and O2 fugacities, at temperatures between 501° and 224°C at very high sulfidation states (Seal et al., 2001; Esra Inan and Einaudi, 2002).
It may be replaced by chalcopyrite and bornite.

May be confused with idaite.


Classification of Nukundamite

Approved
2.CA.10

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
C : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 1: 1 (and similar)
A : With Cu
2.9.15.1

2 : SULFIDES
9 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
3.1.30

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
1 : Sulphides etc. of Cu

Physical Properties of Nukundamite

Hardness (Mohs):

Chemical Properties of Nukundamite

IMA Formula:
Cu3.4Fe0.6S4
Mindat.org Formula:
Cu3.4Fe0.6S4

Empirical formulae are:
Cu3.37Fe0.66S3.97 (type material); Cu3.39Fe0.61S4 (synthetic material).
Elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Ag,As

Crystallography of Nukundamite

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:
P3m1
Cell Parameters:
a = 3.782(4) Å, c = 11.187(8) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 2.958
Unit Cell Volume:
V 138.58 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
1

Type Occurrence of Nukundamite

Empirical Formula:
Cu3.37Fe0.66S3.97 (type material); Cu3.39Fe0.61S4 (synthetic material) ·

Relationship of Nukundamite to other Species

2.CA.05aCovelliteCuS
2.CA.05bKlockmanniteCu5.2Se6
2.CA.05cSpionkopiteCu1.32S
2.CA.05dYarrowiteCu9S8
2.CA.15CalvertiteCu5Ge0.5S4
3.1.1ChalcociteCu2S
3.1.2DjurleiteCu31S16
3.1.3DigeniteCu1.8S
3.1.4AniliteCu7S4
3.1.5RoxbyiteCu1.78S
3.1.6SpionkopiteCu1.32S
3.1.7GeeriteCu8S5
3.1.8CovelliteCuS
3.1.9BerzelianiteCu2-xSe (x~0.12)
3.1.10BellidoiteCu2Se
3.1.11UmangiteCu3Se2
3.1.12YarrowiteCu9S8
3.1.13AthabascaiteCu5Se4
3.1.14KlockmanniteCu5.2Se6
3.1.15Krut'aiteCuSe2
3.1.16WeissiteCu5Te3
3.1.17RickarditeCu3-xTe2
3.1.18VulcaniteCuTe
3.1.19BambollaiteCu(Se,Te)2
3.1.20LautiteCuAsS
3.1.21Mgriite(Cu,Fe)3AsSe3
3.1.22CubaniteCuFe2S3
3.1.23BorniteCu5FeS4
3.1.24FukuchiliteCu3FeS8
3.1.25ChalcopyriteCu1+Fe3+S2
3.1.26MooihoekiteCu9Fe9S16
3.1.27HaycockiteCu4Fe5S8
3.1.28IsocubaniteCuFe2S3
3.1.29IdaiteCu3FeS4
3.1.31PutoraniteCu1.1Fe1.2S2
3.1.32OrickiteCuFeS2 · nH2O
3.1.33EskeborniteCuFeSe2
3.1.34Chaméanite(Cu,Fe)4As(Se,S)4
3.1.35TalnakhiteCu9Fe8S16

Other Names for Nukundamite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Nukundamite

Reference List:
Rice, C. M., Atkin, D., Bowles, J. F. W. and Criddle, A. J. (1979): Nukundamite, a new mineral, and idaite. Mineralogical Magazine 43, 193-200.

American Mineralogist (1980): 65: 407.

Sugaki, A., H. Shima, A. Kitakaze, and T. Mizota (1981) Hydrothermal synthesis of nukundamite and its crystal structure. Amer. Mineral., 66, 398–402.

Seal, R. R., Inan, E. E. & Hemingway, B. S. (2001) The Gibbs free energy of nukundamite (Cu3.38Fe0.62S4): a correction and implications for phase equilbria. Canadian Mineralogist 39, 1635-1640.

Esra Inan, E. and Einaudi, M. T. (2002): Nukundamite (Cu3.38Fe0.62S4)-bearing copper ore in the Bingham porphyry deposit, Utah: Result of upflow through quartzite. Economic Geology, 97, 499-515.

Internet Links for Nukundamite

mindat.org URL:
https://www.mindat.org/min-2942.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Localities for Nukundamite

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Atlantic Ocean
 
  • Mid-Atlantic Ridge complex
    • Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse hydrothermal field (TAG)
Proceedings of the 30th International Geological Congress: Mineralogy By Huang Yunhui, Cao Yawen p 239
Australia
 
  • South Australia
    • Stuart Shelf
      • Pernatty Lagoon
        • Mount Gunson Copper mines (Pernatty Lagoon - Mount Gunson Cu Deposits)
J F Carpenter specimen; J F Carpenter specimen
Austria
 
  • Salzburg
    • Lungau
      • Murwinkel
        • Rotgülden
Horner, J., Neubauer, F., Paar, W.H., Hansmann, W., Koeppel, V., and Robl, K. (1997): Mineralium Deposita 32, 555-568.
    • Saalfelden
      • Leogang
        • Hütten
          • Schwarzleograben
            • Schwarzleo District
Paar, W. H. & Chen, T. T. (1985): Zur Mineralogie von Cu-Ni(Co)-Pb-Ag-Hg-Erzen im Revier Schwarzleo bei Leogang, Salzburg, Österreich. Mitt. österr. geol. Ges. 78, 125-148.; A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
Fiji (TL)
 
  • Vanua Levu
    • Nukundamu
Mineralogical Magazine(1979) 43, 193-200
Germany
 
  • Thuringia
    • Gera
XRD and SEM-EDX analysis (T. Witzke)
Indonesia
 
  • Western New Guinea (Irian Jaya)
    • Papua Province
      • New Guinea
        • Carstensz Mts
Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
Pollard, P. J., & Taylor, R. G. (2002). Paragenesis of the Grasberg Cu–Au deposit, Irian Jaya, Indonesia: results from logging section 13. Mineralium Deposita, 37(1), 117-136.
New, B. T. (2006). Controls of copper and gold distribution in the Kucing Liar deposit, Ertsberg mining district, West Papua, Indonesia (Doctoral dissertation, James Cook University).
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Chugoku region
      • Okayama prefecture
        • Mito-cho
          • Aida
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2012), Hiromi Yamasaki specimen
  • Kyushu Region
    • Nansei Archipelago
      • Okinawa Prefecture
        • Senkaku Islands (Diaoyudao Islands; Diaoyutai Islands)
          • Okinawa Trough
Kaul, G., Chiba, I., & Katsuo, K. (2005) Tin-bearing chalcopyrite and platinum-bearing bismuthinite in the active Tiger chimney, Yonaguni Knoll IV seafloor hydrothermal system, South Okinawa Trough, Japan. Earth Science Reports, 12:1-5
Norway
 
  • Buskerud
    • Drammen
      • Konnerud
Segalstad, T. V. & Telstø, L. (2002): Mineraldannelsen i Konnerudkollen gruver. Bergverksmuseets Skrift 20, 35-49
  • Oslo
    • Grorud
Kvamsdal, L. O. (1999): Mineralene fra Huken pukkverk i Oslo. STEIN 26 (4), 14-47
Romania
 
  • Hunedoara Co.
M. Lupulescu, E. B. Watson, D.Wark (1993) Unusual nukundamite occurrence in an iron deposit from Romania and its metallogenetic implications -"Current Research in Geology Applied to Ore Deposits", Eds.Fenoll Hach-Ali, Torres-Ruiz & Gervilla, Granada, Spain. p. 155-158.
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Pinal Co.
      • Superior District
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 315.
  • Utah
    • Salt Lake Co.
      • Oquirrh Mts
Economic Geology; May 2002; v. 97; no. 3; p. 499-515
Esra Inan, E. and Einaudi, M. T. (2002): Nukundamite (Cu3.38Fe0.62S4)-bearing copper ore in the Bingham porphyry deposit, Utah: Result of upflow through quartzite. Economic Geology, 97, 499-515.; North, Jerry (2010) Displays of Nature : History, Minerals & Crystals of Utah's Bingham Canyon Copper Mine.
    • Tooele Co.
      • Oquirrh Mts
Economic Geology (2002) 97, 499–515
Mineral and/or Locality  
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