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Olivenite

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Formula:
Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
Colour:
Olive green to yellow or brown, gray-green, grayish white; light green in transmitted light.
Lustre:
Sub-Adamantine, Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Silky, Pearly
Hardness:
3
Specific Gravity:
4.46
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Member of:
Name:
Originally named arseniksaures kupfererz by Martin Klaproth in 1786 in reference to the chemical composition. Named olivenerz by Abraham G. Werner in 1789 in allusion to its olive-green color. Robert Jameson changed the ending "erz" to "ite" in 1920. Synonyms include: "holzkupfererz" (Bournon, 1801) and "pharmacochalzite" (Hausmann, 1813).
Olivenite Group. Adamite-Olivenite Series. Libethenite-Olivenite Series.
The copper analogue of Adamite.

May be confused with Zincolivenite which is a chemically and structurally distinct species with a defined ratio of Zn:Cu.
Note: The designations 'Zincolivenite' or 'Zinc-olivenite' were also used for Zn-bearing olivenites with unspecified Zn:Cu ratios prior to the recognition and approval of zincolivenite as a distinct species.

A relatively common, thermodynamically very stable secondary copper mineral found in the oxidized zones of copper deposits containing arsenic-bearing phases, especially Tennantite, Enargite and others.


Classification of Olivenite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
8.BB.30

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
B : Phosphates, etc., with additional anions, without H2O
B : With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 about 1:1
41.6.6.1

41 : ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
6 : A2(XO4)Zq
20.1.2

20 : Arsenates (also arsenates with phosphate, but without other anions)
1 : Arsenates of Cu

Physical Properties of Olivenite

Sub-Adamantine, Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Silky, Pearly
Transparency:
Translucent, Opaque
Comment:
Pearly to silky when it is fibrous.
Colour:
Olive green to yellow or brown, gray-green, grayish white; light green in transmitted light.
Comment:
Straw yellow if fibrous.
Streak:
Olive green to brown
Hardness:
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
Indistinct on {101} and {110}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
4.46 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.45 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Olivenite

Type:
Biaxial (+/-)
RI values:
nα = 1.747 - 1.780 nβ = 1.788 - 1.820 nγ = 1.829 - 1.865
2V:
Measured: 80° to 90°, Calculated: 46° to 84°
Birefringence:
0.084
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.082 - 0.085
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
strong r > v or r < v moderate
Optical Extinction:
Y=c
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
In green and yellow.
Absorption Y > X, Z.

Chemical Properties of Olivenite

Formula:
Cu2(AsO4)(OH)
IMA Formula:
Cu2AsO4(OH)
Common Impurities:
Fe,P

Crystallography of Olivenite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.5844(3) Å, b = 8.2084(3) Å, c = 5.9258(2) Å
β = 90.130(3)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.046 : 1 : 0.722
Unit Cell V:
417.56 ų
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals elongated [100]; also short prismatic to acicular [001]; tabular on {011}, {100}, or {001}, less common. Occurs as globular or reniform masses with a fibrous structure with the fibers straight and divergent, rarely irregular; curved lamellar; massive, granular to earthy; nodular.
Twinning:
On {010}

Crystallographic forms of Olivenite

Crystal Atlas:
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Olivenite no.9 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Olivenite no.19 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
5.91 (70)
4.82 (90)
4.19 (60)
2.98 (100)
2.65 (60)
2.47 (70)
2.39 (70)
Comments:
Handbook of Mineralogy, v. 4

Type Occurrence of Olivenite

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Oxidized zone of a copper deposit

Synonyms of Olivenite

Other Language Names for Olivenite

Varieties of Olivenite

Cobaltoan Olivenite
Leucochalcite

Fibrous white variety of Olivenite.

Wood Copper

A variety of Olivenite showing a massive, fibrous structure, resembling wood. cf. Wood Tin

Zincian Olivenite

Zinc-bearing olivenite compositionally falling short of the cation-ordered, intermediate member of the Adamite-Olivenite Series, Zincolivenite.

See also Adamite-Olivenite Series.

Relationship of Olivenite to other Species

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
AuriacusiteFe3+Cu2+(AsO4)O
EveiteMn2+2(AsO4)(OH)
LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
ZincolibetheniteCuZn(PO4)(OH)
ZincoliveniteCuZn(AsO4)(OH)
Forms a series with:

Common Associates

AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
EnargiteCu3AsS4
Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
ScoroditeFe3+AsO4 · 2H2O
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Azurite162 photos of Olivenite associated with Azurite on mindat.org.
Malachite129 photos of Olivenite associated with Malachite on mindat.org.
Cornwallite77 photos of Olivenite associated with Cornwallite on mindat.org.
Conichalcite72 photos of Olivenite associated with Conichalcite on mindat.org.
Quartz72 photos of Olivenite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Cornubite46 photos of Olivenite associated with Cornubite on mindat.org.
Clinoclase43 photos of Olivenite associated with Clinoclase on mindat.org.
Cuprian Adamite36 photos of Olivenite associated with Cuprian Adamite on mindat.org.
Baryte29 photos of Olivenite associated with Baryte on mindat.org.
Pharmacosiderite23 photos of Olivenite associated with Pharmacosiderite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping

8.BB.XArsenowagneriteMg2(AsO4)F
8.BB.05AmblygoniteLiAl(PO4)F
8.BB.05MontebrasiteLiAl(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.05TavoriteLiFe3+(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.10Triplite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(F,OH)
8.BB.10Zwieselite(Fe2+,Mn2+)2(PO4)F
8.BB.15SarkiniteMn2+2(AsO4)(OH)
8.BB.15Triploidite(Mn2+,Fe2+)2(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.15Wagnerite(Mg,Fe2+)2(PO4)F
8.BB.15Wolfeite(Fe2+,Mn2+)2(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.15Stanĕkite(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)Fe3+(PO4)O
8.BB.15JoosteiteMn2+(Mn3+,Fe3+)(PO4)O
8.BB.15HydroxylwagneriteMg2(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.20HoltedahliteMg2(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.20Satterlyite(Fe2+,Mg,Fe)12(PO4)5(PO3OH)(OH,O)6
8.BB.25AlthausiteMg4(PO4)2(OH,O)(F,☐)
8.BB.30AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
8.BB.30EveiteMn2+2(AsO4)(OH)
8.BB.30LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.30ZincolibetheniteCuZn(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.30ZincoliveniteCuZn(AsO4)(OH)
8.BB.30AuriacusiteFe3+Cu2+(AsO4)O
8.BB.35ParadamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
8.BB.35TarbuttiteZn2(PO4)(OH)
8.BB.40BarbosaliteFe2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2
8.BB.40HentscheliteCuFe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2
8.BB.40Lazulite(Mg,Fe2+)Al2(PO4)2(OH)2
8.BB.40ScorzaliteFe2+Al2(PO4)2(OH)2
8.BB.40WilhelmkleiniteZnFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2
8.BB.45TrolleiteAl4(PO4)3(OH)3
8.BB.50NamibiteCu(BiO)2(VO4)(OH)
8.BB.55Phosphoellenbergerite(Mg,◻)2Mg12(PO4,PO3OH)6(PO3OH,CO3)2(OH)6
8.BB.60UrusoviteCuAl(AsO4)O
8.BB.65TheoparacelsiteCu3(As2O7)(OH)2
8.BB.70TuraniteCu5(VO4)2(OH)4
8.BB.75StoiberiteCu5(VO4)2O2
8.BB.80FingeriteCu11(VO4)6O2
8.BB.85AverieviteCu6(VO4)2O2Cl2
8.BB.90LipscombiteFe2+Fe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2
8.BB.90RichelliteCaFe3+2(PO4)2(OH,F)2
8.BB.90ZinclipscombiteZnFe3+2(PO4)2(OH)2

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals Grouping

20.1.1LammeriteCu3(AsO4)2
20.1.3ClinoclaseCu3(AsO4)(OH)3
20.1.4CornwalliteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
20.1.5CornubiteCu5(AsO4)2(OH)4
20.1.6Chlorotile (of Frenzel)
20.1.7GeminiteCu(HAsO4) · H2O
20.1.8EuchroiteCu2(AsO4)(OH) · 3H2O
20.1.9StrashimiriteCu8(AsO4)4(OH)4 · 5H2O
20.1.10ArhbariteCu2Mg(AsO4)(OH)3
20.1.11LindackeriteCuCu4(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 9H2O
20.1.12ConichalciteCaCu(AsO4)(OH)
20.1.13LiroconiteCu2Al(AsO4)(OH)4 · 4H2O
20.1.14CeruleiteCu2Al7(AsO4)4(OH)13 · 11.5H2O
20.1.15ChenevixiteCu2Fe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)4
20.1.16ArthuriteCuFe3+2(AsO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2O

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)

41.6.6.2LibetheniteCu2(PO4)(OH)
41.6.6.3AdamiteZn2(AsO4)(OH)
41.6.6.4EveiteMn2+2(AsO4)(OH)

Fluorescence of Olivenite

Not fluorescent in UV

Other Information

Notes:
Soluble in acids and in ammonia.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Olivenite

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Klaproth (1786) Schriften der Gesellschaft naturforschender Freunde in Berlin: 7: 160 (as Arseniksaures Kupfererz).
Werner (1789) Bergmaennusches Journal, Freiberg (Neues Bergmannische Journal): 382, 385 (as Olivenerz).
Kirwan, R. (1796) Elements of Mineralogy. Second edition: 2: 151 (as Olive Copper Ore).
Rashleigh, P. (1797) Specimens of British Minerals Selected from the Cabinet of Phillip Rashleigh. London. Part 1: pl. 11, figure 2; part 2 (1802): pl. 6 (as Olive-green Copper Ore).
Bournon (1801) Transactions of the Royal Philosophical Society, London: 177 (as Cuivre arseniaté en octaèdre aigus).
Hausmann, J.F.L. (1813) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen: 3: 1042 (as Pharmacochalzit).
Hausmann, J.F.L. (1813) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen: 3: 1045 (as Olivenkupfer).
Jameson, R. (1820) A System of Mineralogy, third edition, 3 volumes: 2: 335.
Leonhard, K.C. (1821) Handbuch der Oryktognosie. First edition: 283.
Thomson, T. (1836) Outlines of Mineralogy, Geology, and Mineral Analysis. 2 volumes, London: 1: 614.
Hermann (1844) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 33: 291.
Damour (1845) Annales de chimie et de physique, Paris: 13: 412.
Hausmann, J.F.L. (1847) Handbuch der Mineralogie, Second edition. Göttingen:
vol. 2, in two parts: 1025 (as Pharmacolzit).
Dana, J.D. (1868) System of Mineralogy, 5th. Edition, New York: 564.
Hillebrand (1884) Proceedings of the Colorado Scientific Society: 1: 113.
Hillebrand and Washington (1888) American Journal of Science: 35: 298.
Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 785.
Goldschmidt, V. (1920) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 6: 90.
Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 116.
Biehl (1919) Dissertation, Münster.
Biehl (1925) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 62: 328.
Shannon, Earl V. (1926) “The Minerals of Idaho,” U.S. National Museum Bulletin 131: 425.
Winchell, A. (1933) Elements of Optical Mineralogy, part 2, ”Descriptions of Minerals,” third edition, 459 pp.: 132.
Strunz (1936) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 94: 60 (Olivenite Group).
Heritsch (1937) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 98: 351.
Heritsch (1938) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 99: 466.
Jarrell (1939) American Mineralogist: 24: 632.
Heritsch (1940) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 102: 1 (Olivenite Group).
Richmond (1940) American Mineralogist: 25: 453.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 859-861.
Canadian Mineralogist (1995): 33: 885-888.
Acta Crystallographica: B33: 2628-2631.
Li, C., H. Yang, & R.T.Downs: Redeteriminaton of olivenite from an untwinned single-crystal: Acta Crystallographica E64, i60-i61 (2008)

Internet Links for Olivenite

mindat.org URL:
https://www.mindat.org/min-2981.html
Please feel free to link to this page.
Specimens:
The following Olivenite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Olivenite

Mineral and/or Locality  
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