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About OsarizawaiteHide

Al:Cu is 2:1 in the ideal end-member.
Greenish yellow
3 - 4
Specific Gravity:
3.89 - 4.037
Crystal System:
From the type locality, the Osarizawa mine, Kazuno City, Honshu Island, Japan.
Compare the closely related beaverite-(Cu).

Classification of OsarizawaiteHide


7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
B : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, without H2O
C : With medium-sized and large cations

2 : (AB)2(XO4)Zq

25 : Sulphates
7 : Sulphates of Pb

Physical Properties of OsarizawaiteHide

Greenish yellow
3 - 4 on Mohs scale
3.89 - 4.037 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.183(17) g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of OsarizawaiteHide

Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.712() nε = 1.732(2)
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.020
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
O = dark yellow
E = pale yellowish
May be biaxial

Chemical Properties of OsarizawaiteHide


Al:Cu is 2:1 in the ideal end-member.

Crystallography of OsarizawaiteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.05 Å, c = 17.24(1) Å
a:c = 1 : 2.445
Unit Cell V:
742.07 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Type Occurrence of OsarizawaiteHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Oxidized zone.

Other Language Names for OsarizawaiteHide

Simplified Chinese:羟铝铜铅矾

Relationship of Osarizawaite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
Ammoniojarosite(NH4)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
ArgentojarositeAgFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
Beaverite-(Zn)Pb(Fe3+2Zn)(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
DorallchariteTlFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
Natroalunite-2c(Na,Ca0.5,K)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
NatrojarositeNaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Quartz6 photos of Osarizawaite associated with Quartz on
Philipsbornite6 photos of Osarizawaite associated with Philipsbornite on
Anglesite3 photos of Osarizawaite associated with Anglesite on
Rosasite2 photos of Osarizawaite associated with Rosasite on
Jarosite2 photos of Osarizawaite associated with Jarosite on
Beaverite-(Cu)2 photos of Osarizawaite associated with Beaverite-(Cu) on
Iodargyrite2 photos of Osarizawaite associated with Iodargyrite on
Mimetite2 photos of Osarizawaite associated with Mimetite on
Duftite2 photos of Osarizawaite associated with Duftite on
Nitratine1 photo of Osarizawaite associated with Nitratine on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.BC.Adranosite-(Fe)(NH4)4NaFe3+2(SO4)4Cl(OH)2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
7.BC.Adranosite(NH4)4NaAl2(SO4)4Cl(OH)2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
7.BC.10AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
7.BC.10Ammoniojarosite(NH4)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
7.BC.10ArgentojarositeAgFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
7.BC.10Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.BC.10DorallchariteTlFe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.BC.10Hydroniumjarosite(H3O)Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.BC.10JarositeKFe3+ 3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.BC.10Natroalunite-2c(Na,Ca0.5,K)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.BC.10NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
7.BC.10NatrojarositeNaFe3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m : R3m
7.BC.10PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.BC.10Beaverite-(Zn)Pb(Fe3+2Zn)(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.BC.20AtlasoviteK(BiO)Cu6Fe3+(SO4)5O3ClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/ncc
7.BC.25ChlorothioniteK2Cu(SO4)Cl2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.BC.30FedotoviteK2Cu3(SO4)3OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.BC.35KamchatkiteKCu3(SO4)2OClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.BC.40PiypiteK4Cu4O2(SO4)4 · (Na,Cu)ClTet.
7.BC.45AlumoklyuchevskiteK3Cu3(Al,Fe3+)(SO4)4O2Tric. 1 : P1
7.BC.50CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6Orth. mm2 : Pmn21
7.BC.55WherryitePb7Cu2(SO4)4(SiO4)2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
7.BC.60MammothitePb6Cu4AlSb5+O2(OH)16Cl4(SO4)2Mon. 2 : B2
7.BC.65LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
7.BC.65MunakataitePb2Cu2(Se4+O3)(SO4)(OH)4Mon. 2/m : P21/m
7.BC.70ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6Tric. 1 : P1
7.BC.75KrivovichevitePb3Al(OH)6(SO4)(OH)Trig. 3m : R3c

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide 3m : R3m,Ca0.5,K)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.7.1SchaurteiteCa3Ge(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
25.7.2Zircosulfate(Zr,Ti)(SO4)2 · 4H2OOrth.
25.7.3AnglesitePbSO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
25.7.4LanarkitePb2(SO4)OMon. 2/m : B2/m
25.7.5Palmierite(K,Na)2Pb(SO4)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
25.7.6LinaritePbCu(SO4)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
25.7.7ElyitePb4Cu(SO4)O2(OH)4 · H2OMon. 2/m
25.7.8ChenitePb4Cu(SO4)2(OH)6Tric. 1 : P1
25.7.10ItoitePb3Ge4+(SO4)2O2(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
25.7.11FleischeritePb3Ge(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
25.7.12Beaverite-(Cu)Pb(Fe3+2Cu)(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
25.7.13PlumbojarositePb0.5Fe3+3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for OsarizawaiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Taguchi, Y. (1961): On osarizawaite, a new mineral of the alunite group, from the Osarizawa mine, Japan. Mineralogical Journal: 3: 181-194.
American Mineralogist (1962): 47: 1216.
The crystal structure of osarizawarite. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1980): 401-407.

Internet Links for OsarizawaiteHide

Localities for OsarizawaiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Catamarca
    • Andalgalá Department
Milka K. de Brodtkorb (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina. Vol. 1 (elements, sulphides and sulphosalts). (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina)
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
  • New South Wales
    • Georgiana Co.
      • Tuena
Donald H. McColl (1973) A New Occurrence of Raspite at the Cordillera Mine, New South Wales, Australia. Bureau of Mineral Resources, Geology and Geophysics Record 1973/152
    • Kennedy Co.
      • Condobolin district
Graham, I. T., Pogson, R., Colchester, D. M. and McKinnon, A. R. (2005): Secondary minerals of the Mineral Hill field. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 11, 101-116.
Gilligan, L.B., Suppel, D.W. (1993) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Nymagee 1:250 000 Metallogenic Map (SI/55-2). Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney, 171 pages.
    • Robinson Co.
      • Cobar
Leverett, P., McKinnon, A. R., Sharpe, J. L. and Williams, P. A. (2005) Secondary minerals from the central Cobar mines. Australian Journal of Mineralogy, 11, 75-82.
  • Northern Territory
    • Coomalie Shire
      • Batchelor
        • Rum Jungle
Museum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory (Darwin) collection (ID by Pete Williams)
  • Western Australia
    • Ashburton Shire
Nickel, E.H., Gartrell, B.J. (1993) Secondary Minerals of Ashburton Downs Western Australia, Mineralogical Record (May-June 1993) 24:3: 203-218.
Mineralogical Record 24,203-216,218.
Nickel, E.H., Gartrell, B.J. (1993) Secondary Minerals of Ashburton Downs Western Australia, Mineralogical Record (May-June 1993) 24:3: 203-218.
Nickel, E., Gartrell, B(1993): Secondary Minerals from Ashburton Downs Western Australia, Mineralogical Record (May-June 1993): 24:3:203-218
    • East Pilbara Shire
      • Marble Bar
        • Mount Edgar Station
Morris, R.(1961):Osarizawaite from Western Australia, American Mineralogist, Vol 47, 1079-1093
    • Leonora Shire
      • Ten Mile Outcamp
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
    • Meekatharra Shire
      • Peak Hill Goldfield
        • Doolgunna Station
Murray Thompson ; Murray Thompson, DeGrussa mine
    • Roebourne Shire
      • Whim Creek
Nickel, E.H.(1980): Ring Crystals of Osarizawaite from Whim Creek Western Australia, American Mineralogist (1980):65: 1287-1290; Nickel, E. H., & Hitchen, G. J. (1994). The phosphate analog of molybdofornacite from Whim Creek, Western Australia. Mineralogical Record, 25(3), 203.
    • Wyndham-East Kimberley Shire
      • Kununurra
Downes, P.J., Bevan, A.W.R., Costeo, D., Verrall, M. (2011) Mafic-hosted Secondary Mineralisation from the Shangri-La Pb-Ag-Au-Cu Mine Kimberley Western Australia, Australian Journal of Mineralogy, (Nov. 2011) 16: p15-24.
  • Salzburg
    • Lungau
      • Murwinkel
        • Schellgaden
          • Gold mines
Auer, Ch. (2005)
  • Haskovo Oblast (Khaskovo Oblast)
    • Mineralni Bani Obshtina
      • Spachievo ore field (Spahievo ore field)
Kunov, A. (1995): Osarizawaite - new mineral for Bulgaria. Dokl. Bulg. Akad. Nauk. 48, 47-50.; Kunov, A. & Petrov, P. (2001): Beaverite from the Chala gold-base metal ore deposit: a new mineral for Bulgaria. Geokhimiya, Mineralogiya i Petrologiya 38, 67-71.
  • Antofagasta
    • Antofagasta Province
      • Sierra Gorda District
        • Caracoles
Paar, W. H. & Burgstaller, J. (1980): Osarizawaite-beaverite intergrowths from Sierra Gorda, Chile. Mineralogical Record 1980, 101-104
    • Tocopilla Province
      • Tocopilla District
maurizio dini collection
  • Atacama
    • Copiapó Province
      • Zapallar district
samples analysed by Gerhard Mohn and Joy Desor
maurizio dini - analysed by EDX & PDF (by dr. Jochen Scluter)
  • Coquimbo
    • Elqui Province
      • El Indio deposit
Llaumet C./Henríquez F. (1976); "Faja de mineralización de oro, plata, cobre y arsenico en la Cordillera Andina de la III y IV región"; Primero Congreso Geológico Chileno, Vol. II.
Llaumet C./Henríquez F. (1976); "Faja de mineralización de oro, plata, cobre y arsenico en la Cordillera Andina de la III y IV región"; Primero Congreso Geológico Chileno, Vol. II.
  • O'Higgins
    • Cachapoal Province
      • Rancagua
        • El Teniente
maurizio dini - analysed material
  • Xinjiang
    • Tulufan Prefecture (Turfan Prefecture; Turpan Prefecture)
      • Shanshan Co. (Piqan Co.; Pichan Co.)
        • Kanggur-Xifengshan gold belt
Zhaoxin Han, Lijun Luan, and Chaoyou Wang (2004): Journal of Xi'an University of Science and Technology 24(3), 324-327; Kaiyin Bai and Zhaoxin Han (2007): Northwestern Geology 40(2), 114-117
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Var
      • Le Pradet
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Ortenaukreis
      • Wolfach
        • Oberwolfach
          • Rankach valley
KOLITSCH, U., BLASS, G., GRAF, H.-W. & GRÖBNER, J. (2004): Neufunde aus der Grube Clara im mittleren Schwarzwald. Lapis 29 (2) 18-23; 50. (in German) [proves erroneous ID of osarizawaite in Schnorrer-Köhler (1988)]
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • St Andreasberg District
        • Oder valley
Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1984): Mineralogische Notizen II. Der Aufschluss 35(6), 219-230.
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
No reference listed
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Aachen
      • Stolberg
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    • Sauerland
      • Iserlohn
        • Letmathe
Bender, D. and Krimmelbein, W. (1994) Aktuelle Übersicht: Mineralien der Zinkhütte Genna/Sauerland. Stand Juni 1994. Mineralien-Welt, 4/94, 10.
    • Siegerland
      • Siegen
        • Niederschelden
Heinrich, M. & Reinhardt, M. (2011): Die Mineralien der Kobaltgrube "Alte Buntekuh" bei Niederschelden im Siegerland. Mineralien Welt. 22 (3): 14-27
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
        • Lavrion District Mines
          • Sounion Area
            • Agia Varvara Mines (St Barbara Mines)
No reference listed
  • Fejér
    • Velencei Mts
      • Pátka
HOM Collection 2008
  • Heves
    • Mátra Mts
      • Recsk
GEODA 2013/2
  • Sardinia
    • South Sardinia Province
      • Sarrabus-Gerrei
        • Gerrei
          • Villaputzu
Campostrini, I., Gramaccioli, C. M. and Demartin, F. (1999): Orlandiite, Pb3Cl4(SeO3)3•H2O, a new mineral species, and an associated lead-copper selenite chloride from the Baccu Locci mine, Sardinia, Italy. Can. Mineral. 37, 1493-1498
      • Villacidro
Stara, P., Rizzo, R., and Tanca, G.A. [with contributions of Vinci, A., and Astolfi, M.] (1996): Iglesiente e Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Associazione Mineralogica Sarda, Associazione Mineralogica Domusnovas, Gruppo Mineralogico Arburese, Gruppo Mineralogico Paleontologico Piacentino, Gruppo Mineralogico Lombardo et al. Ed., Siena, Vol. 2, 192 pp.
  • Tuscany
    • Grosseto Province
      • Massa Marittima
Sabelli C., Olmi F., Brizzi G., Meli R., 1996. Serrabottini (GR): recenti ritrovamenti nelle antiche discariche. Riv. Mineral. Ital., 19
Bazzoni, C., Betti, C., & Capperi, M. (2007). Valle dello Stregaio e Monte Gai, Massa Marittima, Grosseto. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 31 (2), 92-102.
      • Montieri
        • Gerfalco
Bazzoni, C. & Capperi, M. (2001): La miniera di «Montevecchio» in Toscana (Gerfalco - Grosseto). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2011, 236-241
Japan (TL)
  • Akita
    • Kazuno City
Min.Journ.Japan (1961) 3, 181-194
Matsubara et al (1997) Ganko-Gakkai Kou'en-Youshi, 159.; Ohnishi, M., & Shimobayashi, N. (2011). Tsumebite from the Kisamori mine, Akita Prefecture, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 106(1), 51-56.
  • Niigata
    • Aga-machi (Higashi-Kanbara-gun)
Murata (1999) Suisyou, 12, #1, 15-16.
  • East Kazakhstan
Pavel M. Kartashov data
New Zealand
  • North Island
    • Waikato Region
      • Matamata-Piako District
        • Te Aroha
Courtney, S.F., King, P. & Rodgers, K.A., (1990). A Check List of Minerals from the Tui Mine, Te Aroha, New Zealand. New Zealand Natural Sciences 17: 95-98.
  • Oppland
    • Lunner
      • Grua
        • Grua mining district
Eldjarn,K. (1977): Osarizawaitt- fra Lykkens prøve, Grua. NAGS-nytt. 4(3),14-15.
  • Beja
    • Almodôvar
      • Almodôvar
  • Altai Krai
    • Rudnyi Altai
Pekov, I.V., Lykova, I.S., Bryzgalov, I.A., Ksenofontov, D.A., Zyryanova, L.A. & Litvinov, N.D. (2010): Extremely rich iodide mineralization at the Rubtsovskoe base metal deposit (North West Altay, Russia) and its genesis. 20th General Meeting of the IMA (IMA2010), Budapest, Hungary, August 21-27, CD of Abstracts, p. 416.
  • Andalusia
    • Almería
      • Cuevas del Almanzora (Cuevas de Vera)
        • Sierra Almagrera
          • Jaroso Ravine
Calvo, M. (2015). Minerales y Minas de España. Vol VII. Fosfatos, Arseniatos y Vanadatos. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid. Fundación Gómez Pardo. 479 págs.
      • Níjar
        • Rodalquilar
          • Cerro de los Guardias
JR & C Eytier collection
Martins da Pedra specimen
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Anniviers Valley
      • Saint-Luc
Ansermet, S. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais - II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. With contributions by N. Meisser, Ed. Porte-plumes (Ayer)
  • England
    • Cheshire
Embrey, P.G. (1978) Fourth supplementary list of British minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 42, n° 322, 169-177;
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
      • Mule Mts
        • Warren District
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.:69
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 319.
      • Tombstone Hills
        • Tombstone District
          • Silver Plume Mine (Emerald & Silver Plume Mine group)
Tony Kampf identification 2010
    • Coconino Co.
      • Grand Canyon
        • Horseshoe Mesa
Michael Cline collection
    • Mohave Co.
      • Cerbat Mts (Cerbat Range)
        • White Hills
          • Gold Basin District
rolf luetcke
      • Lost Basin Mts (Lost Basin Range)
        • Lost Basin District
          • Tut Peak
rolf luetcke
    • Pima Co.
      • Santa Rita Mts
        • Helvetia-Rosemont District
          • Helvetia
            • Monument Mountain
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 319.
      • Waterman Mts
        • Waterman District
          • Silver Hill District
            • Silver Hill
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 319; Stolberg, C.S. (1988), Osarizawaite from the Silver Hill mine, AZ, Min.Rec.: 19: 311-313.
    • Yavapai Co.
      • Bradshaw Mts (Bradshaw Range)
        • Pine Grove District
          • Crown King
            • Lane Mountain
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 319; Modreski, P.J. & J.A. Scovil (1990), Stolzite, wulfenite's hidden brother: Occurrence at the Fat Jack gold mine, Yavapai Co., AZ (abstract), Min.Rec.: 21: 99-100; Scovil, J.A. & L. Wagner, Jr. (1991), The Fat Jack mine, Yavapai Co., AZ, Min.Rec.: 22: 21-28.
  • Colorado
    • Custer Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • San Juan Co.
      • Animas District
        • Silverton
          • Round Mountain
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
  • Nevada
    • White Pine Co.
      • Eagle District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • Utah
    • Millard Co.
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
  • Wisconsin
    • Rusk Co.
      • Ladysmith
Jones, C., J. Jones & G. LaBerge, G. (1999) The Flambeau Mine, Ladysmith, Wisconsin. Mineralogical Record, 30 (2), 107-131
  • Mashonaland West
    • Kadoma District
Vetter, U., Weck, H.-D., Weale, T., Klosa, D., Wittich, C. and Hoffmann, K. (1999): A provisional inventory of the Sanyati oxide-zone minerals, Zimbabwe. Z. Angew. Geol. 45, 15-21.; Frei, Martina (2005) Composition, formation, and leaching behaviour of supergene, polymetallic ores from the Sanyati deposit (Zimbabwe): A case study
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