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Osmium

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Formula:
(Os,Ir,Ru)
Colour:
White
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
6 - 7
Specific Gravity:
22.48
Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Name:
After the Greek for odor, for it's pungent and irritating odor when heated in air.
The Os analogue of hexaferrum, hexamolybdenum, garutiite, and ruthenium.


Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of OsmiumHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
1.AF.05

1 : ELEMENTS (Metals and intermetallic alloys; metalloids and nonmetals; carbides, silicides, nitrides, phosphides)
A : Metals and Intermetallic Alloys
F : Platinum group elements
Dana 7th ed.:
1.2.2.1
1.2.2.1

1 : NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
2 : Platinum Group Metals and Alloys
1.76

1 : Elements and Alloys (including the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au)

Physical Properties of OsmiumHide

Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
White
Streak:
Grey
Hardness:
6 - 7 on Mohs scale
Hardness:
VHN25=1206 - 1246 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Density:
22.48 g/cm3 (Measured)    22.59 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of OsmiumHide

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Strong, reddish orange
Colour in reflected light:
White with bluish gray tent
Pleochroism:
Weak

Chemical Properties of OsmiumHide

Formula:
(Os,Ir,Ru)
IMA Formula:
Os
Common Impurities:
Pt,Rh,Pd

Crystallography of OsmiumHide

Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Class (H-M):
6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) - Dihexagonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
P63/mmc
Cell Parameters:
a = 2.7341 Å, c = 4.3197 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 1.58
Unit Cell V:
27.96 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Prismatic inclusions.

Other Language Names for OsmiumHide

Basque:Osmio
Belarusian:Осмій
Bosnian (Latin Script):Osmijum
Bulgarian:Осмий
Catalan:Osmi
Corsican:Osmiu
Croatian:Osmij
Czech:Osmium
Danish:Osmium
Dutch:Osmium
Esperanto:Osmio
Estonian:Osmium
Finnish:Osmium
French:Osmium
Friulian:Osmi
Galician:Osmio
German:Osmium
Hungarian:Ozmium
Icelandic:Osmín
Ido:Osmio
Indonesian:Osmium
Italian:Osmio
Javanese:Osmium
Korean:오스뮴
Kurdish (Latin Script):Osmiyûm
Latin:Osmium
Latvian:Osmijs
Lithuanian:Osmis
Lojban:jinmrbosmi
Luxembourgish:Osmium
Manx:Osmium
Norwegian (Bokmål):Osmium
Norwegian (Nynorsk):Osmium
Occitan:Òsmi
Persian:اسمیوم
Polish:Osm
Portuguese:Ósmio
Romanian:Osmiu
Russian:Осмий
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Осмијум
Serbo-Croatian:Osmijum
Sicilian:Òsmiu
Simplified Chinese:自然锇
Slovak:Osmium
Slovenian:Osmij
Spanish:Osmio
Swedish:Osmium
Traditional Chinese:自然鋨
Turkish:Osmiyum
Ukrainian:Осмій

Varieties of OsmiumHide

IridosmineA variety of Osmium rich in Iridium (all natural Osmium contains some Iridium)
Rhodic NevyanskiteA variety of Osmium containing Rhodium and Iridium.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Iridium4 photos of Osmium associated with Iridium on mindat.org.
Laurite4 photos of Osmium associated with Laurite on mindat.org.
Isoferroplatinum4 photos of Osmium associated with Isoferroplatinum on mindat.org.
Platinum3 photos of Osmium associated with Platinum on mindat.org.
Osmiridium3 photos of Osmium associated with Osmiridium on mindat.org.
Ruthenium2 photos of Osmium associated with Ruthenium on mindat.org.
Cherepanovite1 photo of Osmium associated with Cherepanovite on mindat.org.
Cooperite1 photo of Osmium associated with Cooperite on mindat.org.
Rutheniridosmine1 photo of Osmium associated with Rutheniridosmine on mindat.org.
Iridosmine1 photo of Osmium associated with Iridosmine on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

1.AF.05Rutheniridosmine(Ir,Os,Ru)Hex.
1.AF.05Ruthenium(Ru,Ir)Hex.
1.AF.10Iridium(Ir,Os,Ru)Iso.
1.AF.10Palladium(Pd,Pt)
1.AF.10PlatinumPtIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.AF.10Rhodium(Rh,Pt)Iso.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

1.2.2.2Ruthenium(Ru,Ir)Hex.
1.2.2.3Rutheniridosmine(Ir,Os,Ru)Hex.
1.2.2.4RheniumReHex.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

1.1CopperCuIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.2SilverAgIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.5GoldAuIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.6AuricuprideCu3AuOrth.
1.7Tetra-auricuprideAuCuTet.
1.8ZincZnHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.9CadmiumCdHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.10DanbaiteCuZn2Iso.
1.11ZhanghengiteCuZnIso.
1.12MercuryHgTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
1.13KolymiteCu7Hg6Iso.
1.14MoschellandsbergiteAg2Hg3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
1.15EugeniteAg11Hg2Iso.
1.16SchachneriteAg1.1Hg0.9Hex.
1.17ParaschachneriteAg3Hg2Orth.
1.18LuanheiteAg3HgHex.
1.19Weishanite(Au,Ag)3Hg2Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.20IndiumInTet.
1.21AluminiumAlIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.22Khatyrkite(Cu,Zn)Al2Tet.
1.23Cupalite(Cu,Zn)AlOrth.
1.24DiamondCIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
1.25GraphiteCHex. 6mm : P63mc
1.26ChaoiteCHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mmm
1.27LonsdaleiteCHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.28SiliconSi
1.29TinSnTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
1.30LeadPbIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.31AnyuiiteAuPb2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mcm
1.31NovodnepriteAuPb3Tet. 4 2m : I4 2m
1.32LeadamalgamPb0.7Hg0.3Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mmm
1.33ArsenicAsTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
1.34ArsenolampriteAsOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
1.35PaxiteCuAs2Mon.
1.36KoutekiteCu5As2Hex.
1.37DomeykiteCu3AsIso. 4 3m : I4 3d
1.38Algodonite(Cu1-xAsx)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.39NovákiteCu20AgAs10Mon.
1.40KutinaiteAg6Cu14As7 Iso.
1.41AntimonySbTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
1.42StibarsenAsSbTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
1.43ParadocrasiteSb3AsMon. 2 : B2
1.44HorsforditeCu, Sb
1.45CuprostibiteCu2(Sb,Tl)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
1.46Allargentum(Ag1-xSbx)Hex.
1.47AurostibiteAuSb2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
1.48DyscrasiteAg3SbOrth. mm2 : Pmm2
1.49BismuthBiTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
1.50MaldoniteAu2BiIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
1.51SulphurS8Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Fddd
1.52RosickýiteSMon. 2/m : P2/b
1.53SeleniumSeTrig. 3 2 : P31 2 1
1.54TelluriumTeHex.
1.55ChromiumCrIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Im3m
1.56RheniumReHex.
1.57IronFeIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Im3m
1.58ChromferideFe3Cr1-x (x=0.6)Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Pm3m
1.59FerchromideCr3Fe1-xIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Pm3m
1.60WairauiteCoFe
1.61NickelNiIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.62Kamacite(Fe,Ni)Iso.
1.63Taenite(Fe,Ni)Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.64TetrataeniteFeNiTet.
1.65AwaruiteNi3FeIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.66Palladium(Pd,Pt)
1.67PotaritePdHgTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/mmm
1.68PaolovitePd2SnOrth.
1.69Stannopalladinite(Pd,Cu)3Sn2Hex.
1.70CabriitePd2CuSnOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmm
1.71Taimyrite(Pd,Cu,Pt)3SnOrth.
1.72Atokite(Pd,Pt)3SnIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.73Rustenburgite(Pt,Pd)3Sn
1.74ZvyagintsevitePd3PbIso.
1.75PlumbopalladinitePd3Pb2Hex.
1.77Iridium(Ir,Os,Ru)Iso.
1.82PlatinumPtIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.83HongshiitePtCuTrig.
1.84NiggliitePtSnHex.
1.85IsoferroplatinumPt3FeIso.
1.86TetraferroplatinumPtFeTet.
1.87TulameenitePt2CuFeTet.
1.88FerronickelplatinumPt2FeNiTet.
1.89Rhodium(Rh,Pt)Iso.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for OsmiumHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume I: 111-113.
Harris, D.C., Cabri, L.J. (1973) The nomenclature of the natural alloys of osmium, iridium and ruthenium based on new compositional data of alloys from world-wide occurrences. The Canadian Mineralogist: 12: 104-112.
Harris, D.C., Cabri, L.J. (1991) Nomenclature of platinum-group-element alloys; review and revision. The Canadian Mineralogist: 29: 231-237.

Internet Links for OsmiumHide

Localities for OsmiumHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Albania
 
  • Kukës County
    • Tropoja ophiolitic Massif
http://www.env.duke.edu/faculty/boudreau/9thPtSymposium/Boshnjaku_Abstract.pdf
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Clarke Co.
Sydney Fawns (1905) Tin Deposits of the World: With a Chapter on Tin Smelting
Carlo Tortorella
Dana's System of Mineralogy, 7th ed., Vol. 1, 127.
    • Kennedy Co.
      • Fifield
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data
Webb, K. (2014). The age and tectonometallogenic setting of the Fifield “Alaskan-type” intrusive suite, Lachlan Orogen, NSW. NSW., Bachelor of Science (Honours), School of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong.
    • Richmond Co.
      • Evans Head
G. A. Albertson Data
    • Rous Co.
G. A. Albertson Data
G. A. Albertson Data
Carlo Tortorella
  • Tasmania
    • Circular Head municipality
      • Corinna-Savage River district
        • Corinna
Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
    • Derwent Valley municipality
Bottrill & Baker in prep
Bottrill, R. S.; 1989, Economic Geology Appendix A; Tasmanian Geol. Surv. Explanatory Rept. 73 ( Huntley.)
    • Huon Valley municipality
      • Huon-Channel region
        • Weld river district
Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
    • Waratah-Wynyard municipality
      • Heazlewood district
Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
Bottrill & Baker 2008
    • West Coast municipality
      • Rosebery district
Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
  • Western Australia
    • Kalgoorlie-Boulder Shire
      • Ora Banda Goldfield
Butt, C.R.M., Robertson, I.D.M. (2003), Ora Banda Sill Platinum Prospect, CRC LEME, 2003
    • Menzies Shire
      • Mount Ida Goldfield (Copperfield)
Simpson, Edward S. (1952) Minerals of Western Australia Vol 3 (Facsimile ed. 1984). Hesperian Press, Carlisle, Western Australia p 343.
Brazil
 
  • Bahia
33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Diversity of Platinum group minerals (PGM) in chromitites from Brazil, preliminary results
Bulgaria
 
  • Blagoevgrad Oblast
Цинцов, З. (1998). Състав, разпространение и транспорт на минералите на елементите от групата на платината в алувиалните седименти на Благоевградския грабен. Сп. БГД, 59(2), 59-65.
  • Burgas Oblast (Bourgas Oblast)
    • Kameno Obshtina
Atanasov, A. V. (1990). Vasilite,(Pd, Cu) 16 (S, Te) 7, a new mineral species from Novoseltsi, Bulgaria. The Canadian Mineralogist, 28(3), 687-689.
    • Sozopol Obshtina
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Atlin Mining Division
Canadian Mineralogist (2005): 43: 1705.
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Harris D C, Cabri L J (1973) The nomenclature of the natural alloys of osmium, iridium and ruthenium based on new compositional data of alloys from world-wide occurrences. The Canadian Mineralogist 12, 104-112
    • Cariboo Mining Division
      • Likely
BC Government Mining Report - 1918
    • Liard Mining Division
      • Dease Lake
Canadian Mineralogist (2005): 43: 1705.
    • Similkameen Mining Division
      • Tulameen
Harris D C, Cabri L J (1973) The nomenclature of the natural alloys of osmium, iridium and ruthenium based on new compositional data of alloys from world-wide occurrences. The Canadian Mineralogist 12, 104-112
Nixon, G.T., Cabri, L.J., and Laflamme, J.H.G. (1990) Platinum-group-element mineralizaton in lode and placer deposits associated with the Tulameen Alaskan-type complex, British Columbia. Canadian Mineralogist: 28, 503-535.
Harris D C, Cabri L J (1973) The nomenclature of the natural alloys of osmium, iridium and ruthenium based on new compositional data of alloys from world-wide occurrences. The Canadian Mineralogist 12, 104-112
Nixon, G. T., Cabri, L. J., & Laflamme, J. G. (1990). Platinum-group-element mineralization in lode and placer deposits associated with the Tulameen Alaskan-type complex, British Columbia. The Canadian Mineralogist, 28(3), 503-535.
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Newfoundland
      • Baie Verte Peninsula
        • Baie Verte
          • Advocate Ophiolite complex
Escayola, M., Garuti, G., Zaccarini, F., Proenza, J.A., Bédard, J.H. & Van Staal, C. (2011) Chromitite and platinum-group-element mineralization at Middle Arm Brook, Advocate Ophiolite complex, Baie Verte Peninsula, Newfoundland, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist 49, 1523-1547.
  • Québec
    • Chaudière-Appalaches
      • Les Appalaches RCM
        • Thetford Mines
Canadian Mineralogist 28, 579.;
      • Robert-Cliche RCM
        • Beauceville
J.J. O'Neill and H.C. Gunning, Platinum and Allied Metal Deposits of Canada, Canada Department of Mines, 1934. (Pg. 55)
Traill, R. J. (1980) Catalog of Canadian Minerals: Revised 1980. Geological Survey of Canada Paper 80-18.
Traill, R. J. (1980) Catalog of Canadian Minerals: Revised 1980. Geological Survey of Canada Paper 80-18.
  • Yukon
    • Watson Lake Mining District
Fedortchouk, Y., LeBarge, W., Barkov, A.Y., Fedele, L. and Bodnar, R.J., 2010. Major- and trace-element composition of platinum group minerals and their inclusions from several Yukon placers. In: Yukon Exploration and Geology 2009, K.E. MacFarlane, L.H. Weston and L.R. Blackburn (eds.), Yukon Geological Survey, p. 185-196.
    • Whitehorse Mining District
      • Kluane District
BARKOV, A.Y. & MARTIN, R.F. (2008) Grains of Pt-Fe alloy and inclusions in Pt-Fe alloy from Florence Creek, Yukon, Canada: Evidence for mobility of Os in a Na-H2O-Cl-rich fluid. Canadian Mineralogist 46, 343-360.
China
 
  • Hebei Province
    • Chengde Prefecture
      • Chengde Co.
        • Gaositai
Bilun Luo (1979): Geology and Prospecting 15(3), 11-15; Zuxiang Yu (1995): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 15(1), 1-4
      • Luan River valley (Luanhe valley)
Yu Zuxiang (1985): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 5(1), 6-9
Yu Zuxiang (1998): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 18(2), 134-137
  • Hunan Province
    • Huaihua Prefecture
      • Yuanling Co.
        • Yuan river placers (Yuanjiang placers)
Chen Lichang, Tang Cuiqing, Zhang Jianhong, and Liu Zhenyun (1994): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 13(3), 232-238
  • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
    • Hohhot League (Huhehaote Prefecture)
      • Wuchuan Co.
Chen Keqiao, Yang Huifang, Ma Letian, and Peng Zhizhong (1981): Dizhi Lunping [Geological Review] 27(2), 108-115.
Dianhao Huang, Keqiao Chen, Chengyu Wu, and Shimei Yu (1995): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 15(3), 312-316
  • Tibet Autonomous Region
    • Nagchu Prefecture (Naqu Prefecture)
      • Amdo Co. (Anduo Co.)
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
        • Dongqiao ophiolite (Donqiao ophiolite)
Shi, R.D., Zhi, X.C., O'Reilly, S.Y., Griffin, W.L., Pearson, N.J., Bai, W.J., Fang, Q.S., Alard, O., and Zhang, M. (2006): Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2006, A 583.
    • Shannan Prefecture (Lhokha Prefecture; Lhoka Prefecture)
      • Nêdong Co. (Naidong Co.; Zedang Co.)
Guo, G., Yang, J., Robinson, P.T., Liu, X., Xu, X., Xiong, F. (2016): Platinum-group Mineral (PGM) and Base-metal Sulphide (BMS) Inclusions in Chromitites of the Zedang Ophiolite, Southern Tibet, China and their Petrogenetic Significance. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition): 90: 900–912; http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=12863 (2016)
      • Qusum Co. (Qusong Co.)
Wenji Bai, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Binggang Yan, Zhongming Zhang, Yufeng Ren, Nicheng Shi, Zhesheng Ma, and Mingquan Dai (2004): Earth Science Frontiers 11(1), 179-187
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Changji Autonomous Prefecture (Sanji Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Manasi Co. (Manas Co.)
Jianxun Bai (1987): Geology and Prospecting 23(12), 24-27
  • Yunnan Province
    • Dali Autonomous Prefecture
      • Midu Co.
Min Liu (2002): Multipurpose Utilization of Mineral Resources 10(5), 28-32
Colombia
 
  • Cauca Department
    • Mun. de Guapí
Min Mag (1997) 61:367-375
Costa Rica
 
  • Guanacaste Province
Federica Zaccarini, Ronald J. Bakker, Giorgio Garuti, Thomas Aiglsperger, Oskar A. R. Thalhammer, Lolita Campos, Joaquin A. Proenza, John F. Lewis (2010) Platinum group minerals in chromitite bodies of the Santa Elena Nappe, Costa Rica: mineralogical characterization by electron microprobe and Raman–spectroscopy. Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana 62:161-171
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Hradec Králové Region
      • Nová Paka (Neupaka)
Pasava, J., Malec, J., Griffin, W. L., & González Jiménez, J. M. (2015). Re–Os isotopic constraints on the source of platinum-group minerals (PGMs) from the Vestřev pyrope-rich garnet placer deposit, Bohemian Massif.
Ecuador
 
  • Esmeraldas Province
Weiser, T. and Schmidt-Thome, M. (1993) Platinum-group minerals from the Santiago river, Esmeraldas province, Ecuador. Canadian Mineralogist, 31, 61-73.
Ethiopia
 
  • Benshangul-Gumaz Region
    • Asosa region (Assosa region)
P.M. Kartashov data
  • Oromia Region (Oromiya Region)
    • Gimbi
Econ Geol (1986) 81:1278-1285; Kebede H. Belete, Aberra Mogessie and , John F.W. Bowles Platinum-Group Minerals in the Alaskan Type Mafic-Ultramafic Intrusions of the Yubdo Area, Western Ethiopia. 9th Platinum symposium
C. J. Stanley et al.: Mineralogical Magazine 69(4):447-453 (2005)
Cabri, L. J., Criddle, A. J., Laflamme, J. H. G., Bearne, G. S., & Harris, D. C. (1981). Mineralogical study of complex Pt-Fe nuggets from Ethiopia. Bulletin de Mineralogie, 104(4), 508-525.
Finland
 
Törroos Ragnar, Johanson Bo, Kojonen Kar, 1998. Alluvial nuggets of platinum group minerals and alloys from Finnish Lapland. Geological survey of Finland, Special Paper; Törnroos, Ragnar, Johanson, Bo, Kojonen, Kari 1998. Alluvial nuggets of Platinum-group minerals and alloys from Finnish Lapland. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 26
    • Kemi
Stanislav S. Gornostayev, Kauko V.O. Laajoki & Ossi Leinonen (2000) The platinum-group minerals in the Kemi chromite deposit, Finland: a case study of the Elijärvi ore body. In Abstract volume and Field trip Guidebook, 2nd annual GEODE-Fennoscandian shield field workshop on Palaeoproterozoic and Archean greenstone belts and VMS districts in the Fennoscandian Shield (Vol. 28).
France
 
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Bouches-du-Rhône
      • Aix-en-Provence
        • Peyrolles-en-Provence
Y. Moëlo : "Compte-rendu de la réunion "Systématique des Minéraux" du 23 novembre 1989", Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéral. ; 5th International Platinum Symposium Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland Number 61, Part 1,1989,1-64
Germany
 
  • Bavaria
    • Lower Bavaria
      • Straubing
Harald G. Dill, Detlev Klosa, Gustav Steyer, The “Donauplatin”: source rock analysis and origin of a distal fluvial Au-PGE placer in Central Europe, Miner Petrol (2009) 96:141–161.
Greece
 
  • Epirus Department (Ipeiros)
    • Pindos Mtn
      • Pindos ophiolite complex
Argirios Kapsiotis, Tassos A. Grammatikopoulos, Basilios Tsikouras, Konstantin Hatzipanagiotou, Federica Zaccarini und Giorgio Garuti (2011): Mineralogy, composition and PGM of chromitites from Pefki, Pindos ophiolite complex (NW Greece): evidence for progressively elevated fAs conditions in the upper mantle sequence. Mineralogy and Petrology 101, 129-150.
  • Macedonia Department
    • Kozáni Prefecture
      • Kozáni and Grevena prefectures border area
        • Vourinos Mt ophiolite complex
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Auge, T. (1985). Platinum-group-mineral inclusions in ophiolitic chromitite from the Vourinos Complex, Greece. The Canadian Mineralogist, 23(2), 163-171.
Kapsiotis, A., Grammatikopoulos, T. A., Zaccarini, F., Tsikouras, B., Garuti, G., & Hatzipanagiotou, K. (2006). Platinum-group mineral characterisation in concentrates from low-grade PGE chromitites from the Vourinos ophiolite complex, northern Greece. Applied Earth Science: Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy: Section B, 115(2), 49-57.
Auge, T. (1985). Platinum-group-mineral inclusions in ophiolitic chromitite from the Vourinos Complex, Greece. The Canadian Mineralogist, 23(2), 163-171.
India
 
  • Odisha (Orissa)
Canadian Mineralogist 40:277-309
Indonesia
 
  • Kalimantan (Borneo)
    • Kalimantan Selatan Province (South Kalimantan Province)
Frank Keutsch specimen; microprobe analysis
Iran
 
  • Kerman Province
    • Esfandagheh
Jannessary, M. R., Melcher, F., Lodziak, J., & Meisel, T. C. (2012). Review of platinum-group element distribution and mineralogy in chromitite ores from southern Iran. Ore Geology Reviews, 48, 278-305.
Japan
 
  • Hokkaido
    • Kamikawa Province
Urashima et al (1972) Reports of the Faculty of Science, Kagoshima University, 21, 119-135.; Urashima, Y., & Wakabayashi, T. (1972). Mineral compositions of placer platinum from Teshio in Hokkaido, Japan(Quantitative analysis and identification of chemical properties of minerals in Japanese placer platinoids). Kagoshima Daigaku Rika Hokoku,(Kagoshima), (21), 119-135.
      • Uryu-gun
Masutomi Museum specimen (Kyoto)
Robert C. Smith, II, Ph.D., P.G.
Suzuki, J. (1953) Explanatory text of the geological map of Japan, scale 1:50,000: Fukagawa (Asahikawa-48) (Geological Survey of Japan).
www.mineralmundi.com
    • Sorachi Province
      • Yubari District
Ryoichi SADANAGA and Michiaki BUNNO (1974) THE WAKABAYASHI MINERAL COLLECTION Bulletin No. 7 The University Museum, The University of Tokyo
    • Soya Province
      • Esashi-gun
Mitsubishi Corporation mineral collection, Ikuno
Ryoichi SADANAGA and Michiaki BUNNO (1974) THE WAKABAYASHI MINERAL COLLECTION Bulletin No. 7 The University Museum, The University of Tokyo
Morocco
 
  • Drâa-Tafilalet Region
    • Ouarzazate Province
      • Tazenakht
S. Weiß: Lapis 31(7/8), 72-73 (2006)
Myanmar
 
  • Sagaing Region (Sagaing Division)
    • Monywa District
Hagen, D., Weiser, Th., Htay, T. (1990): Platinum-group minerals in Quaternary gold placers in the upper Chindwin area of northern Burma. Mineral. Petrology: 42: 265 286; in: Jambor, J.L., Vanko, D.A. (1991): New mineral Names. American Mineralogist: 76:6 1438-1439
New Caledonia
 
  • Southern Province
    • Pirogues River
Economic Geology: 89: 1454-1468
New Zealand
 
  • South Island
    • Parapara
www.med.govt.nz/crown_minerals/minerals/docs/comreports/report05_pgm.pdf.
Norway
 
  • Nord-Trøndelag
    • Leka
Nilsson, L. P. & Larsen, R. B. (1998): Edle mineraler i mafiske og ultramafiske bergarter- en oppsummering av platina-gruppe mineraler (PGM) funnet i Norge i de senere år. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 14: 40-49; Econ Geol (1993) 88:782-803
  • Sogn og Fjordane
    • Vik
      • Stølsheimen
Nilsson, L. P. & Larsen, R. B. (1998): Edle mineraler i mafiske og ultramafiske bergarter- en oppsummering av platina-gruppe mineraler (PGM) funnet i Norge i de senere år. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 14: 40-49
  • Sør-Trøndelag
    • Røros
      • Feragen
Nilson, L. P. (1990): Platinum-group mineral inclusions in chromitite from the Osthammeren ultramafic tectonite body, South Central Norway. Mineralogy and Petrology 42: 249-263
Oman
 
  • Al Buraymi Governorate
    • Northern Oman Ophiolite
Ahmed, A. H., & Arai, S. (2003). Platinum-group minerals in podiform chromitites of the Oman ophiolite. The Canadian Mineralogist, 41(3), 597-616.
Papua New Guinea
 
  • Central Province
    • Port Moresby area
http://www.minport.com/showmrds-M045032.html
  • Enga Province
Mineralogy and Petrology 68:159-176 (2000).
  • Northern Province (Oro Province)
[AmMin 85:1325]
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
www.cosis.net/abstracts/EAE03/14099/EAE03-A-14099.pdf.
      • Maimecha and Kotui Rivers Basin
Malitch K.N., Badanina I.Yu., Goncharov M.M., Lopatin G.G. (2001) Platinum-group minerals (PGMs) of the Bor-Uryakh massif (Maimecha-Kotui Province). Abstracts of XXVII International conference School «Geochemistry of Alkaline rocks». – Moscow-Koktebel’. pp. 240 pp.
Pavel M. Kartashov data
Merkle, R. K., Malitch, K. N., Gräser, P. P., & Badanina, I. Y. (2012). Native osmium from the Guli Massif, Northern Siberia, Russia. Mineralogy and Petrology, 104(1-2), 115-127.
Merkle, R. K., Malitch, K. N., Gräser, P. P., & Badanina, I. Y. (2012). Native osmium from the Guli Massif, Northern Siberia, Russia. Mineralogy and Petrology, 104(1-2), 115-127.
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
[World of Stones 12:49]
        • Aldan
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Okrugin, A. V. (1998). Mineralogy, Types, and Origin of the Platinum-Bearing Placer Deposits of the Siberian Platform. International geology review, 40(8), 677-687.; Okrugin, A. V. (2011). Origin of platinum-group minerals in mafic and ultramafic rocks: from dispersed elements to nuggets. The Canadian Mineralogist, 49(6), 1397-1412.
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Amurskaya Oblast'
Stepanov, V.A., Rogulina, L.I., Melnikov, A.V., and Yusupov, D.V. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(7), 619-623.
    • Chukotskii Autonomous Okrug
      • Kolyma area
        • Bol'shoi Anyui River Basin
          • Baimka River
            • Aluchinskii Massif (Aluchin horst)
Gornostayev, S.S., Crocket, J.H., Mochalov, A.G., and Lajoki, K.V.O. (1999) The platinum-group minerals of the Baimka placer deposits, Aluchin horst, Russian Far East. Canadian Mineralogist: 37: 1117-1129.
      • Pekul'nei Range
        • Northern Pekul'nei River
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    • Kamchatka Oblast'
      • Koryak Mts
[MinRec 31:201]
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Sidorov, E. G., Tolstykh, N. D., Podlipsky, M. Y., & Pakhomov, I. O. (2004). Placer PGE minerals from the Filippa clinopyroxenite-dunite massif (Kamchatka). Geologiya i Geofizika (Russian Geology and Geophysics), 45(9), 1128-1144.
Tolstykh, N., Sidorov, E., & Kozlov, A. (2009). Platinum-group Minerals from the Olkhovaya–1 Placers Related to the Karaginsky Ophiolite Complex, Kamchatskiy Mys Peninsula, Russia. The Canadian Mineralogist, 47(5), 1057-1074.
[Canadian Mineralogist 38 p1251-1264 "The association of platinum-group minerals in placers of the Pustaya River, Kamchatka, Russia"]
    • Khabarovskiy Kray
      • Ayan-Maya district
        • Aldan shield
[MinRec 31:201]; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Cabri, L.J., Laflamme, H.H. Giles, (1997), Platinum Group Minerals from the Konder Massif, Russian Far East, Min Rec. 28, 97-106
    • Koriak Autonomous Okrug
      • Koryak Upland (Koriak; Koriakskhiye)
        • Ust'-Bel'skii ultrabasic Massif
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    • Primorskiy Kray
      • Kavalerovo Mining District
ROGULINA, L., MAKEEVA, T., PISKUNOV, Y. G., & SVESHNIKOVA, O. (2004). Первая находка платиноидов в рудах Майского золото-серебряного месторождения (Дальнегорск, Приморье).
      • Khanka lake
Shcheka G.G., Vrzhosek A.A., Lehmann B., Tolstykh N.D. (2004) Associations of platinum-group minerals from the Zolotaya gold placiers, Primorye, Russian Far East, - Canadian Mineralogist, v.42, pp. 583-599.
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaya Oblast'
      • Monche-Tundra
Yury L. Voytekhovsky, Yury N. Neradovsky (2008) The Cu-Ni-PGE and Cr deposits of the Monchegorsk area, the Kola Peninsula, Russia. 33 IGC excursion No 48, August 15 – 21, 2008
Neradovsky, Y.N., and Savchenko, E.E. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 746-748.
  • Urals Region
    • Middle Urals
      • Sverdlovskaya Oblast'
        • Isovsky District
P.M. Kartashov data
        • Kytlym
Garuti, G., Pushkarev, E.V., and Zaccarini, F. (2002) Composition and paragenesis of Pt alloys from chromitites of the Uralian-Alaskan-type Kytlym and Uktus complexes, northern and central Urals, Russia. Canadian Mineralogist: 40: 1127-1146.
        • Nizhnii Tagil
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data
          • Solov'eva Mtn
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
P.M. Kartashov data
(2014) 12th International Platinum Symposium p283; Garuti, G., Pushkarev, E.V., and Zaccarini, F. (2002) Composition and paragenesis of Pt alloys from chromitites of the Uralian-Alaskan-type Kytlym and Uktus complexes, northern and central Urals, Russia. Canadian Mineralogist: 40: 1127-1146.
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
P.M. Kartashov data
    • Subarctic Urals
M.I. Novgorodova e.a. (1995) A native wolfram with inclusions of yttrium oxide from an alluvium of Bol’shaja Pol’ja river (Prepolar Ural)” - Doklady RAN, 340, N5, pp. 681-684 (in Rus.).; Mills, S. J., Kartashov, P. M., Ma, C., Rossman, G. R., Novgorodova, M. I., Kampf, A. R., & Raudsepp, M. (2011). Yttriaite-(Y): The natural occurrence of Y2O3 from the Bol’shaya Pol’ya River, Subpolar Urals, Russia. American Mineralogist, 96(7), 1166-1170.
  • Western-Siberian Region
    • Polar Urals
      • Tyumenskaya Oblast'
Seltmann, R., Soloviev, S., Shatov, V., Pirajno, F., Naumov, E., & Cherkasov, S. (2010). Metallogeny of Siberia: tectonic, geologic and metallogenic settings of selected significant deposits*. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57(6), 655-706
South Africa
 
  • Free State Province
Minerals of South Africa
  • Limpopo Province
    • Bushveld Complex
      • Burgersfort
        • Sekhukhuneland
Melcher, F., & Lodziak, J. (2007). Platinum-group minerals of concentrates from the Driekop platinum pipe, Eastern Bushveld Complex Tribute to Eugen F. Stumpfl. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen: Journal of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 183(2), 173-195.
Turkey
 
  • Aegean Region
    • Muğla Province
      • Muğla ophiolite
Uysal, İ., Tarkian, M., Sadiklar, M. B., Zaccarini, F., Meisel, T., Garuti, G., & Heidrich, S. (2009). Petrology of Al-and Cr-rich ophiolitic chromitites from the Muğla, SW Turkey: implications from composition of chromite, solid inclusions of platinum-group mineral, silicate, and base-metal mineral, and Os-isotope geochemistry. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 158(5), 659-674.
UK
 
  • Scotland
    • Shetland Islands
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
USA
 
  • Alaska
    • Bethel Borough
      • Goodnews Bay
Canadian Mineralogist: 22: 543-552.
Snetsinger, K.G. (1973): Chromian Aluminian Magnetite and Two Rhodium Alloys in a Platinum Nugget from Goodnews Bay, Alaska. American Mineralogist: 58: 189-194
USGS Open-File Report 01-269
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
USGS Open-File Report 01-269
    • Wrangell-Petersburg Borough
      • Ketchikan District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
  • California
    • Butte Co.
      • Cherokee District
Silliman, Benjamin, Jr. (1873c), On the probable existence of microscopic diamonds with zircons and topaz, in the sands of hydraulic washings in California: A.I.M.E. Transactions: 1: 132; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 229.
    • Calaveras Co.
      • East Belt
        • Mokelumne Hill District
          • Mokelumne Hill
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10028717.
    • Del Norte Co.
      • Coastal Range
Hittell, John Sherzer (1868), The resources of California, 494 pp., San Francisco, A. Roman & Co.: 61; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 229.
    • Humboldt Co.
      • Eureka
        • Humboldt Bay
Richthofen, Ferdinand [Baron von] (1865), Die Metall-Produktion Californiens und der angrenzenden Länden: Petermanns Mitt. Erganzungsband III, Erganzung Heft 14, 58 pp.: 46; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 229.
      • Klamath Mts
        • Willow Creek District
          • Willow Creek (China Flat)
            • China Flat
Horton, Frederick W. (1912), Iridium in American placer platinum: Engineering & Mining Journal: 94: 873-875; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 229.
    • Mariposa Co.
      • West Belt
        • Hornitos District
          • Quartzburg
            • Quartzburg School
Min Mag (1997) 61:367-375
    • Mendocino Co.
      • Coastal Range
        • Calpella
Logan, Clarence August (1918), Platinum and allied metals in California: California Mining Bureau. Bulletin 85, 120 pp.: 46-47; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 41.
    • Nevada Co.
      • North San Juan District
        • North San Juan
Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15, figure 1; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 45.
    • Placer Co.
      • Emigrant Gap District (Blue Canyon District)
        • Texas Hill
Genth, Frederick Augustus (1852), On some minerals which accompany gold in California: Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia Proceedings: 6: 113-114; […(abstract): Neues Jahrb.: 68-69 (1855)]: 113; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 229.
    • Sacramento Co.
      • Folsom District
        • Folsom
Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15, figure 1; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 43.
    • Shasta Co.
      • Cottonwood Creek
Mining and Scientific Press (1901), Tin in California: Mining and Scientific Press: 82: 209; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 229.
      • Klamath Mts
        • Harrison Gulch District
          • Platina
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10286939; U.S. Bureau of Mines, Western Field Operations Center (WFOC), Minerals Information Listing Service (MILS); (MILS-WFOC) production files.
    • Trinity Co.
      • Klamath Mts
        • Junction City District
          • Junction City
Horton, Frederick W. (1912), Iridium in American placer platinum: Engineering & Mining Journal: 94: 873-875; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 229.
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10190235; U.S. Bureau of Mines, Western Field Operations Center (WFOC), Minerals Information Listing Service (MILS), (MILS-WFOC) production files.
        • Salmon Mts
          • North Fork District
Alfredo Petrov collection; Excalibur Mineral Co. analyses
        • Weaverville District
          • Douglas City
Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 45.
        • Willow Creek District
          • Salyer
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Tuolumne Co.
      • Stanislaus
Genth, Frederick Augustus (1852), On some minerals which accompany gold in California: Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia Proceedings: 6: 113; Genth, Frederick Augustus (1852), On a probably new element with iridosmine and platinum from California: Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia Proceedings: 6: 209, 247; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 229.
    • Yuba Co.
      • Hammonton District (Yuba River District; Yuba Gold Field; Yuba Dredge Field; Yuba Consolidated Gold Fields)
        • Hammonton
Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 45.
  • Nevada
    • Clark Co.
      • New York Mts
        • Crescent District
NBMG ofr 88-1
  • Oregon
    • Coos Co.
Bird, J. M., and W. A. Bassett (1980), Evidence of a Deep Mantle History in Terrestrial Osmium-Iridium-Ruthenium Alloys, J. Geophys. Res., 85(B10), 5461–5470.
    • Curry Co.
      • Beach Area
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • Sixes River District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Jackson Co.
      • Applegate District
Min Mag (1997) 61:367-375
    • Josephine Co.
      • Josephine Creek District
www.geo.cornell.edu/geology/faculty/Bird.html.
  • Pennsylvania
    • Lancaster Co.
      • State Line Chromite District
Smith and Barnes (2011) Pennsylvania Geology Fall/Winter 2011; Smith, II, R. C. and Barnes, J. H. (2008)
  • Washington
    • Clallam Co.
      • Cape Flattery District
        • Makah Bay
Metal Mines of Washington-Preliminary Report; Derkey, Joseph, Lasmanis
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