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About OtaviteHide

Otavi Mountains, Namibia
White to yellow-brown or reddish
3½ - 4
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Member of:
Named in 1906 by Otto Schneider for Otavi Mountains, Namibia, that include the type locality of the Tsumeb Mine.
Isostructural with:
Calcite Group.

A secondary mineral found in oxidized zones of ore bodies.

Classification of OtaviteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

A : Carbonates without additional anions, without H2O
B : Alkali-earth (and other M2+) carbonates

1 : A(XO3)

11 : Carbonates
6 : Carbonates of Zn and Cd

Pronounciation of OtaviteHide

PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom
Debbie WoolfUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of OtaviteHide

White to yellow-brown or reddish
3½ - 4 on Mohs scale
4.96 g/cm3 (Measured)    5.03 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Chemical Properties of OtaviteHide

IMA Formula:
CAS Registry number:

CAS Registry numbers are published by the American Chemical Society

Crystallography of OtaviteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.93 Å, c = 16.27 Å
a:c = 1 : 3.3
Unit Cell V:
342.46 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crusts of minute rhombohedral crystals, {101¯1}.

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0000103OtaviteGraf D L (1961) Crystallographic tables for the rhombohedral carbonates American Mineralogist 46 1283-131619610293
0018091OtaviteZachariasen W (1928) Untersuchungen ueber die Kristallstruktur von Sesquioxyden und Verbindungen A B O3 _cod_database_code 1011341 Skrifter utgitt av det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi i Oslo 1928 1-16519280293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

Epitaxial Relationships of OtaviteHide

Epitaxial Minerals:
Epitaxy Comments:
Otavite oriented growths on smithsonite (Tsumeb).

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of OtaviteHide

Other Language Names for OtaviteHide

Simplified Chinese:菱镉矿

Relationship of Otavite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
CalciteCaCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
MagnesiteMgCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
RhodochrositeMnCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
SideriteFeCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
SmithsoniteZnCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
SpherocobaltiteCoCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
5 photos of Otavite associated with MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
4 photos of Otavite associated with CerussitePbCO3
1 photo of Otavite associated with ArsentsumebitePb2Cu(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)
1 photo of Otavite associated with SmithsoniteZnCO3
1 photo of Otavite associated with CalciteCaCO3
1 photo of Otavite associated with TyuyamuniteCa(UO2)2(VO4)2 · 5-8H2O
1 photo of Otavite associated with AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

5.AB.05CalciteCaCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.AB.05MagnesiteMgCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.AB.05RhodochrositeMnCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.AB.05SideriteFeCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.AB.05SmithsoniteZnCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.AB.05SpherocobaltiteCoCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.AB.10AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
5.AB.10DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
5.AB.10KutnohoriteCaMn2+(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
5.AB.10MinrecorditeCaZn(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
5.AB.15AragoniteCaCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.AB.15CerussitePbCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.AB.15StrontianiteSrCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.AB.15WitheriteBaCO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.AB.20VateriteCaCO3Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
5.AB.25HuntiteCaMg3(CO3)4Trig. 3 2 : R3 2
5.AB.30NorsethiteBaMg(CO3)2Trig. 3 2 : R3 2
5.AB.40OlekminskiteSr(Sr,Ca,Ba)(CO3)2Trig. 3 2 : P3 2 1
5.AB.45BarytocalciteBaCa(CO3)2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.AB.50Carbocernaite(Ca,Na)(Sr,Ce,Ba)(CO3)2Orth. mm2
5.AB.55BenstoniteBa6Ca6Mg(CO3)13Trig. 3 : R3
5.AB.60JuangodoyiteNa2Cu(CO3)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide 3m (3 2/m) : R3c 3m (3 2/m) : R3c 3m (3 2/m) : R3c 3m (3 2/m) : R3c 3m (3 2/m) : R3c 3m (3 2/m) : R3céiteNi(CO3)Hex.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

11.6.1SmithsoniteZnCO3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
11.6.2HydrozinciteZn5(CO3)2(OH)6Mon. 2/m : B2/m
11.6.3Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
11.6.5Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6Mon. 2/m : P21/m
11.6.6Claraite(Cu,Zn)15(CO3)4(AsO4)2(SO4)(OH)14 · 7H2OTric.
11.6.7MinrecorditeCaZn(CO3)2Trig. 3 : R3
11.6.8Loseyite(Mn2+,Zn,Mg)4Zn3(CO3)2(OH)10Mon. 2/m
11.6.9SclariteZn7(CO3)2(OH)10Mon. 2/m : B2/b

Other InformationHide

Thermal Behaviour:
decomposes to CdO in the 603-648 K range; the unit cell parameter's behaviour is untypical, as it slightly increases up to 453 K, and then decreases.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for OtaviteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
de Schulten (1897) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 20: 196.
Schneider, O. (1906) Vorläufige Notiz über einige sekundäre Minerlien von Otavi (Deutsch Süd-West-Afrika), darunter ein neues Cadmium-Mineral. Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie: 1906: 388-389.
Zachariasen (1928) Norske Videnskaps-Akademi, Skrifter, Oslo, no. 4.
Ramdohr and Strunz (1941) Zentralblatt Mineralien: 97.
Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 181.
Rutt, H.N., Nicola, J.H. (1974) Raman spectra of carbonates of calcite structure. Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics: 7: 4522-4528.
Borodin, V.L., Liutin, V.I., Iliukhin, V.V. (1979) Calcite - otavite isomorphous series. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR: 245: 1099-1101.
Liu, L., Lin, C. (1997) A calcite aragonite-type phase transition in CdCO3. American Mineralogist: 82: 643-646.
Reviews in Mineralogy, Mineralogical Society of America: 11.
Tiegeng Liu, Lin Xie, Xingli Wang, and Rongjun Si (2005) First discovery of otavite in China. Chinese Geology: 32(3): 443-446 (in Chinese with English abstract).
Bromiley, F.A., Ballaran, T.B., Langenhorst, F., Seifert, F. (2007) Order and miscibility in the otavite-magnesite solid solution. American Mineralogist: 92: 829-836.
Bromiley, F.A., Ballaran, T.B., Zhang, M. (2007) An infrared investigation of the otavite-magnesite solid solution. American Mineralogist: 92: 837-843.
Ballirano, P. (2016) Thermal behaviour of otavite, CdCO3. European Journal of Mineralogy: 28(2): 285-293.
Wang, M., Shi, G., Qin, J., Bai, Q. (2018) Thermal behaviour of calcite-structure carbonates: a powder X-ray diffraction study between 83 and 618 K. European Journal of Mineralogy: 30: 939-949.

Internet Links for OtaviteHide

Localities for OtaviteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • New South Wales
    • Yancowinna Co.
      • Broken Hill district
        • Broken Hill
Birch, W.D., van der Heyden, A. (1997) Minerals of the Kintore and Block 14 open cuts at Broken Hill, New South Wales. Australian Journal of Mineralogy: 3(1): 23-71.
  • Western Australia
    • East Pilbara Shire
      • Gregory Ranges District
        • Braeside Station
Secondary Minerals from the Braeside Lead Field, Pilbara, Western Australia; E.A. Hancock, P.J. Downes, A.W.R. Bevan; Australian Journal of Mineralogy; Vol 13, No 2, Dec 2007; pp 55-63
    • Wyndham-East Kimberley Shire
      • Kununurra
Downes, P.J., Bevan, A.W.R., Costeo, D., Verrall, M. (2011) Mafic-hosted Secondary Mineralisation from the Shangri-La Pb-Ag-Au-Cu Mine Kimberley Western Australia, Australian Journal of Mineralogy, (Nov. 2011) 16: p15-24.
  • La Paz
    • Pacajes Province
Joy Desor analyses by SEM-EDS and Raman.
  • Oruro
    • Dalence Province
      • Huanuni
Cacho, A.; Melgarejo, J.-C.; Camprubí, A.; Torró, L.; Castillo-Oliver, M.; Torres, B.; Artiaga, D.; Tauler, E.; Martínez, Á.; Campeny, M.; Alfonso, P.; Arce-Burgoa, O.R. (2019) Mineralogy and Distribution of Critical Elements in the Sn–W–Pb–Ag–Zn Huanuni Deposit, Bolivia. Minerals 9, 753
  • Guizhou
    • Qiannan
      • Duyun County
Tiegeng Liu, Lin Xie, Xingli Wang, and Rongjun Si (2005): Chinese Geology 32(3), 443-446; Tiegeng Liu, Qian Zhang, Lin Ye, and Shuxun Shao (2004): Geology in China 31(1), 40-45; Ye, L., Cook, N. J., Liu, T., Ciobanu, C. L., Gao, W., & Yang, Y. (2012). The Niujiaotang Cd-rich zinc deposit, Duyun, Guizhou province, southwest China: ore genesis and mechanisms of cadmium concentration. Mineralium Deposita, 47(6), 683-700.
  • Liaoning
    • Fushun
      • Fushun Co.
Minzhi Yang (2000): Bulletin of Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry 19(4), 381-383
Czech Republic
  • Hradec Králové Region
    • Rychnov nad Kněžnou District
Sejkora, J., Bureš, B., Škoda, R.: Nové nálezy supergenních minerálů na rudním ložisku Horní Rokytnice v Krkonoších. Minerál, 2010, 18, 2, 108-115.
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Niederberg area
      • Wülfrath
        • Rohdenhaus
Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1988): Der Niederbergische Erzbezirk des Werdener Bergreviers in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Lapis 13(1): 11-35
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
        • Lavrion Mining District
          • Km 3
            • Kaminiza mines
Giester, G., Rieck, B. and Brandstätter, F. (1998): Niedermayrite, Cu4Cd(SO4)2(OH)6·4H2O, a new mineral from the Lavrion Mining District, Greece. Mineral. Petrol., 63, 19-34. [locality given as "km 3"]; Rieck, B. (1999): Seltene Arsenate aus der Kamariza und weitere Neufunde aus Lavrion. Lapis 24 (7-8), 68-76; 90.
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County
    • Szerencs District
      • Legyesbénye
Szakáll, S., Fehér, B. & Tóth, L. (2016) Magyarország ásványai. [The minerals of Hungary] Geo Litera publication, Szeged, Hungary 451.
  • Munster
    • Clare County
      • The Burren
        • Carron
Dr. David Green
  • Sardinia
    • Sassari Province
      • Ozieri
Orlandi, P. & Campostrini, I. (2005): Zibaldone. Aggiornamenti di mineralogia italiana 2004. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 3/2005, 184-191.
    • South Sardinia Province
      • Guspini
Binotto, C., Boi, G., Cocco, E., Preite, D., Sitta, S. (1988): Minerali dalle miniere di Montevecchio e da altri giacimenti collegati al granito dell'Arburese. 4° Parte, 1/1988, 5-16.
  • Miyazaki Prefecture
    • Nishiusuki District
      • Hinokage
Takashi Yamada (2009) JAKOKA: 2009 Annual Meeting of the Japan Association of Mineralogical Sciences, R4-04; Uehara, S., et al (2014) MInerals from Kyushu and Yamaguchi. (Fukuoka Mineral Club, 355 pages)
Namibia (TL)
  • Oshikoto Region
    • Tsumeb
National Bureau of Standards, Circular 539/7 (1957), 11
North Macedonia
  • Makedonska Kamenica Municipality
Collection of NHM, Vienna
  • Sakha Republic (Yakutia)
    • Verkhoyansk District
M.I. Novgorodova
Slobodan A. Radosavljević, Jovica N. Stojanović, Ana S. Radosavljević-Mihajlović, Vladan D. Kašić (2013): Polymetallic mineralization of the Boranja orefield, Podrinje Metallogenic District, Serbia: zonality, mineral associations and genetic features. Periodico di Mineralogia, 82, 61-87.
  • England
    • North Yorkshire
      • Harrogate
        • High and Low Bishopside
          • Greenhow
Young, B.; Ryback, G.; Braithwaite, R. S. W.; Francis, J. G. (1997): Prosopite, doyleite and otavite from Coldstones quarry, Pateley bridge, North Yorkshire. Mineralogical Magazine 61, 895-897.
  • Scotland
    • Renfrewshire
      • Bishopton
[J. Russell Soc. 2001 - 94]
  • Wales
    • Powys
      • Old Radnor
British Micromount Society; Cotterell, T., Green, D., Hubbard, N., Mason, J.S., Starkey, R., Tindle, A. (2011) The Mineralogy of Dolyhir Quarry, Old Radnor, Powys, Wales. UK Journal of Mines and Minerals, 32, 5-61.
  • Arizona
    • Cochise County
      • Carr Canyon
"The Accidental Pocket" talk presented by Robert E. Walstrom at 2012 NCMA meeting.
  • Michigan
    • Baraga Co.
      • Huron River
Rocks & Minerals 82:298-308
  • Nevada
    • Humboldt Co.
      • Iron Point Mining District
        • Valmy
Silver Coin Mine. Compact Disc. Paul Adams
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex County
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
The Picking Table:28(2):3 (per Dr. Sidney Williams); Dunn(1995):Pt4:613.
  • New Mexico
    • Socorro Co.
      • Hansonburg District
        • Bingham
M Massis collection
Rocks & Minerals: 78(6): 380-389.
  • Thái Nguyên Province
Johan, Z.: Mineralogie kadmia na ložisku Mo Ba, Vietnamská demokratická republika. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 1962, roč. 7, č. 2, s. 132-138.
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