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Pachnolite

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Formula:
NaCa[AlF6] · H2O
Colour:
Colourless, white; colourless in transmitted light.
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
3
Specific Gravity:
2.983
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
From the Greek πάχνη, frost, and λίθος, stone, in allusion to its appearance.
Dimorph of:
This page provides mineralogical data about Pachnolite.


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Classification of PachnoliteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
3.CB.40

3 : HALIDES
C : Complex halides
B : Neso-aluminofluorides
11.6.5.1

11 : HALIDE COMPLEXES
6 : Aluminofluorides - Isolated Octahedra
8.6.18

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
6 : Halides of Al

Physical Properties of PachnoliteHide

Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Colourless, white; colourless in transmitted light.
Streak:
White
Hardness:
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
On {001}.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
2.983 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.97 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of PachnoliteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.411 nβ = 1.413 nγ = 1.420
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.009
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r > v

Chemical Properties of PachnoliteHide

Formula:
NaCa[AlF6] · H2O
IMA Formula:
NaCaAlF6 · H2O

Crystallography of PachnoliteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:
a = 12.117(4) Å, b = 10.414(3) Å, c = 15.680(4) Å
β = 90.37(2)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.164 : 1 : 1.506
Unit Cell V:
1,978.56 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
16
Morphology:
Crystals prismatic [001], commonly acutely terminated. Terminated by {001} at times. {110} striated parallel to the intersection with {001}. Massive, cleavale to granular; stalactitic masses.
Twinning:
On {100} common, yielding crystals with an orthorhombic appearance; giving a grid pattern in thin section.
Comment:
Non-standard space-group setting F2/d.

Crystallographic forms of PachnoliteHide

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
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Pachnolite no.10 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Pachnolite no.11 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

Epitaxial Relationships of PachnoliteHide

Epitaxial Minerals:
ThomsenoliteNaCa[AlF6] · H2O
Epitaxy Comments:
Oriented growths of thomsenolite on pachnolite, with thomsenolite (001) and (110) quasi-parallel to pachnolite (110) and (001). Also with thomsenolite (110) and (110) quasi-parallel to pachnolite (110) and (001).

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.95 (100)
3.26 (10)
3.02 (20)
2.92 (10)
2.79 (70)
2.16 (50)
1.971 (90)

Type Occurrence of PachnoliteHide

Synonyms of PachnoliteHide

Other Language Names for PachnoliteHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Thomsenolite32 photos of Pachnolite associated with Thomsenolite on mindat.org.
Hydrokenoralstonite9 photos of Pachnolite associated with Hydrokenoralstonite on mindat.org.
Siderite8 photos of Pachnolite associated with Siderite on mindat.org.
Cryolite4 photos of Pachnolite associated with Cryolite on mindat.org.
Limonite3 photos of Pachnolite associated with Limonite on mindat.org.
Pyrite2 photos of Pachnolite associated with Pyrite on mindat.org.
Kupletskite1 photo of Pachnolite associated with Kupletskite on mindat.org.
Elpidite1 photo of Pachnolite associated with Elpidite on mindat.org.
Wulfenite1 photo of Pachnolite associated with Wulfenite on mindat.org.
Fluorite1 photo of Pachnolite associated with Fluorite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

3.CB.05CryolithioniteNa3Li3[AlF6]2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
3.CB.15CryoliteNa2NaAlF6Mon. 2/m
3.CB.15ElpasoliteK2NaAlF6Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.CB.15SimmonsiteNa2LiAlF6Mon.
3.CB.20ColquiriiteCaLi[AlF6]Trig.
3.CB.25WeberiteNa2Mg[AlF6]FOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Immm
3.CB.30KarasugiteSrCa[Al(F,OH)7]Mon.
3.CB.35UsoviteBa2CaMgAl2F14Mon.
3.CB.40ThomsenoliteNaCa[AlF6] · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
3.CB.45CarlhintzeiteCa2[AlF6]F · H2OTric.
3.CB.50YaroslaviteCa3Al2F10(OH)2 · H2OOrth.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

8.6.1ZharchikhiteAlF(OH)2Mon.
8.6.2ChloraluminiteAlCl3 · 6H2OTrig.
8.6.3CadwaladeriteAlCl(OH)2 · 4H2OAmor.
8.6.4CryolithioniteNa3Li3[AlF6]2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
8.6.5CryoliteNa2NaAlF6Mon. 2/m
8.6.6ChioliteNa5Al3F14Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/mnc
8.6.7ElpasoliteK2NaAlF6Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
8.6.8WeberiteNa2Mg[AlF6]FOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Immm
8.6.9Hydrokenoralstonite Na0.5(Al,Mg)2(F,OH)6•H2O Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
8.6.10KoeneniteNa4Mg9Al4Cl12(OH)22Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
8.6.11 Chlor-manasseiteMgxAl(OH)2x+2Cl · (x-0.8)H2O
x about 1.75
8.6.12GearksutiteCa[Al(F,OH)5(H2O)]Tric. 1 : P1
8.6.13ProsopiteCaAl2(F,OH)8Mon. 2/m : B2/b
8.6.14YaroslaviteCa3Al2F10(OH)2 · H2OOrth.
8.6.15CarlhintzeiteCa2[AlF6]F · H2OTric.
8.6.16ColquiriiteCaLi[AlF6]Trig.
8.6.17ThomsenoliteNaCa[AlF6] · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
8.6.19Zirklerite(Fe,Mg,Ca)9Al4Cl18(OH)12 · 14H2O (?)Trig.

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Readily soluble in H2SO4.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for PachnoliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Knop (1863) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 127: 61.
Wöhler (1875) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 180: 231 (as Pyroconite).
Koenig (1876) Proceedings of the Academy of Science, Philadelphia: 42.
Des Cloizeaux (1882) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 5: 310.
Groth (1883) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 7: 457.
Cross and Hillebrand (1885) USGS Bulletin 20: 49.
Krenner (1885) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 10: 528.
Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 179.
Goldschmidt, V. (1920) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 6: 113.
Larsen, E.S. and Berman, H. (1934) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, Second edition, USGS Bulletin 848: 95.
Ferguson (1946) Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, Sect. 4: 40: 11
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 114-116.
Hawthorne, F.C. and Ferguson, R.B. (1983): The crystal structure of pachnolite. Canadian Mineralogist, 21, 561–566.
Pauly, H. and O.V. Petersen (1983): Pachnolite: new optical data with a note on artificial precipitates. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte, 241–250.
Mineralogical Record (1993): 24: 34.

Internet Links for PachnoliteHide

Localities for PachnoliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Argentina
 
  • Córdoba
    • Punilla Department
      • Tanti
Dina, H. (1993). Hentschelita en Cerro Blanco, Tanti, Córdoba. Informacion Tecnologica, 48(3-4), 277-282.
American Mineralogist (1978): 53: 416-431.; Černý, P., Galliski, M. A., Oyarzábal, J. C., Teertstra, D. K., Chapman, R., MacBride, L., & Ferreira, K. (2003). Stranded and equilibrated assemblages of late feldspars in two granitic pegmatites in the Pampean Ranges, Argentina. The Canadian Mineralogist, 41(4), 1013-1026.; Demartin F, Gay H D, Gramaccioli C M, Pilati T (1997) Benyacarite, a new titanium-bearing phosphate mineral species from Cerro Blanco, Argentina. The Canadian Mineralogist 35, 707-712
Brazil
 
  • Paraíba
    • Borborema mineral province
      • Pedra Lavrada
R. Wegner, H. Pöllmann, T. Witzke, & W. Schuckmann (1998): Colquiriite, carlhintzeite, ralstonite and pachnolite from Serra Branca-Pegmatite/Brazil.- Proceedings 17th General Meeting, IMA, August 1998, Toronto, A151
Finland
 
  • Southern Finland Region
    • Kotka
Ilkka Mikkola collection
Germany
 
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Pleystein
Dill, H.G., Weber, B. (2009), Pleystein-City on Pegmatite, 4th International Symposium on Granitic Pegmatites, Recife, Brazil.
      • Waidhaus
        • Hagendorf
http://www.berthold-weber.de/h_miner.htm
Greenland (TL)
 
  • Sermersooq
    • Arsuk Fjord
      • Ivittuut (Ivigtut)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 112; Canadian Mineralogist, 21, 561 (1983); Lapis 11 (1985), 9.; Petersen, O.V. and Secher, K. (1993): The minerals of Greenland. Mineralogical Record 24 (2): 1-65 (p.36)
Norway
 
  • Oppland
    • Lunner
      • Nordmarka
Raade, G. & Haug, J. (1980): Rare Fluorides from a soda granite in the Oslo Region, Norway. Mineralogical Record, 11,83-91
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
      • Chitinskaya Oblast'
Starikova, Sharygin, V.V. (2015): Ba-dominant fluoroaluminates from the Katugin rare-metal deposit (Transbaikalia, Russia): chemical and Raman data. XXXII International Conference "Alkaline Magmatism of the Earth and Related Strategic Metal Deposits", August 7-14, Apatity, Kola, Russia
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
        • Ilmen Mts
          • Ilmen Natural Reserve
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
Ukraine
 
  • Zhytomyr Oblast' (Zhitomir Oblast')
Yurk Yu.Yu., Gurov E.P., Gurova E.P. (1973) Pecularities of fluorin mineralogy of Ukrainian crystalline shield, - Naukova Dumka, Kiev, pp.184 (in Russian).; Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
USA
 
  • Colorado
    • El Paso Co.
      • Cheyenne District (St. Peters Dome District)
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 112, 120, 122; Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
Am Min 51:299-323
Am Min 51:299-323
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.; Am Min 51:299-323; American Mineralogist (1936): 20: 319-333
    • Fremont Co.
"Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 16, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; Armbrustmacher, T. J. (1988) Geology and resources of thorium and associated elements in the Wet Mountains area, Fremont and Custer counties, Colorado. USGS Professional Paper: 1049-F
  • Florida
    • Hillsborough Co.
      • Tampa
AmMin 67:1258
  • Nevada
    • Mineral Co.
      • Fitting District
        • Gillis Range
Mineralogical Record: 31: 204.
  • Virginia
    • Amelia Co.
      • Winterham
[L.E. Kearns, 1995 - Mineralogical Record Vol 26 No.6 - "Alumino-Fluorides from the Morefield Pegmatite"]; Richards, R. P., Kearns, L. E., & Cook, W. R. (1998). Morphology of Chiolite twins from the Morefield mine, Amelia County, Virginia. Canadian mineralogist, 36, 1009-1016.
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