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About PararealgarHide

Light yellow to orange-brown
Vitreous, Resinous
1 - 1½
Crystal System:
Named in 1980 by Andrew C. Roberts, H. Gary Ansell, and Maurizio Bonardi from the Greek παρα "para" = beyond for the polymorphous structural relationship to realgar.
Red Realgar alters to yellow/yellow-orange pararealgar on exposure to light.

Classification of PararealgarHide

Approval Year:

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
F : Sulfides of arsenic, alkalies; sulfides with halide, oxide, hydroxide, H2O
A : With As, (Sb), S

8 : AmXp, with m:p = 1:1

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
7 : Sulphides etc. of V, As, Sb and Bi

Physical Properties of PararealgarHide

Vitreous, Resinous
Light yellow to orange-brown
Light yellow
1 - 1½ on Mohs scale
None Observed

Chemical Properties of PararealgarHide


Crystallography of PararealgarHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.909 Å, b = 9.655 Å, c = 8.502 Å
β = 97.20°
a:b:c = 1.026 : 1 : 0.881
Unit Cell V:
806.8 ų

Type Occurrence of PararealgarHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
National Mineral Collection, Geological Survey of Canada, under catalogue numbers 61566 (Mount Washington) and 61567 (Gray Rock).

Synonyms of PararealgarHide

Other Language Names for PararealgarHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Realgar57 photos of Pararealgar associated with Realgar on
Colemanite14 photos of Pararealgar associated with Colemanite on
Calcite13 photos of Pararealgar associated with Calcite on
Quartz10 photos of Pararealgar associated with Quartz on
Fluorite4 photos of Pararealgar associated with Fluorite on
Marcasite4 photos of Pararealgar associated with Marcasite on
Dolomite4 photos of Pararealgar associated with Dolomite on
Pyrite4 photos of Pararealgar associated with Pyrite on
Orpiment3 photos of Pararealgar associated with Orpiment on
Ulexite3 photos of Pararealgar associated with Ulexite on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.FA.AnorpimentAs2S3Tric. 1 : P1
2.FA.BonazziiteAs4S4Mon. 2/m : B2/b
2.FA.05DuranusiteAs4SOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
2.FA.10DimorphiteAs4S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
2.FA.15aRealgarAs4S4Mon. 2/m
2.FA.15dUM1970-18-S:AsAs4S4Mon. 2/m : B2/b
2.FA.20AlacrániteAs8S9Mon. 2/m : P2/b
2.FA.30LaphamiteAs2(Se,S)3Mon. 2/m
2.FA.30OrpimentAs2S3Mon. 2/m
2.FA.35GetchelliteAsSbS3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
2.FA.40Wakabayashilite[(As,Sb)6S9][As4S5]Orth. mm2 : Pna21

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide 2/m 2/m : B2/b 2/m : B2/b

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

3.7.2DuranusiteAs4SOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
3.7.3DimorphiteAs4S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.7.4RealgarAs4S4Mon. 2/m
3.7.6AlacrániteAs8S9Mon. 2/m : P2/b
3.7.8OrpimentAs2S3Mon. 2/m
3.7.10LaphamiteAs2(Se,S)3Mon. 2/m
3.7.11GetchelliteAsSbS3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
3.7.12Wakabayashilite[(As,Sb)6S9][As4S5]Orth. mm2 : Pna21
3.7.13PääkköneniteSb2AsS2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
3.7.14StibniteSb2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.7.17BismuthiniteBi2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.7.19GuanajuatiteBi2Se3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.7.22LaitakariteBi4Se2STrig. 3m : R3m
3.7.26TsumoiteBiTeTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
3.7.27PilseniteBi4Te3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.28HedleyiteBi7Te3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.29TetradymiteBi2Te2STrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.30JoséiteBi4TeS2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.7.40JunoiteCu2Pb3Bi8(S,Se)16Mon. 2/m : B2/m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
Contains arsenic - always wash hands after handling. Avoid inhaling dust when handling or breaking. Never lick or ingest.

References for PararealgarHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Roberts, A.C., Ansell, H.G., Bonardi, M. (1980) Pararealgar, a new polymorph of AsS, from British Columbia. The Canadian Mineralogist: 18: 525-527.
Douglass, D.L., Shing, C., Wang, G. (1992) The light-induced alteration of realgar to pararealgar. American Mineralogist: 77: 1266-1274.
Bonazzi, P., Menchetti, S., Pratesi, G. (1995) The crystal structure of pararealgar, As4S4. American Mineralogist: 80: 400-403.
Kyono, A., Kimata, M., Hatta, T. (2005) Light-induced degradation dynamics in realgar: In situ structural investigation using single-crystal X-ray diffraction study and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. American Mineralogist: 90: 1563-1570.
Ballirano, P., Maras, A. (2006) In-situ X-ray transmission powder diffraction study of the kinetics of the light induced alteration of realgar (alpha-As4S4). European Journal of Mineralogy: 18: 589–599.
Bonazzi, P., Bindi, L., Pratesi, G., Menchetti, S. (2006) Light-induced changes in molecular arsenic sulfides: State of the art and new evidence by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. American Mineralogist: 91: 1323-1330.
Naumov, P., Makreski, P., Jovanovski, G. (2007) Direct atomic scale observations of linkage isomerization of As4S4 clusters during the photoinduced transition of realgar to pararealgar. Inorganic Chemistry: 46: 10624-10631.
Bonazzi, P., Bindi, L. (2008) A crystallographic review of arsenic sulfides: Effects of chemical variations and changes induced by exposure to light. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 223: 132-147.

Internet Links for PararealgarHide

Localities for PararealgarHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Carinthia
    • Friesach - Hüttenberg area
      • Hüttenberg
        • Lölling
Schnorrer, G. (2000): Mineralogische Notizen VII. Der Aufschluss, 51, 281-293
    • Völkermarkt
      • Rammersdorf
        • Dragonerfels
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
  • Styria
    • Fischbacher Alpen
      • St Marein im Mürztal
C.Auer (2005)
Christian Auer
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Inn valley
        • Brixlegg - Schwaz area
          • Schwaz
Lapis 19(7/8):13-78 (1994)
  • British Columbia
    • Kamloops Mining Division
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; A. G. Roberts, H. G. Ansell, and M. Bonardi (1980) Pararealgar, a new polymorph of AsS, from British Columbia. Can. Mineral.,l8, 525-52
    • Lillooet Mining Division
      • Bridge River area
        • Truax Creek
ROBERTS, A.C., ANSELL, H.G. & BONARDI, M. (1980): Pararealgar, a new polymorph of AsS, from British Columbia. Canadian Mineralogist 18, 525-527. BONAZZI, P., MENCHETTI, S. & PRATESI, G. (1995): The crystal structure of pararealgar, As4S4. American Mineralogist 80, 400-403.
    • Nanaimo Mining Division
      • Vancouver Island
        • Comox District
ROBERTS, A.C., ANSELL, H.G. & BONARDI, M. (1980): Pararealgar, a new polymorph of AsS, from British Columbia. Canadian Mineralogist 18, 525-527. BONAZZI, P., MENCHETTI, S. & PRATESI, G. (1995): The crystal structure of pararealgar, As4S4. American Mineralogist 80, 400-403.
  • Ontario
    • Thunder Bay District
      • Bomby Township
Harris (1989)
Ann P.Sabina (1991), Rocks and Minerals for the Collector, Sudbury to Winnipeg. GSC Misc. Report 49. p.86
Costa Rica
  • Puntarenas Province
Paolo Bosio Collection
Czech Republic
  • Karlovy Vary Region
    • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
      • Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal)
Lapis 2002(7/8), 63-65
  • Corsica
    • Haute-Corse
      • Corte
        • Moïta
          • Matra
Frank Keutsch collection, # FNK GRE 1 (originally via Fred Kennedy collection)
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Alpes-Maritimes
      • Duranus
Mari G. & D. (2012) : "La mine d'arsenic de Duranus". Riviera Scientifique n°96, p 39-70
    • Hautes-Alpes
      • La Chapelle-en-Valgaudemar (La Chapelle-en-Valgaudémar)
Bourgoin, V., Favreau, G., Boulliard, J.-C. (2011): Jas Roux: un gisement exceptionnel à minéraux de thallium. Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2011, 2-91.
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Hornberg
Gröbner, J. & Schrenk, D. (2005): Die Mineralien des Tunnels bei Hornberg. Der Erzgräber 19, 17-25. (in German)
      • Schenkenzell
        • Wittichen
          • Böckelsbach valley
Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
          • Burgfelsen
No reference listed
          • Heubach Valley
No reference listed
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • St Andreasberg District
No reference listed
  • Saxony
    • Dresden
      • Hänichen
Thalheim, K.; Reichel, W. & Witzke, T. (1991): Die Minerale des Döhlener Beckens.- Schriften des Staatlichen Museums für Mineralogie und Geologie zu Dresden, Nr. 3
      • Possendorf
    • Erzgebirge
      • Schlema-Hartenstein District
        • Alberoda
Vollstädt,H. & Weiß,St. (1991): Mineralfundstellen Sächsisches Erzgebirge, München, S.26ff.
  • Thuringia
    • Gera
      • Weida
        • Berga/Elster
          • Culmitzsch
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
  • Campania
    • Phlegrean Volcanic Complex
      • Naples Province
        • Phlegrean Fields
          • Pozzuoli
Russo, M. (2004): Realgar e pararealgar della Solfatara di Pozzuoli. Micro (notizie mineralogiche), 2004, 25-28
- Russo, M., Campostrini, I., Demartin, F. (2017): I minerali di origine fumarolica dei Campi Flegrei: Solfatara di Pozzuoli (Napoli) e dintorni. Micro, 15, 122-192.
  • Lombardy
    • Sondrio Province
      • Valtellina
        • Malenco Valley
          • Lanterna Valley
            • Lanzada
              • Campo Moro Valley
                • Poschiavina Valley
Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
        • Valfurva
          • Gavia Valley
Bianchi Potenza, B., Liborio, G. (1981): Prima segnalazione di pararealgar in Italia: il giacimento di Valle dell'Alpe (Valle del Gavia, Sondrio). Natura, 72, 129-133. AA. VV. (1996): Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work. Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (2006) I minerali della media-alta Valtellina, delle Orobie valtellinesi e della Val Poschiavo. Aggiornamenti sulle altre località della provincia di Sondrio. Bettini, Sondrio, 255 pp.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Campigliese (Campiglia Mountains; Campiglia Ridge)
        • Campiglia Marittima
Nannoni R., Marinai V. (2008): Monte Spinosa. Nuovi ritrovamenti alle miniere Maffei e Montorsi. Riv. Mineral. Ital., 32, 2 (2-2008), 98-111; Biagioni C., Orlandi P., Gini C., Bargellini C., Gamucci C., Marinai V., Nannoni R. (2013): Botro ai Marmi. I minerali delle miniere Maffei e Montorsi. Riv. Mineral. Ital., 37, 1 (1-2013), 63-83.
Nannoni, R., Marinai, V. (2008): Monte Spinosa. Nuovi ritrovamenti alle miniere Maffei e Montorsi. Riv. Mineral. Ital., 32, 2 (2-2008), 98-111; Biagioni, C., Orlandi, P., Gini, C., Bargellini, C., Gamucci, C., Marinai, V., Nannoni, R. (2013): Botro ai Marmi. I minerali delle miniere Maffei e Montorsi. Riv. Mineral. Ital., 37, 1 (1-2013), 63-83.
  • Honshu Island
    • Kanto region
      • Gunma Prefecture
Matsubara, S. & Miyawaki, R. (2005) Bulletin of the National Science Museum (Tokyo), 31, 1-6.; 松原聰, & 宮脇律郎. (2005). 群馬県西ノ牧鉱山産パラ鶏冠石とアラクラン石. Bulletin of the National Science Museum. Series C, Geology & paleontology, 31, 1-6.
New Zealand
  • North Island
    • Waikato Region
      • Hauraki District
        • Waihi
Rod Martin personal collection
  • Huancavelica Department
    • Castrovirreyna Province
Hyrsl, J. & Rosales, Z. (2006) New mineral finds in Peru (2000-2006). Mineral Up (Barcelona), 1(1), 4-21.; Min Rec 39:95-99
Republic of Macedonia
  • Kavadarci
    • Rožden (Rozhden; Roszdan)
Rieck, B. (1993): Famous mineral localities: Allchar, Macedonia, Mineralogical Record, 24 (6), 437-449; Percival, T.J. & Radtke, A.S. (1994): Sedimentary-rock-hosted disseminated gold mineralization in the Alšar district, Macedonia. Canadian Mineralogist, 32, 649-655.; Boevl, B., Bermanec, V., Serafimovski, T., Lepitkoval, S., & Mikulcic, S. (2001). Allchar Mineral Assemblage. Geologica Macedonica, Vol. 15-16, p. 1-23 (2001-2002) Suppl
  • Covasna Co.
    • Covasna (Kovászna)
Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F. (Eds.) (2010): Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Csík County Nature and Conservation Society, Sfantu Gheorghe, etc.
  • Harghita Co.
Ed.:Szakáll S.-Kristály F.2010:Mineralogy of Székelyland,Eastern Transylvania,Romania
  • Maramureș Co.
    • Baia Sprie (Felsőbánya)
Dion Glastra specimen
Minerals of Carpathians,2004
  • Suceava Co.
Koller G.2009,Own found
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Kamchatka Oblast'
OT. Ljostad collection
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Banská Bystrica Co.
Ďuďa R., Pauliš P., 2004: Minerály Slovenskej republiky. Kuttna, Kutná Hora, 134p
  • Prešov Region
    • Prešov Co.
      • Červenica
Duda,R. et. all.,1981: MIneralogia severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovaca,Monografia 2, Bratislava, 98p
  • Asturias
    • Lena
      • Pola de Lena
A Borrelli collection
  • Grischun (Grisons; Graubünden)
    • Poschiavo Valley
      • Poschiavo (Puschlav)
Romani E. (2000): Andar per cristalli - Tesori nascosti. Centro studi del Museo mineralogico naturalistico di Bormio, 151 p.
Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (2006) I minerali della media-alta Valtellina, delle Orobie valtellinesi e della Val Poschiavo. Aggiornamenti sulle altre località della provincia di Sondrio. Bettini, Sondrio, 255 pp.
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Binn Valley
      • Binn
Cannon, R., Hensel, H. & Raber, T. (2008): Der Reckibach-Dolomit im Binntal, Schweiz: Mineralbestand und Neufunde. Lapis, 33 (3), 20-28; 50. (in German)
      • Fäld (Imfeld; Im Feld; Feld)
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 297.
  • Taiwan Province
    • Taipei Co.
      • Jui-Fang Town
  • Eastern Anatolia Region
Erik Vercammen collection
Erik Vercammen collection and field observations (1988)
  • Wales
    • Powys
      • Old Radnor
        • Wethel
Cotterell TF et al (2011) The mineralogy of Dolyhir quarry, Old Radnor. Powys, Wales. UKJMM 32:5-61
  • California
    • Kern Co.
      • Kramer District (Kramer Borate District)
          • Kramer Borate deposit
  • Nevada
    • Douglas Co.
      • Wellington Hills
        • Silver Glance District (Wellington District)
          • Wellington
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Eureka Co.
      • Carlin Trend
        • Maggie Creek Subdistrict
MinRec 26(5):449-469.
      • Lynn District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Humboldt Co.
      • Golconda District
Handbook of Mineralogy; A. G. Roberts, H. G. Ansell, and M. Bonardi (1980) Pararealgar, a new polymorph of AsS, from British Columbia. Can. Mineral.,l8, 525-527.
      • Osgood Mts
        • Potosi District
          • Adam Peak
Handbook of Mineralogy
    • Nye Co.
      • Toquima Range
        • Manhattan District
          • Manhattan
Excalibur mineral list CATALOG 21001 - Vol. XXXVII, No. 1
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin mining district
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
J. Cianciulli, Curator, Franklin Mineral Museum
  • Oregon
    • Lane Co.
      • Trent
Microprobe, Fall 2007
  • Washington
    • King Co.
      • Palmer
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