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Parisite-(Ce)

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Formula:
CaCe2(CO3)3F2
Colour:
Brown, brownish-yellow, waxy yellow, gray-yellow; colourless to yellow in transmitted light.
Lustre:
Vitreous, Resinous, Pearly
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
4.33 - 4.39
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
After J.J. Paris, former Manager of the Muzo emerald mine, Muzo, Columbia (leasee of mine from 1828-1848).
Crystals pseudohexagonal, oscillatory and sceptered due to intergrowths parallel to the pseudo-{0001) with Bastnäsite-(Ce), Synchysite-(Ce), Röntgenite-(Ce) and Cordylite.
Polytypes 2M (very common), 3R and 6R are known or proposed.

The Ce-analogue of Parisite-(Nd) and Unnamed (La-analogue of Parisite-(Ce)).

Very rare; can be distinguished from Synchysite-(Ce) only by analytical methods.




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Classification of Parisite-(Ce)Hide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
Approval Year:
1987
5.BD.20b

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
B : Carbonates with additional anions, without H2O
D : With rare earth elements (REE)
16a.1.5.1

16a : ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
1 : (AB)(XO3)Zq
12.1.11

12 : Carbonates with other anions
1 : Carbonates with halides

Physical Properties of Parisite-(Ce)Hide

Vitreous, Resinous, Pearly
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Comment:
Lustre pearly on the {0001} parting.
Colour:
Brown, brownish-yellow, waxy yellow, gray-yellow; colourless to yellow in transmitted light.
Hardness:
4½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
On {0001} (or parting) present at times apparently due to alteration.
Fracture:
Splintery, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
4.33 - 4.39 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.38 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Parisite-(Ce)Hide

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.676 nε = 1.757
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.081
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
O = Light yellow
E = Golden yellow

Absorption E > O.

Chemical Properties of Parisite-(Ce)Hide

Formula:
CaCe2(CO3)3F2

Crystallography of Parisite-(Ce)Hide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
m - Domatic
Space Group:
Bb
Setting:
Cc
Cell Parameters:
a = 12.305 Å, b = 7.1056 Å, c = 28.2478 Å
β = 98.246°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.732 : 1 : 3.975
Unit Cell V:
2,444.30 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals commonly acute double hexagonal pyramids; prismatic in appearance at times due to oscillatory combination of steep pyramids. True prism faces are either lacking or are very small. Also trigonal (or possibly rhombohedral in development). Elongated crystals have locally enlarged portions at times, or have sceptre-like terminations. Lateral faces are striated or deeply grooved. {0001} very commonly present as small faces, large at times.
Comment:
Space group Cc. Pseudohexagonal.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
14.03 (40)
3.565 (100)
2.838 (100)
2.060 (80)
1.938 (60)
1.882 (50)
1.658 (50)

Type Occurrence of Parisite-(Ce)Hide

Other Language Names for Parisite-(Ce)Hide

Traditional Chinese:氟菱鈣鈰礦

Common AssociatesHide

CalciteCaCO3
FluoriteCaF2
Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH)2
ZirconZr(SiO4)
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Aegirine24 photos of Parisite-(Ce) associated with Aegirine on mindat.org.
Calcite18 photos of Parisite-(Ce) associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Quartz12 photos of Parisite-(Ce) associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Fluorite11 photos of Parisite-(Ce) associated with Fluorite on mindat.org.
Dolomite10 photos of Parisite-(Ce) associated with Dolomite on mindat.org.
Bastnäsite-(Ce)9 photos of Parisite-(Ce) associated with Bastnäsite-(Ce) on mindat.org.
Anatase8 photos of Parisite-(Ce) associated with Anatase on mindat.org.
Synchysite-(Ce)7 photos of Parisite-(Ce) associated with Synchysite-(Ce) on mindat.org.
Allanite-(Ce)5 photos of Parisite-(Ce) associated with Allanite-(Ce) on mindat.org.
Albite5 photos of Parisite-(Ce) associated with Albite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

5.BD.05Cordylite-(Ce)NaBaCe2(CO3)4F Hex.
5.BD.05Lukechangite-(Ce)Na3Ce2(CO3)4FHex. 6mm : P63mc
5.BD.10Zhonghuacerite-(Ce)Ba2Ce(CO3)3FTrig.
5.BD.10Kukharenkoite-(Ce)Ba2Ce(CO3)3FMon. 2/m : P21/m
5.BD.10Kukharenkoite-(La)Ba2(La,Ce,Th)(CO3)3FMon. 2/m : P21/m
5.BD.15Cebaite-(Ce)Ba3Ce2(CO3)5F2
5.BD.15Cebaite-(Nd)Ba3(Nd,Ce)2(CO3)5F2Mon.
5.BD.18Arisite-(Ce)NaCe2(CO3)2[F2x(CO3)1-x]FHex. 6 m2 : P6m2
5.BD.18Arisite-(La)NaLa2(CO3)2[F2x(CO3)1-x]FHex. 6 m2 : P6m2
5.BD.20aBastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)FHex. 6 m2 : P6c2
5.BD.20aBastnäsite-(La)La(CO3)FHex.
5.BD.20aBastnäsite-(Y)Y(CO3)FHex. 6 m2 : P62c
5.BD.20aHydroxylbastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)(OH)Hex. 6 : P6
5.BD.20aHydroxylbastnäsite-(Nd)Nd(CO3)(OH)Hex.
5.BD.20aHydroxylbastnäsite-(La)(La,Nd,Ce)(CO3)(OH,F)Hex.
5.BD.20bParisite-(Nd)Ca(Nd,Ce,La)2(CO3)3F2
5.BD.20dRöntgenite-(Ce)Ca2(Ce,La)3(CO3)5F3Trig. 3 : R3
5.BD.20cSynchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2FMon. 2/m : B2/b
5.BD.20cSynchysite-(Nd)CaNd(CO3)2F
5.BD.20cSynchysite-(Y)CaY(CO3)2FMon. 2/m : B2/b
5.BD.20aThorbastnäsiteThCa(CO3)2F2 · 3H2O
5.BD.20aBastnäsite-(Nd)Nd(CO3)F Hex. 6 m2 : P62c
5.BD.25Horváthite-(Y)NaY(CO3)F2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn
5.BD.25Qaqarssukite-(Ce)Ba(Ce,REE)(CO3)2FTrig. 3 : P3
5.BD.35Huanghoite-(Ce)BaCe(CO3)2FTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

16a.1.5.2Parisite-(Nd)Ca(Nd,Ce,La)2(CO3)3F2

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

12.1.1NorthupiteNa3Mg(CO3)2ClIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Fd3
12.1.2BarentsiteNa7Al(HCO3)2(CO3)2F4Tric.
12.1.3RouvilleiteNa3(Ca,Mn,Fe)2(CO3)3FMon. 2/m : B2/b
12.1.4ChlormagaluminiteMg4Al2(OH)12Cl2 · 3H2OHex.
12.1.5DeferniteCa6(CO3)2-x(SiO4)x(OH)7(Cl,OH)1-2x (x<0.5)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
12.1.6BrenkiteCa2(CO3)F2Orth.
12.1.7Stenonite(Sr,Ba,Na)2Al(CO3)F5Mon. 2/m
12.1.8Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)FHex. 6 m2 : P6c2
12.1.9Bastnäsite-(La)La(CO3)FHex.
12.1.10Bastnäsite-(Y)Y(CO3)FHex. 6 m2 : P62c
12.1.12Parisite-(Nd)Ca(Nd,Ce,La)2(CO3)3F2
12.1.13Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2FMon. 2/m : B2/b
12.1.14Synchysite-(Y)CaY(CO3)2FMon. 2/m : B2/b
12.1.15Synchysite-(Nd)CaNd(CO3)2F
12.1.16Röntgenite-(Ce)Ca2(Ce,La)3(CO3)5F3Trig. 3 : R3
12.1.17Cordylite-(Ce)NaBaCe2(CO3)4F Hex.
12.1.19Huanghoite-(Ce)BaCe(CO3)2FTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
12.1.20Zhonghuacerite-(Ce)Ba2Ce(CO3)3FTrig.
12.1.21Cebaite-(Ce)Ba3Ce2(CO3)5F2
12.1.22ThorbastnäsiteThCa(CO3)2F2 · 3H2O
12.1.23PhosgenitePb2CO3Cl2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/mbm
12.1.24BarstowitePb4Cl6(CO3) · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
12.1.25AlbrechtschraufiteCa4Mg(UO2)2(CO3)6F2 · 17-18H2OTric. 1 : P1
12.1.26KettneriteCaBiCO3OFOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Soluble in hot strong acids.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Parisite-(Ce)Hide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Medici-Spada (1835) (as Musite).
Medici-Spada in Bunsen (1845) Annalen der Chemie, Leipzig (Justus Liebig’s): 53: 147 (as Parisite).
Penfield and Warren (1899) American Journal of Science: 8: 21.
Tschernik (1906) Verh. Russ. Min. Ges.: 44: 507.
Tschernik (1909) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: II: 336.
Palache, C. and Warren (1911) American Journal of Science: 31: 533 (as Parisite).
Palache, C. and Warren (1911) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 49: 332.
Quercigh (1912) Reale accademia nazionale dei Lincei, Rome, Rend.: 21: 581.
Aminoff (1920) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 42: 291.
Goldschmidt, V. (1920) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 6: 120.
Cesàro (1924) Soc. roy. Sci. Liége, Mém.: 12, no. 1.
Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3A]: 3440 (analyses).
Oftedal (1931) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 79: 437.
Ungemach (1935) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 91: 1.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 282-285.
Cheang, K. (1977) Structure and Polytypism in Synchesite and Parisite from Mont St. Hilaire, Quebec. M.S. thesis, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada.
Yunxiang, Ni, John M. Hughes, and Anthony N. Mariano (1993) The atomic arrangement of bastnäsite-(Ce), Ce(CO3)F, and structural elements of synchysite-(Ce), röntgenite-(Ce), and parisite-(Ce). American Mineralogist: 78: 415-418.
American Mineralogist (1996): 81: 253-254.
Ni, Y., Post, J.E. and Hughes, J.M. (2000): The crystal structure of parisite-(Ce), Ce2CaF2(CO3)3. American Mineralogist, 85, 251-258.

Internet Links for Parisite-(Ce)Hide

Localities for Parisite-(Ce)Hide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Andorra
 
  • Pas de la Casa
in Collection Joachim Esche
Brazil
 
  • Santa Catarina
    • Lages
Manfredi, T. R. (2013). A mineralização de parisita–(Ce) associada ao carbonatito Fazenda Varela (Correia Pinto, SC). Masters Dissertation
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Omenica Mining Division
      • Wicheeda Lake
Dalsin, M.L. (2013) The Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Geochronology of the Wicheeda Carbonatite Complex, British Columbia. M.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia, Vancouver.
  • Northwest Territories
    • Mackenzie District
Feng, Y. & Samson, I.M. (2015) Replacement process involving high field strength elements in the T-zone, Thor Lake rare-metal deposit. Canadian Mineralogist 53, 61-82.
SHEARD, E.R., WILLIAMS-JONES, A.E., HEILIGMANN, M., PEDERSON, C. AND TRUEMAN, D.L. (2012) Controls on the concentration of zirconium, niobium, and the rare earth elements in the Thor Lake rare metal deposit, Northwest Territories, Canada. Economic Geology, 107(1), 81-104.
Sheard, E.R. (2010); Emma R. Sheard, Anthony E. Williams-Jones, Martin Heiligmann, Chris Pederson and David L. Trueman (2012) Controls on the concentration of zirconium, niobium, and the rare earth elements in the Thor Lake rare metal deposit, Northwest Territories, Canada. Economic Geology and the Bulletin of the Society of Economic Geologists(January 2012), 107(1):81-104; SHEARD, E.R., WILLIAMS-JONES, A.E., HEILIGMANN, M., PEDERSON, C. AND TRUEMAN, D.L. (2012) Controls on the concentration of zirconium, niobium, and the rare earth elements in the Thor Lake rare metal deposit, Northwest Territories, Canada. Economic Geology, 107(1), 81-104.
  • Ontario
    • Thunder Bay District
McLaughlin (1990)
      • O'Meara Township
Platt & Wooley (1990)
  • Québec
    • Laurentides
      • Deux-Montagnes RCM
        • Oka
Gold (1969); Gaston Pouliot (1970) Study of carbonatitic calcites from Oka, Quebec. Can Mineral 10:511-540
    • Montérégie
      • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
        • Mont Saint-Hilaire
Cheang, K.K. (1977), Structure and polytypism of synchisite and parisite from Mont St. Hilaire, Quebec. M. Sc. Thesis, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada.
      • Lajemmerais RCM
        • Varennes & St-Amable
          • Saint-Amable sill
HORVÁTH, L. (2010) The minerals of the Saint-Amable sill: an update. MICRONEWS 44(4), 23-28.
    • Nord-du-Québec
      • Nunavik
Laferrière, A. (2011) Technical Report Mineral Resource Estimation Eldor Property – Ashram Deposit Nunavik, Quebec Commerce Resources Corporation. SGS Canada Inc. 99 p.
    • Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean
      • Le Fjord-du-Saguenay RCM
        • Saint-Honoré
Fournier, A. (1993)
FOURNIER, A. (1993) Magmat!c and hydrothermal controls of LREE mineralization of the St.-Honoré carbonatite, Québec. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 95p.
  • Québec & Newfoundland and Labrador
BROSSEAU-LIARD, A. (2012) The nature and origin of REE and associated rare metal mineralization in the
China
 
  • Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
    • Baise Prefecture
      • Jingxi Co.
Wang, Q.F., Deng, J., Liu, X.F., Zhang, Q.Z., Sun, S.L., Jiang, C.Z., Zhou, F. (2010): Discovery of the REE minerals and its geological significance in the Quyang bauxite deposit, West Guangxi, China. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 39, 701–712.
  • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
    • Baotou League (Baotou Prefecture)
      • Bayan Obo Mining District
        • Bayan Obo
          • Bayan Obo deposit (Bayun-Obo deposit; Baiyunebo deposit)
Smith, M.P., Henderson, P., and Campbell, L.S. (2000): Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 64(18), 3141-1360.
Smith, M.P., Henderson, P., and Campbell, L.S. (2000): Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 64(18), 3141-1360.
          • Dulahala
Yang, X.M., Yang, X.Y., Zheng, Y.F., and Le Bas, M.J. (2003): Mineralogy and Petrology 78, 93-110.
    • Tongliao League (Tongliao Prefecture)
      • Jarud Banner (Zalute Co.)
        • Baerzhe complex
Jingzhan Zhu, Guohui Zhang, Qingsong Du, and Jing He (2013): Northwestern Geology 46(4), 207-214
  • Jiangxi Province
    • Ganzhou Prefecture
      • Dayu Co.
Guoneng Chen and Grapes, R. (2007): Granite Genesis: In-Situ Melting and Crustal Evolution. Springer Verlag, 278 pp.
  • Sichuan Province
    • Liangshan Autonomous Prefecture
      • Mianning Co.
Ge X., Fan G., Li G., Shen G., Chen Z., Ai Y. (2017): Mianningite, (□,Pb,Ce,Na)(U4+,Mn,U6+)Fe3+2(Ti,Fe3+)18O38, a new member of the crichtonite group from Maoniuping REE deposit, Mianning county, northwest Sichuan, China. European Journal of Mineralogy: 29: 331-338.
Dawei Meng, Xiuling Wu, Tao Mu, and Douxing Li (2001): Canadian Mineralogist 39, 1713-1724.
Colombia (TL)
 
  • Boyacá Department
    • Vasquez-Yacopí Mining District
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 284; NJMM (1992), 258; Lapis 12 (1994), 8; Pogue, J. E. (1916). Emerald Deposits of Muzo, Colombia. Transactions of the AIME, 50:910-934.
Am Min 85:251-258
Czech Republic
 
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • South Moravia Region
      • Moravský Krumlov
Filip, J., Houzar, S., Sulovský, P.: Allanit a produkty jeho přeměny z pegmatitu a ze skarnu u Rešic, západní Morava. Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae geologicae, 2002, roč. 87, s. 87 - 101.
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
 
  • Nord-Kivu
Nasraoui, M., Toulkeridis, T., Clauer, N., & Bilal, E. (2000). Differentiated hydrothermal and meteoric alterations of the Lueshe carbonatite complex (Democratic Republic of Congo) identified by a REE study combined with a sequential acid-leaching experiment. Chemical Geology, 165(1), 109-132.
Finland
 
  • Lapland Region
    • Rovaniemi
Al Ani, Thair and Sarapää, Olli 2011. Petrographic and mineralogical study of Vanttaus appinitic diorite, Northern Finland. GTK:n arkistoraportti, Northern Finland Office 59/2011
  • Northern Finland Region
    • Pyhäntä
Al Ani Thair and Torppa Akseli 2011. REE-Nb mineralogy in Katajakangas and Lamujärvi alkaline rocks, Central Finland
France
 
  • Occitanie
    • Ariège
Patrice Queneau Collection
      • Luzenac
[Le Cahier des Micromonteurs 1990, 4, p.3,8-12]
Germany
 
  • Bavaria
    • Franconia
      • Fichtelgebirge
        • Weißenstadt
          • Großer Waldstein
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    • Lower Bavaria
      • Röhrnbach
Habel, M. (2011): Neufunde aus dem östlichen Bayerischen Wald (VIII). Mineralien Welt. 22 (1),80-87
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Harz
      • Wernigerode
        • Hasserode
Haack, U., Schnorrer-Koehler, G. & Lueders, V. (1987): Seltenerd-Minerale aus hydrothermalen Gängen des Harzes. Chemie der Erde 47, 41-45 (in German).
  • Saxony
    • Oberlausitz
      • Görlitz
        • Königshain
Witzke, T. & Giesler, T. (2013): Eine Seltenerd- und Niob-Tantal-Mineralisation aus dem Königshainer Granit in der Lausitz, Sachsen.- Mineralien-Welt 24(1), 36-45
        • Thiemendorf
Witzke, T. & Giesler, T. (2013): Eine Seltenerd- und Niob-Tantal-Mineralisation aus dem Königshainer Granit in der Lausitz, Sachsen.- Mineralien-Welt 24(1), 36-45
Greece
 
  • Aegean Islands Department (Aiyaíon)
    • Sámos Prefecture
      • Sámos Island
Theye, T.; Hatert, F.; Ockenga, E.; Bertoldi, C.; Lathe, C. (2010): Gramaccioliite-(Y): paragenesis chemistry, and structure in a new occurrence, Samos Island, Greece. European Journal of Mineralogy, 22, 443-452.
Greenland
 
  • Kujalleq
    • Narsaq
      • Igaliku (Igaliko)
        • Narsaarsuk Plateau
Lapis 19(12), 9 (1994)
Italy
 
  • Apulia
    • Barletta-Andria-Trani Province
      • Spinazzola
        • Murgetta Rossa
Mongelli G., Boni M., Buccione R., Sinisi R. (2014): Geochemistry of the Apulian karst bauxites (southern Italy): Chemical fractionation and parental affinities. Ore Geology Reviews, 63, 9-21.
  • Liguria
    • Savona Province
      • Maremola Valley
        • Magliolo
analysed by Dr. Anthony Kampf, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, USA
  • Piedmont
    • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
      • Ossola Valley
        • Crevoladossola
Lapis, 20 (10), 15-23+86.
        • Formazza Valley
          • Formazza
Mattioli V. (1988): Minerali ossolani, 10 anni dopo: errata corrige e novità. II. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 12, 1 (1-1988), 39-44; Piccoli G.C., Maletto G., Bosio P., Lombardo B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" di Alba, Ed., Alba, 607 pp.
        • Mergozzo
Tacconi E. (1905): Ulteriori osservazioni sopra i minerali del granito di Montorfano (parisite, ottaedrite, zircone, ecc.). Rend. R. Acc. Naz. Lincei, Classe sci. fis. mat. nat., ser. 5, 14, 2, 88-93; Gallitelli P. (1938): Ricerche petrografiche sul Montorfano (Lago Maggiore). Mem. R. Acc. Sci. Lett. Arti Modena, 3, 1-92; Scaini G. (1939): Itinerari mineralogici. Comune di Mergozzo. Località: cave di granito bianco di Mont’Orfano. Natura, 30, 3, 155-159; Palache C., Berman H., Frondel C. (1951): The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume II, John Wiley & Sons, New York, page 284; De Michele V. (1974): Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol., 408 pp.; Gramaccioli C.M. (1975): Minerali alpini e prealpini. Istituto Italiano Edizioni Atlas, Bergamo, 2 vol., 472 pp.
  • Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-Südtirol)
    • Trento Province
      • Fiemme Valley
        • Predazzo
Vecchi, F., Rocchetti, I. & Gentile, P. (2013): Die Mineralien des Granits von Predazzo, Provinz Trient, Italien. Mineralien-Welt, 24(6), 98-117 (in German).
Madagascar
 
  • Antsiranana Province
    • Diana Region (Northern Region)
      • Ambanja District
        • Ampasindava Peninsula
Estrade, G., et al.: REE and HFSE mineralization in peralkaline granites of the Ambohimirahavavy alkaline complex, Ampasindava peninsula, Madagascar. J. Afr. Earth Sci. (2013), (article in press)
  • Fianarantsoa Province
    • Amoron'i Mania Region
      • Ambatofinandrahana District
        • Imorona valley
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 284.
Malawi
 
  • Phalombe District
Ngwenya, B. T. (1994): Hydrothermal rare earth mineralisation in carbonatites of the Tundulu complex, Malawi: processes at the fluid/rock interface. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 58, 2061-2072.
  • Zomba District
Cairncross, B., Messner, K & Farquharson, E. (1999): Die Pegmatite des Mount Malosa bei Zomba, Malawi. LAPIS 24 (4), 22-32; American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1216–1222, 2009; Guastoni, A., Kondo, D. & Nestola, F. (2010): Bastnäsite-(Ce) and Parisite-(Ce) from Mt. Malosa, Malawi. Gems & Gemology 46, 42-46. ; Guastoni, A., & Pezzotta, F. (2007). REE-mineral phases replacing helvite, niobian-rutile, bastnäsite-(Ce) from alkaline pegmatites of Mount Malosa, Zomba District, Malawi. Granitic Pegmatites: the State of the Art. Memorias, 8, 42-43.
Mauritania
 
  • Trarza Region
Taylor, C.D. and Giles, S. A. (2012): Potentiel minéral pour des dépôts d’éléments incompatibles au sein des pegmatites, de roches alcalines et de carbonatites sur le territoire de la République Islamique de la Mauritanie.- Second Projet de Renforcement Institutionnel du Secteur Minier de la République Islamique de la Mauritanie (PRISM-II), Phase V ; Livrable 87, USGS, 45 pages.
Mexico
 
  • Sonora
    • Mun. de Cananea
      • Cananea
Tony Nikischer
Mongolia
 
  • Dornogovi Aimag
    • Hövsgöl
Pavel M. Kartashov data
Namibia
 
  • Khomas Region
    • Windhoek District
      • Aris
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2012), Germano Fretti specimen
  • Kunene Region
    • Khorixas District
Bodeving, S. (2015): Petrogenesis of the Lofdal Intrusive Suite: Implications for rare earth elements mineralization. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. 202 p.
Norway
 
  • Akershus
    • Nittedal
Berg, H. J.(1994): Bjønndalen Bruk. STEIN 21 (3), 205-216
  • Buskerud
    • Kongsberg
Bancroft, P., Nordrum, F.S. & Lyckberg, P.(2001): Kongsberg revisited. Mineralogical Record 32: 181-205
  • Nordland
    • Tysfjord
Vogt, Th. (1922): Über Thalenit von Hundholmen im nördlichen Norwegen. in Brøgger, W.C, Vogt, Th. & Schetelig, J. (1922): Die Mineralien der südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge. II. Silikate der seltenen Erde. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1922. 11, 19-47 + plates VII-IX.; Husdal, T. (2011): Tysfjordgranittens pegmatitter. Stein. 38 (4): 4-35
  • Oppland
    • Lunner
      • Øståsen
        • Surka
L. O. Kvamsdal (1998): Mineralene fra Nordmarkitt og Grefsensyenitt i Oslofeltet. AS Merkur-Trykk, Oslo(in Norwegian).
  • Sogn og Fjordane
    • Luster
      • Berdalen
        • Hurrungane
Selbekk, R.S., Spurgin, S. and Lundmark, M. (2006): Beryll-allanitt-(Ce) pegmatittene i Berdalen, Hurrungane. Stein, 33 (1): 28-31
  • Svalbard
    • Spitsbergen
      • Hornsund fjord
Pršek, J., Majka, J., Uher, P. & Chudík, P. (2010): Niobium-tantalum minerals in the Skoddefjellet NYF granitic pegmatite, Svalbard Archipelago, Norway: Primary versus secondary assemblage. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen 187, 235-248
  • Telemark
    • Kragerø
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 100.
    • Nome
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 100.
    • Porsgrunn
      • Langesundsfjorden
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 pp
Knut Edvard Larsen collection # MM-3121
      • Mørje
        • Sagåsen
Andersen, F.,Berge, S.A. & Burvald, I. (1996): Die Mineralien des Langesundsfjords und des umgebenden Larvikit-Gebietes, Oslo-Region, Norwegen. MineralienWelt 7(4):21-100
Larsen, A.O., Åsheim, A. and Gault, R. A. (2005): Minerals of the eudialyte group from the Sagåsen larvikite quarry, Porsgrunn, Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter 30: 58-62; Knut Edvard Larsen collection (ID: XRD Alf Olav Larsen)
      • Rønningen (Skredderrønningen)
Burvald, Ingulv (1993): To forekomster av nefelin-syenitt-pegmatitt i Telemark. STEIN 20 (3), 176-179; Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 pp
  • Vestfold
    • Holmestrand
Raade (1969b, p. 237); Larsen, A. O. (1994): Drusemineraler fra Solumsåsen pukkverk, Holmestrand. STEIN 21 (2), 136-141
    • Horten
      • Skoppum
P. Andresen, collected August 2004.
    • Larvik
      • Langesundsfjorden
        • Lille Arøya (Midtre Arøy; Øvre Arøy; Övre-Arö)
Brøgger, W.C. (1890): Die Mineralien der Syenitpegmatitgänge der südnorwegischen Augit-und Nephelinsyenite. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie und Mineralogie 16, pp. 650-654; Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 p (p.185)
        • Vesle Arøya
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 p; Larsen, A.O., Kolitsch, U., Gault, R.A. & Giester, G. (2010): Eirikite a new mineral species of the leifite group from the Langesundsfjord district, Norway. European Journal of Mineralogy. 22, 875–880
      • Tvedalen
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 p
Engvoldsen,T.,Andersen, F.,Berge, S.A. & Burvald, I. (1991): Pegmatittmineraler fra Larvik ringkompleks. STEIN 18(1),15-71
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 pp
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 pp
Kamphaug, E. (1987): Wikmanitt (sic!) fra Vevja-bruddet i Tvedalen. NAGS-nytt 14 (4),27. ; Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 pp
    • Sande
Hermann Fylling
    • Sandefjord
      • Råstad
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 pp
      • Vesterøya
Engvoldsen,T.,Andersen, F.,Berge, S.A. & Burvald, I. (1991): Pegmatittmineraler fra Larvik ringkompleks. STEIN 18(1),15-71;Berge, S.A., Larsen, K.E. & Andersen, F. (2011): Buer, Vesterøya, Sandefjord- en typelokalitet for et nytt mineral. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 46: 49-56
Berge, S. A. (2013):Mineralene i Husebyyåsen feltspatbrudd, Vesterøya, Sandefjord. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter. 50, 93-99
Berge, S. A. & Andersen, F. (2002): Mineralforekomster i Sandefjordområdet. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 20, 50-59
    • Tjøme
      • Færder
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 pp; Andersen, F. (2017): Pegmatittganger og mineraler på Hoftøya og Langøya ved Færder i Ytre Vestfold. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2017: 69-75
      • Hvasser
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 pp
Pakistan
 
  • Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA)
    • Khyber Agency
Reiner Mielke
    • Mohmand Agency
Herb Obodda
  • Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (North-West Frontier Province)
    • Peshawar
      • Hameed Abad Kafoor Dheri
The Mineralogical Record, Volume 35 Number 3, p. 212; http://www.mindat.org/forum.php?read,7,396901,397225#msg-397225
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
    • Karkonosze Mts (Karkonosze Massif)
      • Szklarska Poręba District
Bartłomiej Kajdas (SEM-EDS)
Portugal
 
  • Azores District
    • São Miguel Island
      • Água de Pau Massif
Samples collected by Luigi Chiappino and analysed by Dr. Anthony Kampf, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, USA
Romania
 
  • Harghita Co.
    • Ditrău (Ditró)
Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F., Eds. (2010): Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Csík County Nature and Conservation Society, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania, 321 pp.
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
      • Buriatia Republic (Buryatia)
        • Ulan-Ude
Bulnaev, K.B., and Karmanov, N.S. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(7), 614-618.
      • Chitinskaya Oblast'
Victor V. Sharygin analytycal data (2012)
    • Tuva Republic
      • Sayan Mts
        • Eastern Sayan
P.M. Kartashov data
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaya Oblast'
www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/khib.htm
Zaitsev, A.N., Wall, F., Le Bas, M.J. (1998): REE-Sr-Ba minerals from the Khibina carbonatites, Kola peninsula, Russia: their mineralogy, paragenesis and evolution. Mineralogical Magazine, 62, 225-250; Yakovenchuk, V.N., Ivanyuk, G.Yu., Pakhomovsky, Ya.A., Men'shikov, Yu.P. (2005): Khibiny. Laplandia Minerals Ltd. (in association with the Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland), Apatity, 468 pp.
  • Western-Siberian Region
    • Prepolar Ural
      • Tyumenskaya Oblast'
        • Khanty-Mansi Okrug (Khanty Mansiysk)
          • Saranpaul
Burlakov, J. V. (1995): Dodo: Alpine Klüfte im Polar-Ural. Lapis. 20 (3), 13-26, 35
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
Ďuďa R.,Kotuľak P., Káňa R., 1993: Bergbau und Mineralien von Banská Štiavnica (Schemnitz), Slowakei. Emser Hefte, 14, 3, 1-70, Haltern
    • Rimavská Sobota Co.
      • Tisovec
Ondrejka M., Uher P., Pršek J., Ozdín D., Putiš M., 2005: Arsenian monazite-Ce and REE arsenates and carbonates: Composition and substitution in the REEPO4 – REEAsO4 system. Example from Tisovec – Rejkovo thyolite (Western Carpathians, Slovakia). Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol.7, 04857.
South Africa
 
  • Limpopo Province
    • Bushveld Complex
      • Waterberg District
        • Mokopane (Potgietersrus)
Minerals of South Africa
    • Sekhukhune District
      • Groblersdal
Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, 110 pg
  • North West Province
    • Bojanala Platinum District
      • Western Bushveld Complex
VERWOERD, W.J. (1986) Mineral deposits associated with carbonatites and alkaline rocks. In: Mineral deposits of Southern Africa. Vol. II. 2173-2191. Edited by: Annhaeusser and Maske. Geological Society of South Africa.
South Korea
 
  • Chungcheongbukdo (Chungchong-pukto)
    • Chungju (Chung Won Kum; Chung-ju)
      • Joongwon-gun
        • Mt. Eorae
P.M. Kartashov data
Spain
 
  • Galicia
    • Pontevedra
      • Porriño
Calvo, M. (2012): Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. V, Carbonatos y Nitratos. Boratos. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid - Fundación Gómez Pardo. 711 pp
Sweden
 
  • Västmanland
    • Norberg
      • Röberg ore field
Holtstam, D., Andersson, U.B. (2007): The REE minerals of the Bastnäs-type deposits, South-Central Sweden. Canadian Mineralogist. 45, 1073-1114
Switzerland
 
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Binn Valley
      • Albrunhorn - Turbhorn area
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 298.
      • Kriegalp Valley (Chriegalp Valley)
van der Burgt, A. & Cuchet, S. (2005): Neu: Gadolinit, Aeschynit und Synchisit vom Fleschsee, Binntal (Schweiz). Lapis 30 (4), 19-27, 50. (in German)
    • Martigny
      • Mont Chemin
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 298.
Ukraine
 
  • Dnipropetrovs'k Oblast' (Dnepropetrovsk Oblast')
    • Ukrainian Shield
Pavel M. Kartashov data ; Morgun V.G.(2010) Alkaline metasomatites of East Azov area. Abstracts of XXVII International conference School «Geochemistry of Alkaline rocks». – Moscow-Koktebel’. pp. 240 pp.
L. N. Kogarko, V. A. Konova, M. P. Orlova, A. R. Woolley (1995) Ukraine in Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World pp 49-58
  • Zhytomyr Oblast' (Zhitomir Oblast')
Lyckberg, P., Chornousenko, V. & Wilson, W. E. (2009): Volodarsk-Volynski, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine. Mineralogical Record, 40, 473-506.
USA
 
  • Arkansas
    • Pulaski Co.
      • Little Rock
        • Granite Mountain area
Rocks and Minerals, (2000) 75:250-252
Rocks and Minerals, (2000) 75:250-252
Rocks and Minerals, (2000) 75:250-252
  • California
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Clark Mts (Clark Mountain Range)
        • Mountain Pass District
          • Mountain Pass
Olson, Jerry Chipman, Shawe, D.R., Pray, L.C., Sharpe, W.N., and Hewlett, D.F. (1954), Geology of the rare-earth deposits of the Mountain Pass district, San Bernardino County California, USGS 261 pp.: ; Wright, L.A., et al (1953), Mines and mineral resources of San Bernardino County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology, California Division of Mines (Report 49): 49(1-2): 125; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 183, 212, 221, 222; Haxel, G. (2005) Ultrapotassic rocks, carbonatite and rare earth element deposit, Mountain Pass, southern California. In: Geology and Mineral Resources of the Mojava National Preserve, southern California. USGS Bulletin 2160.
Gunnar Farber
  • Colorado
    • Gunnison Co.
      • White Earth District (Powderhorn District)
"Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
  • Idaho
    • Elmore Co.
Ream, Lanny R. 2004. Idaho Minerals, 2nd edition, Revised and Updated
  • Massachusetts
    • Norfolk Co.
Palache, C. and Warren, C. H. (1911): The Chemical Composition and Crystallization of Parisite and a New Occurrence of It in the Granite-Pegmatites at Quincy, Mass., U. S. A.; with Notes on Microcline, Riebeckite, Aegirite, Ilmenite, Octahedrite, Fluorite, and Wulfenite from the Same Locality. (Amer. Jour. Sci. 4th Series, 31:533-557)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 284.
  • Montana
    • Mineral Co.
      • Alberton
        • Fish Creek
Econ Geol (2004) 99:1727-1744; Econ Geol (1985) 80:394-409; Lasmanis, R. (1977): The Snowbird mine, Montana's Parisite locality. Mineralogical Record, 8 (2) :83-86.
    • Ravalli Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 284.
  • New Mexico
    • Otero Co.
      • Cornudas Mts
Michael C Michayluk collection
  • Rhode Island
    • Providence Co.
      • Cumberland
Bjareby, Gunnar (1964): Letter quoted in Yedlin, Neal: The Micromounter (Rocks and Minerals 40:266-267, April 1965); Miller, C. E. (1971) Rhode Island Minerals and their Localities, O. D. Hermes, Ed., University of Rhode Island, Kingston; Rocks & Minerals (1986) 61:264-275
  • Virginia
    • Augusta Co.
      • Parnassus
http://csmres.jmu.edu/geollab/baedke/dept/abs2002.pdf.
Vietnam
 
  • Lai Chau Province
    • Phong Tho District
      • Mt Fansipan
        • Nâm Nâm Xe REE deposit
Gunnar Farber
Feldman l.G., Sarkisyan S.Sh., Boriskin V.P., Purusova S.P., Nguen Van Hoai, Chin Suan Ben (1987) Crystalline beckelite from Nam Se deposit (Northern Vietnam), - Mineralogicheskiy Zhurnal, v.9, N1, pp. 78-86 (in Rus.)
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