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Penfieldite

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Samuel Lewis Penfield
Formula:
Pb2Cl3(OH)
Colour:
Colourless, white, yellowish or bluish tints
Lustre:
Adamantine, Greasy
Hardness:
3 - 4
Specific Gravity:
5.82 - 6.61
Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Name:
For US mineralogist, Samuel Lewis Penfield (Catskill, New York, January 16, 1856 - August 12, 1906, at South Woodstock, Connecticut), Yale University.
Soluble in water, leaving a yellowish white lead oxychloride residue.


Classification of Penfieldite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
3.DC.15

3 : HALIDES
D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
C : With Pb (As,Sb,Bi), without Cu
10.4.1.1

10 : OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
4 : A2(O,OH)Xq
8.8.9

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
8 : Halides of Pb

Physical Properties of Penfieldite

Adamantine, Greasy
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Colourless, white, yellowish or bluish tints
Hardness:
3 - 4 on Mohs scale
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
On {0001}.
Density:
5.82 - 6.61 g/cm3 (Measured)    6.00 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Penfieldite

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 2.130() nε = 2.210(1)
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.080
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High

Chemical Properties of Penfieldite

Formula:
Pb2Cl3(OH)

Crystallography of Penfieldite

Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Class (H-M):
6 - Trigonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
P6
Cell Parameters:
a = 11.28 Å, c = 48.65 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 4.313
Unit Cell V:
5,360.83 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals usually prismatic [0001] with {1010} or steeply pyramidal; also tabular {0001}. Crystals tiny and commonly grouped in parallel position.
Twinning:
1. Twin axis [2130] with (0001) as composition face. Twinned crystals having [0001] in common but turned 21°47' to each other. 2. Twin plane {4154} with the twinned crystals having c and c' almost at right angles.
Comment:
Strongly pronounced subcell: a = 11.393, c = 4.024 A (Merlino et al., 1995)

Crystallographic forms of Penfieldite

Crystal Atlas:
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Penfieldite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of Penfieldite

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Seawater modified slag deposits
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for Penfieldite

Common Associates

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Boleite9 photos of Penfieldite associated with Boleite on mindat.org.
Pseudoboleite3 photos of Penfieldite associated with Pseudoboleite on mindat.org.
Cotunnite2 photos of Penfieldite associated with Cotunnite on mindat.org.
Laurionite1 photo of Penfieldite associated with Laurionite on mindat.org.
Hydrocerussite1 photo of Penfieldite associated with Hydrocerussite on mindat.org.
Cuprite1 photo of Penfieldite associated with Cuprite on mindat.org.
Diaboleite1 photo of Penfieldite associated with Diaboleite on mindat.org.
Unnamed (Orthorhombic dimorph of Barstowite)1 photo of Penfieldite associated with Unnamed (Orthorhombic dimorph of Barstowite) on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping

3.DC.05LaurionitePbCl(OH)
3.DC.05ParalaurionitePbCl(OH)
3.DC.10FiedleritePb3FCl4(OH) · H2O
3.DC.20LaurelitePb7F12Cl2
3.DC.25Bismoclite(BiO)Cl
3.DC.25Daubréeite(BiO)(OH,Cl)
3.DC.25MatlockitePbFCl
3.DC.25RorisiteCaFCl
3.DC.25Zavaritskite(BiO)F
3.DC.25ZhangpeishaniteBaFCl
3.DC.30NadoritePbSbClO2
3.DC.30PeritePbBiClO2
3.DC.35AravaipaitePb3AlF9 · H2O
3.DC.37CalcioaravaipaitePbCa2AlF9
3.DC.40ThorikositePb3Cl2(OH)(SbO3,AsO3)
3.DC.45MereheaditePb47Cl25(OH)13O24(CO3)(BO3)2
3.DC.50BlixitePb2(O,OH)2Cl
3.DC.55PinalitePb3WO5Cl2
3.DC.60SymesitePb10(SO4)O7Cl4 · H2O
3.DC.65EcdemitePb6Cl4(As2O7)
3.DC.65HeliophyllitePb6Cl4(As2O7)
3.DC.70MendipitePb3Cl2O2
3.DC.75DamaraitePb3Cl(OH)O2
3.DC.80OnoratoiteSb8Cl2O11
3.DC.85CotunnitePbCl2
3.DC.90PseudocotunniteK2PbCl4
3.DC.95BarstowitePb4Cl6(CO3) · H2O

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals Grouping

8.8.1AbhuriteSn21Cl16(OH)14O6
8.8.2MatlockitePbFCl
8.8.3LaurelitePb7F12Cl2
8.8.4CotunnitePbCl2
8.8.5MendipitePb3Cl2O2
8.8.6DamaraitePb3Cl(OH)O2
8.8.7LaurionitePbCl(OH)
8.8.8ParalaurionitePbCl(OH)
8.8.10FiedleritePb3FCl4(OH) · H2O
8.8.11BlixitePb2(O,OH)2Cl
8.8.12PseudocotunniteK2PbCl4
8.8.13DiaboleitePb2CuCl2(OH)4
8.8.14PseudoboleitePb31Cu24Cl62(OH)48
8.8.15ChloroxiphitePb3CuO2Cl2(OH)2
8.8.17BideauxitePb2AgCl3(F,OH)2
8.8.18BoleiteKPb26Ag9Cu24(OH)48Cl62
8.8.19AravaipaitePb3AlF9 · H2O
8.8.20YedlinitePb6Cr3+Cl6(O,OH,H2O)8
8.8.21KolaritePbTeCl2
8.8.22HematophanitePb4Fe3O8(OH,Cl)

Other Information

Notes:
Soluble in dilute HNO3. Decomposed by water, rendering a yellow-white precipitate of lead oxychloride.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Penfieldite

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Genth F A (1892) On penfieldite, a new species. American Journal of Science 144, 260-261
Penfield (1894) American Journal of Science: 48: 114.
Goldschmidt (1897): 260.
Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 118.
American Mineralogist (1941): 26: 293.
Gordon (1941) Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia, Not. Nat., no. 69.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 66-67.
Cesbron, F. & Schubnel, H. J. (1968): Penfieldite. Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie, 91, 407-408 (in French).
Merlino, S., M. Pasero, N. Perchiazzi, and A. Gianfagna (1995): X-ray and electron diffraction study of penfieldite: average structure and multiple cells. Mineral. Mag., 59, 341-347.

Internet Links for Penfieldite

mindat.org URL:
https://www.mindat.org/min-3146.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Localities for Penfieldite

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Afghanistan
 
  • Panjsher Province (Panjsheer Province; Panjshir Province; Panjsher Valley; Panjshir Valley)
    • Khinj District
Merkel, S., Bräutigam, B., Klein, S., & Hauptmann, A. (2013). The Analysis of Slag from the Panjhır Mining Region, Afghanistan: An Investigation of (Medieval) Silver Production Technology. Archäologische Mitteilungen, 45, 231-250.
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Friesach - Hüttenberg area
      • Hüttenberg
        • Waitschach
Kolitsch, U., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fink, R. & Auer, C. (2013): Die Mineralogie der weltweit einzigartigen Schlacken von Waitschach, Kärnten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A, 115, 19-87 (in German).
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta Region
    • Antofagasta Province
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 67.
        • Caracoles
Brugger J, Meisser N, Ansermat S, Krivovichev S V, Kahlenberg V, Belton D, Ryan C G (2012) Leucostaurite, Pb2[B5O9]Cl·0.5H2O, from the Atacama Desert: The first Pb-dominant member of the hilgardite group, and micro-determination of boron minerals by PIGE. American Mineralogist 97, 1206-1212
Freundlich, B. F., Imel, A., Imel, L., Sperber, D., Sperber, P., Steele-Sperber, L., ... & McGrath, B. 39th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium.; maurizio dini collection - analysed material
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Central Bohemia Region
      • Příbram
C.Auer (2017)
Greece
 
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
Kolitsch, U., Rieck, B., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fabritz, K. H., Blaß, G. & Gröbner, J. (2014): Neufunde aus dem altem Bergbau und den Schlacken von Lavrion (I). Mineralien-Welt 25 (1), 60-75 (in German). [identification announced; no description given yet]
Smith, G. F. H. (1899): On some lead minerals from Laurium, namely, laurionite, phosgenite, fiedlerite, and (new species) paralaurionite. Mineralogical Magazine, 12, 102-110.; American Mineralogist (1941): 26: 293; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 67; Cesbron, F. & Schubnel, H. J. (1968): Penfieldite. Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie, 91, 407-408 (in French).; Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags; Grolig, H. & Grolig, E. (1978): Lavrion in Attika. Lapis, 3 (5), 16-25; 40 (in German).
        • Passa Limani area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Sounion area
Fritz Schreiber Collection
Laurion The minerals in the ancient slags,page 115
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Thorikos area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Vrissaki area
Lacroix, A. & De Schulten, A. (1908): Note sur des minéraux plombifères des scories athéniennes du Laurion. Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie, 31, 79-90 (in French).; Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Italy
 
  • Latium
    • Rome Province
      • Anzio
Palombi, S., Bellatreccia, F. & Pucci, R. (2009): Le scorie metallurgiche di Tor Caldara, Anzio - RM. Il Cercapietre, no. 1-2, 44-56. [http://www.gminromano.it/Cercapietre/rivista09/art03.pdf]
  • Liguria
    • Genova Province
      • Genova
        • Varenna Valley
Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 2 (Avril/Juin), 175-188.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Campigliese (Campiglia Mountains; Campiglia Ridge)
        • Campiglia Marittima
          • Madonna di Fucinaia (Madonna della Fucinaia) slag heaps
http://www.comune.pisa.it/apsn/Articoli/Scorie/Capattoli.htm
      • Piombino
Cerutti, G. and Preite, D. (1995): Mineralien der etruskischen Schlacken von Baratti, Toskana. Lapis, 20 (4), 13-18; 50 (in German).
South Africa
 
  • North West Province
    • Bojanala Platinum District
      • Western Bushveld Complex
Barkov, A. Y., Martin, R. F., Kaukonen, R. J., & Alapieti, T. T. (2001). The occurrence of Pb–Cl–(OH) and Pt–Sn–S compounds in the Merensky reef, Bushveld layered complex, South Africa. The Canadian Mineralogist, 39(5), 1397-1403.
Tunisia
 
  • Mahdia Governorate
    • Mahdia
Kutzke, H., Barbier, B., Becker, P. & Eggert, G. (1997): Barstowite as a corrosion product on a lead object from the Mahdia shipwreck. Studies in Conservation 42, 176-180.
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • St Agnes District
        • Crantock
BMS Newsletter 79, March 2010 (http://britishmicromountsociety.homestead.com/Gannell-Smelter.html)
USA
 
  • Idaho
    • Shoshone Co.
      • Coeur d'Alene District
        • Mullan
R&M 70:4 pp 242-263
Vietnam
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2011)
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