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MgSO4 · 5H2O
Colourless, pale blue
In allusion to its chemical composition having five (PENTA-) molecules of water (HYDR-) in its formula.

Classification of Pentahydrite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
B : With only medium-sized cations

6 : AXO4·xH2O

25 : Sulphates
3 : Sulphates of Mg

Physical Properties of Pentahydrite

Colourless, pale blue
Hardness (Mohs):

Optical Data of Pentahydrite

Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.482 nβ = 1.492 nγ = 1.493
Measured: 45° , Calculated: 34°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.011
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of Pentahydrite

MgSO4 · 5H2O
Elements listed in formula:

Crystallography of Pentahydrite

Crystal System:
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.33Å, b = 10.55Å, c = 6.07Å
α = 99.17°, β = 109.88°, γ = 75°
a:b:c = 0.6 : 1 : 0.575
Unit Cell Volume:
V 367.08 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Type Occurrence of Pentahydrite

Relationship of Pentahydrite to other Species

Other Members of Group:
ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
JôkokuiteMnSO4 · 5H2O
SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2O
7.CB.05DwornikiteNiSO4 · H2O
7.CB.05GunningiteZnSO4 · H2O
7.CB.05KieseriteMgSO4 · H2O
7.CB.05PoiteviniteCuSO4 · H2O
7.CB.05SzmikiteMn2+SO4 · H2O
7.CB.05SzomolnokiteFe2+SO4 · H2O
7.CB.05CobaltkieseriteCoSO4 · H2O
7.CB.07SanderiteMgSO4 · 2H2O
7.CB.10BonattiteCuSO4 · 3H2O
7.CB.15AplowiteCoSO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15BoyleiteZnSO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15IlesiteMn2+SO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15RozeniteFe2+SO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15StarkeyiteMgSO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15DrobeciteCdSO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.15CranswickiteMgSO4 · 4H2O
7.CB.20ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2O
7.CB.20JôkokuiteMn2+SO4 · 5H2O
7.CB.20Siderotil(Fe,Cu)SO4 · 5H2O
7.CB.25BianchiteZnSO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25ChvaleticeiteMnSO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25FerrohexahydriteFe2+SO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25MoorhouseiteCoSO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.25NickelhexahydriteNiSO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.30RetgersiteNiSO4 · 6H2O
7.CB.35BieberiteCoSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35MallarditeMn 2+SO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35MelanteriteFe2+SO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35ZincmelanteriteZnSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.35Alpersite(Mg,Cu2+)SO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.40EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.40GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.40MorenositeNiSO4 · 7H2O
7.CB.45AlunogenAl2(SO4)3(H2O)12 · 5H2O
7.CB.45Meta-alunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 14H2O
7.CB.50AluminocoquimbiteAlFe(SO4)3 · 9H2O
7.CB.55CoquimbiteFe23+(SO4)3 · 9H2O
7.CB.55ParacoquimbiteFe23+(SO4)3 · 9H2O
7.CB.55Rhomboclase(H3O)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 3H2O
7.CB.60KorneliteFe23+(SO4)3 · 7H2O
7.CB.65QuenstedtiteFe23+(SO4)3 · 11H2O
7.CB.70LauseniteFe23+(SO4)3 · 5H2O
7.CB.75LishizheniteZnFe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
7.CB.75RömeriteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 14H2O
7.CB.80RansomiteCuFe23+(SO4)4 · 6H2O
7.CB.85ApjohniteMn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85BíliniteFe2+Fe23+(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85DietrichiteZnAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85HalotrichiteFe2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85RedingtoniteFe2+Cr2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.85WupatkiiteCoAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O
7.CB.90MeridianiiteMgSO4 · 11H2O
25.3.1KieseriteMgSO4 · H2O
25.3.2SanderiteMgSO4 · 2H2O
25.3.3StarkeyiteMgSO4 · 4H2O
25.3.5HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2O
25.3.6EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
25.3.7CaminiteMg7(SO4)5(OH)4 · H2O
25.3.9BlöditeNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O
25.3.10KonyaiteNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 5H2O
25.3.11LöweiteNa12Mg7(SO4)13 · 15H2O
25.3.12UklonskoviteNaMgSO4(OH) · 2H2O
25.3.14LeoniteK2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O
25.3.15PicromeriteK2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
25.3.17Boussingaultite(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
25.3.18PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2O

Other Names for Pentahydrite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Pentahydrite

Reference List:
Hobbs (1905) American Geologist, Minneapolis (1888-1905): 36: 184 (as Epsomite).

Keller (1908) Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society: 47: 81 (as Double Sulphate of Copper and Magnesium).

Allen and Day (1927) Carnegie Institute Washington Publication: 378: 42.

Milton and Johnston (1938) Economic Geology 33: 749.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 492.

American Mineralogist (1951) 36: 641.

Acta Crystallographica B28: 1448-1455.

Peterson, R.C., Hammarstrom, J.M., Seal, R.R., II (2006): Alpersite (Mg,Cu)SO4•7H2O, a new mineral of the melanterite group, and cuprian pentahydrite: their occurrence within mine waste. American Mineralogist 91, 261-269.

Internet Links for Pentahydrite URL:
Please feel free to link to this page.

Localities for Pentahydrite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
  • San Juan
    • Iglesia Department
Bengochea, L. y Mas, G. (1998), Aparición de jarlita y sulfatos secundarios en el Valle del Cura, Argentina. Boletín de la Sociedad Española de Mineralogía, 21-A. Resúmenes de comunicaciones del Congreso de Mineralogía y Petrología, SEM 98 y 18° Reunión de la SEM, pág. 44-45.
  • Salzburg
    • Hohe Tauern
      • Gastein valley
        • Bad Hofgastein
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Inn valley
        • Innsbruck
          • Hall
            • Hall valley
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
  • Upper Austria
    • Gmunden
      • Hallstatt
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
Czech Republic
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • South Moravia Region
      • Oslavany
Hršelová, P., Cempírek, J., Houzar, S., Sejkora, J. (2013): S,F,Cl-rich mineral assemblages from burned spoil heaps in the Rosice-Oslavany coalfield, Czech Republic. Can. Mineral.: 51(1): 171-188
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Stassfurt Potash deposit
      • Egeln
        • Tarthun
No reference listed
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
      • Schlema-Hartenstein District
T. Witzke (1992): Neues zu den Mineralien von Schlema-Hartenstein und der Grube König David, Schneeberg, Erzgebirge.- Mineralien-Welt 3(6), 16-18
  • Thuringia
    • Gera
      • Ronneburg U deposit
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
  • Heves Co.
    • Mátra Mts
      • Recsk
Szakáll & Kovács,2007
  • Rajasthan (Rajputana)
    • Ajmer Division
Sinha, R., & Smykatz-Kloss, W. (2003). Thermal characterization of lacustrine dolomites from the Sambhar Lake playa, Thar desert, India. Journal of thermal analysis and calorimetry, 71(3), 739-750.
  • Erongo Region
    • Swakopmund District
      • Arandis
        • Rössing Mountains Area
Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. 335 pp (in English).
  • Khomas Region
    • Windhoek District
      • Windhoek
        • Friedenau Farm 16
DILL, H.G., PÖLLMANN, H. , BOSECKER, K., HAHN, L. and MWIYA, S.(2002) Supergene mineralization in mining residues of the Matchless cupreous pyrite deposit (Namibia) – A clue to the origin of modern and fossil duricrusts in semiarid climates.- Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 75: 43-70
  • Telemark
    • Skien
      • Flakvarp
        • Torsberg
Larsen, A.O. (1993): Gruver og skjerp i Skien. Stathelle 1993. 72p. (p. 60)., Raade, G. Sæbø, P. Chr. (1990): Pentahydrite, MgS04*5H2O, from Dragehullert, Porsgrunn. Interne notater 1961-1990. Mineralogisk-Geologisk Museum, UiO, Oslo,p.149
  • Tacna Department
    • Jorge Basadre Province
Diaby, N., Dold, B., Buselli, E., & Vicetti, R. (2006). EFFECTS ON ELEMENT MOBILITY BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF A WETLAND ON THE MARINE SHORE PORPHYRY COPPER TAILINGS DEPOSIT, BAHÍA DE ITE, PERU. In 7th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD), March (pp. 26-30).
  • Małopolskie
    • Olkusz District
      • Olkusz
Cabała, J., & Bzowska, G. (2008). Sulphate speleothems in Pomorzany Zn–Pb ore mine, southern Poland. Kras i speleologia, 12(21), 59-76.
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
Cesnokov, B., M. Kotrly, and T. Nisanbajev (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
  • Ziguinchor Region
Montoroi, J. P. (1995) Mise eli évidence d'une séquence de précipitation des sels dails les sols sulfatés acides d'une vallée aménagée de Basse-Casamance (Sénégal). C.R. Acad. Sci. Paris, t. 320, série II a, p. 395-402
  • Arizona
    • Coconino Co.
      • Grand Canyon District
Quick, T.J., R.G. Corbett, and B.M. Manner (1989) Efflorescent minerals occurring in the gorge of the Grand Canyon, Abstract with Programs, Geological Society of America: 21(4): 44-45; Grant, Raymond W., Bideaux, R.A., and Williams, S.A. (2006) Minerals Added to the Arizona List 1995-2005: 7.
  • California
    • Alameda Co.
      • Diablo Range
        • Oakland Hills
          • Oakland
            • Leona Heights
              • Leona Heights deposit
Jeffrey Weissman collection
    • Sonoma Co.
      • Mayacmas Mts (Mayacamas Mts)
        • West Mayacmas District
Allen, Eugene T. & Arthur L. Day (1927), Steam wells and other thermal activity at “The Geysers,” California: Carnegie Institute Washington Publication 378: 39, 45; Vonsen, Magnus (1941) Preliminary report on minerals of The Geysers of Sonoma County, California. Mineralogist: 9: 246, 247; Vonsen, Magnus (1946), Minerals at “The Geysers,” Sonoma County, California: California Division Mines Report 42: 290; 87-293; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 492.
  • Colorado
    • Mesa Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • Teller Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 492.
  • Montana
    • Mineral Co.
      • Alberton
        • Fish Creek
Econ Geol (2004) 99:1727-1744
  • Nevada
    • Storey Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 492; Rocks & Minerals: 74(6): 380-390.
  • Utah
    • San Juan Co.
      • White Canyon District
        • Red Canyon
Joe Marty (2015) Minerals of the Blue Lizard Mine and other Western Localities, NCMA Annual Symposium 2015
  • Virginia
    • Louisa Co.
      • Gold-Pyrite Belt
        • Mineral
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
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