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Meridianiite

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Meridiani Planum, Mars
Formula:
MgSO4 · 11H2O
Crystal System:
Triclinic
Name:
The compound was originally synthesized in 1837 and is knaown as Fritzsche's salt. The mineral was named by Peterson, R.C., Nelson, W.,Madu, B., Shurvell, H.F. in 2007 for Meridiani Planum, the locality on Mars where the MER rover Opportunity observed crystal molds in sedimentary rock that are thought to be caused by minerals that have since dehydrated or dissolved.
A phase that is stable with a saturated brine or with ice and which melts above 2°C into a slurry of Epsomite and water. It has now been found occurring naturally on Earth (on the surface of a frozen pond, and in ice cores) and is suspected of existing on Mars.


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Classification of MeridianiiteHide

Approved
Approval Year:
2007
First Published:
2007
7.CB.90

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
C : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, with H2O
B : With only medium-sized cations
29.6.6.8

29 : HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
6 : AXO4·xH2O

Chemical Properties of MeridianiiteHide

Formula:
MgSO4 · 11H2O

Crystallography of MeridianiiteHide

Crystal System:
Triclinic
Class (H-M):
1 - Pinacoidal
Space Group:
P1
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.7459 Å, b = 6.8173 Å, c = 17.299 Å
α = 88.137°, β = 89.481°, γ = 62.719°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.99 : 1 : 2.538
Unit Cell V:
706.68 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
5.73 (35)
5.62 (56)
5.41 (54)
4.91 (84)
4.85 (90)
2.988 (58)
2.958 (100)
2.940 (67)

Type Occurrence of MeridianiiteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
white granular
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Canadian Museum of Nature
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Ponds at an abandoned MgSO4 mine, in winter.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of MeridianiiteHide

Other Language Names for MeridianiiteHide

Common AssociatesHide

IceH2O

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.CB.05Dwornikite(Ni,Fe)SO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.05GunningiteZnSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.05KieseriteMgSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m
7.CB.05Poitevinite(Cu,Fe,Zn)SO4 · H2OTric.
7.CB.05SzmikiteMnSO4 · H2OMon.
7.CB.05SzomolnokiteFeSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.05CobaltkieseriteCoSO4 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.07SanderiteMgSO4 · 2H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.CB.10BonattiteCuSO4 · 3H2OMon.
7.CB.15Aplowite(Co,Mn,Ni)SO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
7.CB.15Boyleite(Zn,Mg)SO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.15Ilesite(Mn,Zn,Fe)SO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
7.CB.15RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.15StarkeyiteMgSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.15DrobeciteCdSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.CB.15CranswickiteMgSO4 · 4H2OMon. m : Bb
7.CB.20ChalcanthiteCuSO4 · 5H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.CB.20JôkokuiteMnSO4 · 5H2OTric.
7.CB.20PentahydriteMgSO4 · 5H2OTric.
7.CB.20SiderotilFeSO4 · 5H2OTric.
7.CB.25Bianchite(Zn,Fe)SO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
7.CB.25Chvaleticeite(Mn,Mg)SO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.25FerrohexahydriteFeSO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.CB.25HexahydriteMgSO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
7.CB.25Moorhouseite(Co,Ni,Mn)SO4 · 6H2OMon.
7.CB.25Nickelhexahydrite(Ni,Mg,Fe)SO4 · 6H2OMon.
7.CB.30RetgersiteNiSO4 · 6H2OTet. 4 2 2 : P41 21 2
7.CB.35BieberiteCoSO4 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
7.CB.35BoothiteCuSO4 · 7H2OMon.
7.CB.35MallarditeMnSO4 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
7.CB.35MelanteriteFeSO4 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.35Zincmelanterite(Zn,Cu,Fe)SO4 · 7H2OMon.
7.CB.35Alpersite(Mg,Cu)[SO4] · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.40EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.CB.40GoslariteZnSO4 · 7H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.CB.40MorenositeNiSO4 · 7H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
7.CB.45AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2OTric. 1
7.CB.45Meta-alunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 12H2O
7.CB.50AluminocoquimbiteFeAl(SO4)3 · 9H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1c
7.CB.55CoquimbiteFe2-xAlx(SO4)3 · 9H2O, x ~0.5Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1c
7.CB.55ParacoquimbiteFe2(SO4)3 · 9H2OTrig. 3 : R3
7.CB.55Rhomboclase(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.CB.60KorneliteFe2(SO4)3 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.CB.65QuenstedtiteFe2(SO4)3 · 11H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.CB.70LauseniteFe2(SO4)3·5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.CB.75LishizheniteZnFe2(SO4)4 · 14H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.CB.75RömeriteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 14H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.CB.80RansomiteCuFe2(SO4)4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.85ApjohniteMn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon.
7.CB.85BíliniteFe2+Fe3+2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.85Dietrichite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.85HalotrichiteFeAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2 : P2
7.CB.85PickeringiteMgAl2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.CB.85Redingtonite(Fe2+,Mg,Ni)(Cr,Al)2(SO4)4·22H2OMon.
7.CB.85Wupatkiite(Co,Mg,Ni)Al2(SO4)4·22H2OMon.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

29.6.6.1RozeniteFeSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
29.6.6.2StarkeyiteMgSO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
29.6.6.3Ilesite(Mn,Zn,Fe)SO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
29.6.6.4Aplowite(Co,Mn,Ni)SO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
29.6.6.5Boyleite(Zn,Mg)SO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
29.6.6.7CranswickiteMgSO4 · 4H2OMon. m : Bb

Other InformationHide

Thermal Behaviour:
Stable only below 2° C. Above that temperature it melts incongruently to a slurry of epsomite and water.
Special Storage/
Display Requirements:
Must be stored below 2° C.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for MeridianiiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Fritzsche, C.J. (1837) Ueber eine neue Verbindung der schwefelsauren Talkerde mit wasser. Annalen der Physik und Chemie (Peggendorff's Annalen): 42: 577-580. Bulletin scientifique publié par l'Académie Impériale des Science de St. Pétersbourg: 2: 193-196.
Peterson, R.C., Wang, R. (2006) Crystal Molds on Mars: Melting of a possible new mineral species to create Martian chaotic terrain. Geology: 34: 957-960.
Peterson, R.C., Nelson, W., Madu, B., Shurvell, H.F. (2007) Meridianiite (MgSO4·11H2O): a new mineral species observed on Earth and predicted to exist on Mars. Seventh International Conference on Mars, 3124. (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/7thmars2007/pdf/3124.pdf)
Peterson, R.C., Nelson, W., Madu, B., Shurvell, H.F. (2007) Meridianiite: A new mineral species observed on Earth and predicted to exist on Mars. American Mineralogist: 92: 1756-1759.
Genceli, F.E., Lutz, M., Spek, A.L., Witkamp, G.-J. (2007) Crystallization and Characterization of a New Magnesium Sulfate Hydrate MgSO4 · 11H2O. Crystal Growth & Design: 7: 2460-2466.
Fortes, A.D., Wood, I.G., Knight, K.S. (2008) The crystal structure and thermal expansion tensor of MgSO4–11D2O (meridianiite) determined by neutron powder diffraction. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 35: 207-221.
Genceli, F.E., Horikawa, S., Iizuka, Y., Toshimitsu, S., Hondoh, T., Kawamura, T., Witkamp, G.-J. (2009) Meridianiite detected in ice. Journal of Glaciology: 189: 117-122.
Fortes, A.D., Browning, F., Wood, I.G. (2012) Cation substitution in synthetic meridianiite (MgSO4•11H2O) I: X-ray powder diffraction analysis of quenched polycrystalline aggregates. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 39: 419-441.
Fortes, A.D., Browning, F., Wood, I.G. (2012) Cation substitution in synthetic meridianiite (MgSO4•11H2O) II: variation in unit-cell parameters determined from X-ray powder diffraction data. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 39: 443-454.

Internet Links for MeridianiiteHide

Localities for MeridianiiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Antarctica
 
  • Eastern Antarctica
Genceli, F.E., Horikawa, S., Iizuka, Y., Toshimitsu, S., Hondoh, T., Kawamura, T., Witkamp, G.-J. (2009): Meridianiite detected in ice. Journal of Glaciology, 189, 117-122.
Canada (TL)
 
  • British Columbia
    • Kamloops Mining Division
      • Ashcroft
        • Venables Valley
Peterson, R.C., Nelson, W., Madu, B., Shurvell, H.F. (2007): Meridianiite (MgSO4·11H2O): a new mineral species observed on Earth and predicted to exist on Mars. Seventh International Conference on Mars, 3124.
Japan
 
  • Hokkaido
    • Okhotsk Subprefecture (Abashiri Province)
Genceli, F.E., Horikawa, S., Iizuka, Y., Toshimitsu, S., Hondoh, T., Kawamura, T., Witkamp, G.-J. (2009): Meridianiite detected in ice. Journal of Glaciology, 189, 117-122.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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