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Platinum

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Formula:
Pt
Colour:
Steel grey to dark grey
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
4 - 4½
Specific Gravity:
14 - 19
Crystal System:
Isometric
Name:
From Spanish "platina", diminutive of "plata", silver. The new metal found in large placer deposits during the sixteenth-century Spanish conquest of South America was called "platina del Pinto" after the Rio Pinto, Columbia.
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Classification of PlatinumHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
1.AF.10

1 : ELEMENTS (Metals and intermetallic alloys; metalloids and nonmetals; carbides, silicides, nitrides, phosphides)
A : Metals and Intermetallic Alloys
F : Platinum group elements
Dana 7th ed.:
1.2.1.1
1.2.1.1

1 : NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
2 : Platinum Group Metals and Alloys
1.82

1 : Elements and Alloys (including the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au)

Physical Properties of PlatinumHide

Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Steel grey to dark grey
Streak:
Steel grey to dark grey
Hardness:
4 - 4½ on Mohs scale
Hardness:
VHN100=279 - 339 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Tenacity:
Malleable
Fracture:
Hackly
Density:
14 - 19 g/cm3 (Measured)    21.472 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of PlatinumHide

Type:
Isotropic
Colour in reflected light:
white

Chemical Properties of PlatinumHide

Formula:
Pt
Common Impurities:
Fe,Ir,Os,Rh,Pd,Au,Cu

Crystallography of PlatinumHide

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:
Fm3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 3.9231 Å
Unit Cell V:
60.38 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Twinning:
On {111}
Comment:
Cubic crystals

Type Occurrence of PlatinumHide

Synonyms of PlatinumHide

Other Language Names for PlatinumHide

Albanian:Platini
Armenian:Պլատին
Basque:Platino
Belarusian:Плаціна
Bosnian (Latin Script):Platina
Bulgarian:Платина
Catalan:Platí
Corsican:Platinu
Croatian:Platina
Czech:Platina
Danish:Platin
Dutch:Platina
Esperanto:Plateno
Estonian:Plaatina
Finnish:Platina
French:Platine
Friulian:Platin
Galician:Platino
Haitian:Platin
Hungarian:Platina
Icelandic:Platína
Indonesian:Platina
Interlingua:Platino
Italian:Platino
Japanese:自然白金
Korean:백금
Kurdish (Latin Script):Platîn
Latin:Platinum
Latvian:Platīns
Lithuanian:Platina
Lojban:jinmrplati
Low Saxon:Platin
Luxembourgish:Platin
Macedonian:Платина
Norwegian (Bokmål):Platina
Norwegian (Nynorsk):Platina
Occitan:Platin
Persian:پلاتین
Polish:Platyna
Portuguese:Platina
Quechua:Qullqiya
Romanian:Platină
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Платина
Serbo-Croatian:Platina
Sicilian:Plàtinu
Simplified Chinese:自然铂
Slovak:Platina
Slovenian:Platina
Spanish:Platino
Swahili:Platini
Swedish:Platina
Tajik (Cyrillic Script):Платина
Traditional Chinese:自然白金
Turkish:Platin
Ukrainian:Платина
Vietnamese:Bạch kim
Welsh:Platinwm

Varieties of PlatinumHide

AvaiteAn Platinum-Iridium alloy with a Pt:Ir ratio of about 2:1.
Originally reported from Kani, Chindwin river, Innwa (Ava; Ratanapura), Mandalay Division, Myanmar (Burma).
Ferroan PlatinumDisordered Fe-Pt alloys with a primitive cubic unit cell. It may to contain Fe in the range 10-50 at.%. Ferroan platinum differs from Isoferroplatinum and Tetraferroplatinum by the symmetry of its unit cell.
Palladian PlatinumA variety of usually iron-free Platinum enriched with Palladium up to 20 and more mas.%.
PolyxeneDisordered Fe-Pt alloys with a primitive cubic unit cell. It may to contain Fe in the range 10-50 at.%. Ferroan platinum differs from Isoferroplatinum and Tetraferroplatinum by the symmetry of its unit cell.
Described by Hausman in 1813 from Colombia.
Rhodic FerroplatinumRh-bearing Ferroan Platinum. It may contain 2-28 mass% of Rh along with 5-12 mass% Fe.
Rhodic PlatinumA rhodian Platinum with 4.6% Rh.

Relationship of Platinum to other SpeciesHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Gold9 photos of Platinum associated with Gold on mindat.org.
Osmium3 photos of Platinum associated with Osmium on mindat.org.
Cherepanovite1 photo of Platinum associated with Cherepanovite on mindat.org.
Cooperite1 photo of Platinum associated with Cooperite on mindat.org.
Palladium1 photo of Platinum associated with Palladium on mindat.org.
Potarite1 photo of Platinum associated with Potarite on mindat.org.
Iridium1 photo of Platinum associated with Iridium on mindat.org.
Quartz1 photo of Platinum associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Garnet1 photo of Platinum associated with Garnet on mindat.org.
Zircon1 photo of Platinum associated with Zircon on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

1.AF.05Osmium(Os,Ir,Ru)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.AF.05Rutheniridosmine(Ir,Os,Ru)Hex.
1.AF.05Ruthenium(Ru,Ir)Hex.
1.AF.10Iridium(Ir,Os,Ru)Iso.
1.AF.10Palladium(Pd,Pt)
1.AF.10Rhodium(Rh,Pt)Iso.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

1.2.1.2Iridium(Ir,Os,Ru)Iso.
1.2.1.3Rhodium(Rh,Pt)Iso.
1.2.1.4Palladium(Pd,Pt)

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

1.1CopperCuIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.2SilverAgIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.5GoldAuIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.6AuricuprideCu3AuOrth.
1.7Tetra-auricuprideAuCuTet.
1.8ZincZnHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.9CadmiumCdHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.10DanbaiteCuZn2Iso.
1.11ZhanghengiteCuZnIso.
1.12MercuryHgTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
1.13KolymiteCu7Hg6Iso.
1.14MoschellandsbergiteAg2Hg3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
1.15EugeniteAg11Hg2Iso.
1.16SchachneriteAg1.1Hg0.9Hex.
1.17ParaschachneriteAg3Hg2Orth.
1.18LuanheiteAg3HgHex.
1.19Weishanite(Au,Ag)3Hg2Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.20IndiumInTet.
1.21AluminiumAlIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.22Khatyrkite(Cu,Zn)Al2Tet.
1.23Cupalite(Cu,Zn)AlOrth.
1.24DiamondCIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
1.25GraphiteCHex. 6mm : P63mc
1.26ChaoiteCHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mmm
1.27LonsdaleiteCHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.28SiliconSi
1.29TinSnTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
1.30LeadPbIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.31AnyuiiteAuPb2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mcm
1.31NovodnepriteAuPb3Tet. 4 2m : I4 2m
1.32LeadamalgamPb0.7Hg0.3Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mmm
1.33ArsenicAsTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
1.34ArsenolampriteAsOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
1.35PaxiteCuAs2Mon.
1.36KoutekiteCu5As2Hex.
1.37DomeykiteCu3AsIso. 4 3m : I4 3d
1.38Algodonite(Cu1-xAsx)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.39NovákiteCu20AgAs10Mon.
1.40KutinaiteAg6Cu14As7 Iso.
1.41AntimonySbTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
1.42StibarsenAsSbTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
1.43ParadocrasiteSb3AsMon. 2 : B2
1.44HorsforditeCu, Sb
1.45CuprostibiteCu2(Sb,Tl)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
1.46Allargentum(Ag1-xSbx)Hex.
1.47AurostibiteAuSb2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
1.48DyscrasiteAg3SbOrth. mm2 : Pmm2
1.49BismuthBiTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
1.50MaldoniteAu2BiIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
1.51SulphurS8Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Fddd
1.52RosickýiteSMon. 2/m : P2/b
1.53SeleniumSeTrig. 3 2 : P31 2 1
1.54TelluriumTeHex.
1.55ChromiumCrIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Im3m
1.56RheniumReHex.
1.57IronFeIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Im3m
1.58ChromferideFe3Cr1-x (x=0.6)Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Pm3m
1.59FerchromideCr3Fe1-xIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Pm3m
1.60WairauiteCoFe
1.61NickelNiIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.62Kamacite(Fe,Ni)Iso.
1.63Taenite(Fe,Ni)Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.64TetrataeniteFeNiTet.
1.65AwaruiteNi3FeIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.66Palladium(Pd,Pt)
1.67PotaritePdHgTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/mmm
1.68PaolovitePd2SnOrth.
1.69Stannopalladinite(Pd,Cu)3Sn2Hex.
1.70CabriitePd2CuSnOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmm
1.71Taimyrite(Pd,Cu,Pt)3SnOrth.
1.72Atokite(Pd,Pt)3SnIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.73Rustenburgite(Pt,Pd)3Sn
1.74ZvyagintsevitePd3PbIso.
1.75PlumbopalladinitePd3Pb2Hex.
1.76Osmium(Os,Ir,Ru)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.77Iridium(Ir,Os,Ru)Iso.
1.83HongshiitePtCuTrig.
1.84NiggliitePtSnHex.
1.85IsoferroplatinumPt3FeIso.
1.86TetraferroplatinumPtFeTet.
1.87TulameenitePt2CuFeTet.
1.88FerronickelplatinumPt2FeNiTet.
1.89Rhodium(Rh,Pt)Iso.

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Non-magnetic to distinctly magnetic when rich in iron.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Catalysts, jewelry

References for PlatinumHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 106-109.
Schneiderhöhn (1958) 315.
Cabri, L.J. and Feather, C.E. (1975) Platinum-iron alloys; a nomenclature based on a study of natural and synthetic alloys. The Canadian Mineralogist: 13: 117-126.
Harris, D.C. and Cabri, L.J. (1991) Nomenclature of platinum-group-element alloys; review and revision. The Canadian Mineralogist: 29: 231-237.
Fleet, M.E., De Almeida, C.M., and Angeli, N. (2002) Botryoidal platinum, palladium and potarite from the Bom Sucesso stream, Minas Gerais, Brazil: compositional zoning and origin. The Canadian Mineralogist: 40: 341-355.
Bindi, L., Zaccarini, F., Garuti, G., and Angeli, N. (2013) The solid solution between platinum and palladium in nature. Mineralogical Magazine 77, 269-274.
Reith, F., Zammit, C.M., Shar, S.S., Etschmann, B., Bottrill, R., Southam, G., Ta, C., Kilburn, M., Oberthür, T., Ball, A.S., and Brugger, J. (2016) Biological role in the transformation of platinum-group mineral grains. Nature Geoscience, DOI: 10.1038/ngeo2679.

Internet Links for PlatinumHide

Localities for PlatinumHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow

Mineral and/or Locality  
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