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Plumbogummite

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Formula:
PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Colour:
Light blue, gray-white, yellow-gray, yellow, yellow-brown, red-brown, greenish, bluish, dark blue-gray;
Lustre:
Resinous, Dull
Hardness:
4 - 5
Specific Gravity:
4.014
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Name:
Named in 1819 by François Pierre Nicolas Gillet de Laumont from the Latin "plumbum" for lead, and "gummi" for gum, in allusion to its lead content and appearance at times as drops or coatings of gum.
The lead analogue of crandallite and goyazite, and the phosphate analogue of philipsbornite.
Compare also the chemically similar hinsdalite.

A relatively common secondary lead phosphate mineral.


Classification of Plumbogummite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
8.BL.10

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
B : Phosphates, etc., with additional anions, without H2O
L : With medium-sized and large cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 3:1
42.7.3.5

42 : HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
7 : (AB)2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
19.10.2

19 : Phosphates
10 : Phosphates of Pb, Th, V and Bi

Physical Properties of Plumbogummite

Resinous, Dull
Transparency:
Translucent
Comment:
Also gum-like
Colour:
Light blue, gray-white, yellow-gray, yellow, yellow-brown, red-brown, greenish, bluish, dark blue-gray;
Streak:
Colourless to white
Hardness:
4 - 5 on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
None Observed
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
4.014 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.08 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Plumbogummite

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.653 - 1.688 nε = 1.675 - 1.704
Birefringence:
0.024
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.022
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Type:
Isotropic
Optical Extinction:
Parallel
Comments:
May be biaxial

Chemical Properties of Plumbogummite

Formula:
PbAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6

Crystallography of Plumbogummite

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Space Group:
R3m
Setting:
R3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.017 Å, c = 16.75 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 2.387
Unit Cell V:
714.25 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
3
Morphology:
Commonly occurs as botryoidal, reniform, stalactitic, or globular crusts or masses, frequently with a concentric structure; also occurs compact massive. Radial fibrous or spherulitic under magnification. May resemble drops or coatings of gum. Minute crystals with a hexagonal outline are rare.

X-Ray Powder Diffraction

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
5.71 (90)
4.93 (40)
3.51 (70)
3.44 (50)
2.969 (100)
1.905 (60)

Type Occurrence of Plumbogummite

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Found in a polymetallic Pb vein

Synonyms of Plumbogummite

Other Language Names for Plumbogummite

Varieties of Plumbogummite

Ga-rich plumbogummite

Ga-rich plumbogummite; Ga occupies approximately a third of the Al position.

Relationship of Plumbogummite to other Species

Other Members of this group:
BenauiteSrFe3+3(HPO4,PO4)2(OH)6
CrandalliteCaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
EylettersiteTh0.75Al3(PO4)2(OH)6
Florencite-(Ce)CeAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
Florencite-(La)LaAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
Florencite-(Nd)NdAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
Florencite-(Sm)SmAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
GalloplumbogummitePb(Ga,Al,Ge)3(PO4)2(OH)6
GorceixiteBaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
GoyaziteSrAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
KintoreitePbFe3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
Kintoreite-2cPbFe3+3(PO4)2(OH,H2O)6
SpringcreekiteBaV3+3(PO4)2(OH,H2O)6
WaylanditeBiAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
ZaïriteBiFe3+3(PO4)2(OH)6
Forms a series with:

Common Associates

AnglesitePbSO4
CerussitePbCO3
DuftitePbCu(AsO4)(OH)
MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
WulfenitePb(MoO4)
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Pyromorphite260 photos of Plumbogummite associated with Pyromorphite on mindat.org.
Mimetite39 photos of Plumbogummite associated with Mimetite on mindat.org.
Quartz14 photos of Plumbogummite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Carminite12 photos of Plumbogummite associated with Carminite on mindat.org.
Coronadite11 photos of Plumbogummite associated with Coronadite on mindat.org.
Chrome-Cerussite10 photos of Plumbogummite associated with Chrome-Cerussite on mindat.org.
Wulfenite8 photos of Plumbogummite associated with Wulfenite on mindat.org.
Baryte8 photos of Plumbogummite associated with Baryte on mindat.org.
Galena4 photos of Plumbogummite associated with Galena on mindat.org.
Goethite3 photos of Plumbogummite associated with Goethite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping

8.BL.05BeudantitePbFe3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
8.BL.05CorkitePbFe3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
8.BL.05HidalgoitePbAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
8.BL.05HinsdalitePbAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
8.BL.05KemmlitziteSrAl3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
8.BL.05SvanbergiteSrAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
8.BL.05WoodhouseiteCaAl3(PO4)(SO4)(OH)6
8.BL.05GallobeudantitePbGa3(AsO4)(SO4)(OH)6
8.BL.10ArsenogoyaziteSrAl3(AsO4)(AsO3OH)(OH)6
8.BL.10ArsenogorceixiteBaAl3(AsO4)(AsO3OH)(OH)6
8.BL.10ArsenocrandalliteCaAl3(AsO4)(AsO3OH)(OH)6
8.BL.10BenauiteSrFe3+3(HPO4,PO4)2(OH)6
8.BL.10CrandalliteCaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
8.BL.10DussertiteBaFe3+3(AsO4)(AsO3OH)(OH)6
8.BL.10EylettersiteTh0.75Al3(PO4)2(OH)6
8.BL.10GorceixiteBaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
8.BL.10GoyaziteSrAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
8.BL.10KintoreitePbFe3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
8.BL.10PhilipsbornitePbAl3(AsO4)2(OH)5 · H2O
8.BL.10SegnititePbFe3+3(AsO4)2(OH,H2O)6
8.BL.10SpringcreekiteBaV3+3(PO4)2(OH,H2O)6
8.BL.13Arsenoflorencite-(La)LaAl3(AsO4)2(OH)6
8.BL.13Arsenoflorencite-(Nd)NdAl3(AsO4)2(OH)6
8.BL.13Arsenoflorencite-(Ce)CeAl3(AsO4)2(OH)6
8.BL.13Florencite-(Ce)CeAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
8.BL.13Florencite-(La)LaAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
8.BL.13Florencite-(Nd)NdAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
8.BL.13WaylanditeBiAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
8.BL.13ZaïriteBiFe3+3(PO4)2(OH)6
8.BL.13ArsenowaylanditeBiAl3(AsO4)2(OH)6
8.BL.13Graulichite-(Ce)CeFe3+3(AsO4)2(OH)6
8.BL.13Florencite-(Sm)SmAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
8.BL.15ViitaniemiiteNa(Ca,Mn2+)Al(PO4)(F,OH)3
8.BL.25PattersonitePbFe3+3(PO4)2(OH)5 · H2O

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals Grouping

19.10.1OxypyromorphitePb10(PO4)6O
19.10.3KamitugaiteAlPb(UO2)5(PO4,AsO4)2(OH)9 · 5H2O
19.10.5DrugmanitePb2(Fe3+,Al)(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)2
19.10.6BrabantiteCaTh(PO4)2
19.10.8Grayite(Th,Pb,Ca)(PO4) · H2O
19.10.9Brockite(Ca,Th,Ce)PO4 · H2O
19.10.10SincositeCa(VO)2(PO4)2 · 5H2O
19.10.11XimengiteBi(PO4)
19.10.12Paulkellerite(BiO)2Fe3+(PO4)(OH)2

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)

42.7.3.1CrandalliteCaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
42.7.3.2GorceixiteBaAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
42.7.3.3GoyaziteSrAl3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6
42.7.3.6KintoreitePbFe3(PO4)(PO3OH)(OH)6

Fluorescence of Plumbogummite

Not fluorescent in UV

Other Information

Notes:
Soluble in hot acids.

May be pseudomorphic after Pyromorphite (common) or baryte.
Health Risks:
Contains lead. Always wash hands after handling. Do not lick or ingest dust generated while trimming.

References for Plumbogummite

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
de Lisle (1779) Demeste Lettres Min.: 2: 399 (as Plomb rouge en stalactites et tantôt en globules).
de Lisle (1783) Crist.: 3: 399 (as Plomb rouge en stalactites et tantôt en globules).
de Laumont (1786) Le Journal de physique et le radium, Paris: 28: 385 (as Sel acide-phosphorique-martial).
Berzelius, J.J. (1819) Nouveau système de Minèralogie. Translated from the Swedish. 8vo, Paris: 283 (as Aluminiate de Plomb avec eau de combinaison).
Berzelius (1819) Journal für Chemie und Physik, Nuremberg: 27: 65 (as Bleigummi & Blei-aluminat).
Smithson (1819) Annals of Philosophy, London: 14: 31 (cites S. Tennant)(as native Aluminiate of Lead).
Haüy, R.J. (1822) Traité de minéralogie. second edition, 4 volumes, with fol. Atlas, Paris: 3: 410 (as Plomb hydro-alumineux).
Breithaupt, A. (1832) Vollständige Characteristik etc., 2nd. Ed.: 56 (as Gummispath).
Beudant, F.S. (1832) Traité élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: vol. 2.
Dufrénoy (1835) Annales des mines: 8: 243 (Nussière material - inaccurate data?).
Shepard, C.U. (1835) Treatise on Mineralogy. vol. 2: 113 (as Plumbo-gummite).
Dana, J.D. (1837) System of Mineralogy, 1st. edition, New Haven: 230 (as Plumbo-resinite).
Breithaupt, A. (1841) Vollständige Handbuch der Mineralogie. Vol. 2: 506 (inaccurate data?).
Shepard, C.U. (1856) Report on the Canton Mine, Georgia (as Hitchcockite).
Genth (1857) American Journal of Science: 23: 424.
Shepard, C.U. (1857) Treatise on Mineralogy. third edition: vol. 2: 401 (as Hitchcockite), 407 (as Cherokine).
Shepard, C.U. (1857) American Journal of Science: 24: 38 (as Cherokine).
Fischer (1862) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 466 (as Bischofit).
Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 855.
Hartley (1900) Mineralogical Magazine: 12: 223.
Prior (1900) Mineralogical Magazine: 12: 249.
Hussak (1906) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 25: 341.
Lazarevič (1909) Kolloid-Zeitschrift, Dresden, Leipzig: 4: 306 (as Schadeite).
Wherry (1916) Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum: 51: 83.
Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 121.
Hintze, Carl (1933) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4B]: 1158.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 831-833.
Förtsch, E. B. (1967). Plumbogummite from Roughten Gill, Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, 36(280), 530-538.
Bain, D. C. (1970). Plumbogummite-group minerals from Mull and Morvern. Mineralogical Magazine, 37(292), 934-938. http://www.minersoc.org/pages/Archive-MM/Volume_37/37-292-934.pdf
THEODORE BOTINELLY, D. (1976). A review of the minerals of the alunite-jarosite, beudantite, and plumbogummite groups. GEOLOGIC STUDIES, 4(2), 213-216. https://pubs.usgs.gov/journal/1976/vol4issue2/report.pdf#page=91
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1977) 2: 45-53.
Kolitsch, U., E. R. Tiekink, P. G. Slade, M. R. Taylor and A. Pring (1999) Hinsdalite and plumbogummite, their atomic arrangements and disordered lead sites. European Journal of Mineralogy 11, 513-520.
Mills, S. J., Kampf, A. R., Raudsepp, M. & Christy, A. G. (2009) The crystal structure of Ga-rich plumbogummite from Tsumeb, Namibia, Mineralogical Magazine, 73(5), 837–845. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Anthony_Kampf/publication/228925791_The_crystal_structure_of_Ga-rich_plumbogummite_from_Tsumeb_Namibia/links/54daf2dd0cf233119bc49951.pdf

Internet Links for Plumbogummite

mindat.org URL:
https://www.mindat.org/min-3247.html
Please feel free to link to this page.
Specimens:
The following Plumbogummite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Plumbogummite

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Georgiana Co.
      • Peelwood
Australian J. Mineralogy 13(2),89(2007)
    • Gough Co.
      • Elsmore
Rankin, J., Lawrence, L. J., Sharpe, J. L. and Williams, P. A. (2002): Rare secondary bismuth, tungsten and molybdenum minerals from Elsmore, New England district of New South Wales. Australian Journal of Mineralogy 8, 55-60.
    • Raleigh Co.
      • Macksville
Gilligan L.B., Brownlow J.W., Cameron R.G., and Henley H.F.: Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Dorrigo-Coffs Harbour Metallogenic Map (SH/56-10, SH/56-11). Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales (1991).
    • Robinson Co.
      • Cobar
Gilligan L.B., Byrnes J.G. (1995) Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Cobar Metallogenic Map 1:250 000 (SH/55-14), Geological Survey of New South Wales, Sydney, 240pp.
http://leme.anu.edu.au/Pubs/Advancesinregolith/Leverett_et_al.pdf
    • Yancowinna Co.
      • Broken Hill
        • Broken Hill South Mine (BHS Mine; South Mine)
Australian Mineralogist (1997): 3: 1.
  • Northern Territory
    • Barkly Region
      • Tennant Creek
Slansky, E. (1977): Plumbogummite from Ivanhoe Mine, Northern Territory, Australia. N. Jb. Mineral. Mh., 1977, 45-53.
    • Coomalie Shire
      • Batchelor
        • Rum Jungle
Economic Geology 99,257-277(2004); Vera Munro-Smith (2006) Cobalt Mineralisation in Selected Australian Deposits. PhD thesis, University of Western Sydney.
  • Queensland
    • Cloncurry Shire
      • Kuridala
Lottermoser, B. G., Ashley, P. M., & Munksgaard, N. C. (2008). Biogeochemistry of Pb–Zn gossans, northwest Queensland, Australia: implications for mineral exploration and mine site rehabilitation. Applied Geochemistry, 23(4), 723-742.
      • Selwyn District
Lottermoser, B. G., Ashley, P. M., & Munksgaard, N. C. (2008). Biogeochemistry of Pb–Zn gossans, northwest Queensland, Australia: implications for mineral exploration and mine site rehabilitation. Applied Geochemistry, 23(4), 723-742.
    • Mount Isa City Shire
      • Hilton district
Ryan Eagle specimen
      • Mount Isa
        • Mount Isa Mines
Lottermoser, B. G., Ashley, P. M., & Munksgaard, N. C. (2008). Biogeochemistry of Pb–Zn gossans, northwest Queensland, Australia: implications for mineral exploration and mine site rehabilitation. Applied Geochemistry, 23(4), 723-742.
  • South Australia
    • Eyre Peninsula
      • Kimba
Paul, 2016
  • Tasmania
    • Huon Valley municipality
      • Huon-Channel region
Bottrill, RS, 1997. The Minerals of the Cygnet District. The Mineralogical Society of Tasmania Newsletter, 25, p.12; Taheri, J., and Bottrill, R. S., 1998, Porphyry and Sedimentary-hosted Gold Deposits near Cygnet: New Styles of Gold Mineralisation in Tasmania: Unpub Rept, Mineral Resources Tasmania. 1999/01
    • West Coast municipality
      • Rosebery district
        • Williamsford
          • Mt Read
Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
      • Zeehan district
        • Zeehan mineral field
          • Zeehan Queen mine ("Sylvester-Queen")
  • Victoria
    • Golden Plains Shire
      • Pittong
Birch, W.D., Grey, I.E., Mills, S.J., Bougerol, C., Pring, A., Ansermet, S. (2007): Pittongite, a new secondary tungstate from Pittong, Victoria, Australia. Canadian Mineralogist, 45, 857-864.
    • Towong Shire
      • Granya
Museum Victoria collection
  • Western Australia
    • Ashburton Shire
Nickel, E.H., Gartrell, B.J. (1993) Secondary Minerals of Ashburton Downs Western Australia, Mineralogical Record (May-June 1993) 24:3: 203-218.
Nickel, E.H., Gartrell, B.J. (1993) Secondary Minerals of Ashburton Downs Western Australia, Mineralogical Record (May-June 1993) 24:3: 203-218.
    • East Pilbara Shire
      • Rudall River District
Downes, P. J., Hope, M., Bevan, A. W. R. and Henry, D. A. (2006): Chalcocite and associated secondary minerals from the Telfer gold mine, Western Australia. Australian Journal of Mineralogy 12, 25-42.
Downes, P. J., Hope, M., Bevan, A. W. R. and Henry, D. A. (2006): Chalcocite and associated secondary minerals from the Telfer gold mine, Western Australia. Australian Journal of Mineralogy 12, 25-42.
    • Leonora Shire
      • Ten Mile Outcamp
Nickel, E.H. (1982) Secondary minerals from the oxidized zone of the Teutonic Bore sulphide deposit. The Australian Mineralogist, No. 40, December 1982, pg. 219-223.
    • Roebourne Shire
      • Whim Creek
Nickel, E. H., & Hitchen, G. J. (1994). The phosphate analog of molybdofornacite from Whim Creek, Western Australia. Mineralogical Record, 25(3), 203.
International Geological Congress (2008) MRD-04 Magellan nonsulfide Pb and polymetallic Abra: Two stratabound giant deposits
      • Wiluna
Pirajno, F., Burlow, R. and Huston, D. (2010): The Magellan Pb deposit, Western Australia; a new category within the class of supergene non-sulphide mineral systems. Ore Geology Reviews 37, 101-113.
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Hohe Tauern
      • Ankogel group
        • Kleinelend valley
          • Kleinelend glacier
Mikl, A. and Kolitsch, U. (2014): Ein interessanter alpiner Kupfererzgang im Kleinelendtal und seine Mineralien. Mineralienwelt 25 (4), 28-33 (in German).
  • Styria
    • Fischbacher Alpen
      • Krieglach
        • Freßnitzgraben
          • Alpl
F.Bernhard (2012)
      • St Marein im Mürztal
        • Graschnitzgraben
Schachinger, T., Auer, Ch., Tomazic, P., Bernhard, F. & Postl, W. (2013): Eine Blei-Zink-Silber-Mineralisation im Graschnitzgraben südlich von St. Marein im Mürztal, Fischbacher Alpen, Steiermark. Der Steirische Mineralog, 27, 4-9.
  • Upper Austria
    • Mühlviertel
      • Freistadt
Göd, R. & Brandstätter, F. (1999): Evidence for gold-bearing propylitized Hercynian granites, Moldanubicum, South Bohemian Massif, Austria. Berg- und Hüttenmännische Monatshefte 144, 470-475.
Belgium
 
  • Luxembourg Province
    • Stavelot Massif
      • Vielsalm
        • Grand Halleux
Lefevre, P., (2001). La présence d'arsenic dans les filons à sulfures du Devillien de Hourt, Massif de Stavelot, Belgium. Mémoire de licence en sciences géologiques et minéralogiques, Université de Liège, année 2000-2001.
Bolivia
 
  • Oruro Department
    • Cercado Province
      • Oruro City
Joan Rosell - Rosellminerals.com (07/2015)
  • Potosí Department
    • Cornelio Saavedra Province
      • Machacamarca District (Colavi District)
PXRD by John Attard, 27-02-2015; Pb confirmed by XRF; PO4 confirmed by wet chemistry.
    • Rafael Bustillo Province (Bustillos Province)
      • Llallagua
[MinRec 32:474]
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 831.
    • Poços de Caldas alkaline complex
      • Caldas
Waber (1991)
Bulgaria
 
  • Haskovo Oblast (Khaskovo Oblast)
    • Mineralni Bani Obshtina
      • Spachievo ore field (Spahievo ore field)
Kunov, A. (1996): Cacoxenite, corkite, hinsdalite and plumbogummite in the Chala deposit, Eastern Rhodopes. Geokhimiya, Mineralogiya i Petrologiya 31, 61-64.; Kunov, A. & Petrov, P. (2001): Beaverite from the Chala gold-base metal ore deposit: a new mineral for Bulgaria. Geokhimiya, Mineralogiya i Petrologiya 38, 67-71.; Hikov, A., N. Velinova, S. Georgieva, A. Kunov (2011) Aluminium-phosphate-sulphate (APS) minerals in Bulgaria: characteristics and possibility for preservation. - In: V Intern. Symp. “Mineral Diversity Research and Preservation”, 9-15 October 2009, Sofia, Working papers, 37-48.
    • Rhodope Mts
      • Madjarovo deposit (Madyarovo deposit; Madzharovo deposit)
http://www.clmc.bas.bg/Annreps/ANNREP8/annrep8.htm
  • Kardzhali Oblast (Kurdzhali; Kărdžali; Kurdjali)
    • Momchilgrad Obshtina
Kunov, A. & Mandova, E. (1997): Supergene minerals of the Obichnik Au-Ag deposit (Eastern Rhodopes). Spisanie na Bulgarskoto Geologichesko Druzhestvo 58, 19-24. (in Bulgarian)
Canada
 
  • New Brunswick
    • Charlotte Co.
      • Saint George Parish
McClenaghan, M.B., Parkhill, M.A., Pronk, A.G., Boldon, G.R., Pyne, R.M., Rice, J.M. (2015) Till geochemical signatures of the Mount Pleasant Sn-W-Mo-Bi-In deposit, New Brunswick. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 7722.
Chile
 
  • Atacama Region
    • Copiapó Province
      • Zapallar district
analysed with Edx, Pdf and Microprobe (by Dr. Jochen Scluter)
China
 
  • Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
    • Guilin Prefecture
      • Gongcheng Co.
Mineralogical Record 40:328; Ottens, B. (2014). Plumbogummit und Pyromorphit aus Guangxi/China. Lapis 39 (12),12-22.
        • Laohu
Ottens, B. (2014). Plumbogummit und Pyromorphit aus Guangxi/China. Lapis 39 (12),12-22.
      • Lingchuan Co.
Personally collected David Clayton March 2009
      • Yangshuo Co.
Analysis by Excalibur Mineral Co. (X2).; Ottens, B. (2014). Plumbogummit und Pyromorphit aus Guangxi/China. Lapis 39 (12),12-22.
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Central Bohemia Region
      • Benešov (Beneschau)
        • Votice (Wotitz)
          • Líštěnec
Vrtiška L., Malíková R., Sejkora J. (2016): Zajímavý výskyt fosfátů v okolí Líštěnce u Votic (Česká republika). Bulletin mineralogicko-petrologického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze 24 (1): 114-131.
      • Příbram
        • Březové Hory ore region (Birkenberg)
          • Bohutín
            • Bohutín deposit
C.Auer (2016)
    • Hradec Králové Region
      • Krkonoše Mtn (Riesengebirge)
        • Špindlerův Mlýn (Spindlermühle)
Journal of Geosciences 54:15-56
    • Karlovy Vary Region
      • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
Ondruš P, Veselovský F, Gabašová A, Hloušek J, Šrein V, Vavrín I, Skála R, Sejkora J, Drábek M (2003) Primary minerals of the Jáchymov ore district, Journal of the Czech Geological Society 48, 19-147
    • Liberec Region
Scharm, B.: Přehled minerálů nalezených v oblasti uranových koncentrací v severočeské křídě. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1995, roč. 3, s. 169-172.
    • Plzeň Region
      • Rožmitál pod Třemšínem
        • Nové Mitrovice
Scharm, B. & Scharmová, M. (2000) Accessory minerals of siliceous rocks from the Kokšín hill near Mítov (Barrandian Neoproterozoic). Bulletin of Geosciences, 75(3), 307-318.
    • Ústí Region
      • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
        • Dubí (Eichwald)
Sejkora, J.: Minerály ložiska Moldava v Krušných horách. Bulletin Mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1994, roč. 2, s. 110-116.
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • Moravia-Silesia Region
Fojt, B. et al.: Nová Ves u Rýmařova – ložisko olověno-zinkových rud. Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae geologicae, 2004, roč. 89, s. 3-44.
France
 
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Allier
      • Ébreuil
        • Échassières
Heinz Förch and Uwe Kolitsch collections (single-crystal XRD and SEM-EDS)
Pierre Le Roch & Jean-Marc Johannet collections
Le Règne Minéral, (33), 5-25.
    • Haute-Loire
      • Langeac
        • Marsanges
P.G. Pélisson : "Etude Minéralogique et Métallogénique du District Filonien Polytype de Paulhaguet (Haute-Loire, Massif Central Français)", Doctorate Thesis, Orléans, France, 1989
    • Isère
      • Vienne
Designolle J-L. (1993), La mine de La Poype (Vienne), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°2, pp: 3-29
    • Rhône
      • Beaujeu
        • Les Ardillats
Favreau G., Legris J-R., Dardillac M. (1996), La Verrière (Rhône): Histoire et Minéralogie, Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°3, pp:3-28
      • Chenelette
old specimen in J. Behier collection
      • Monsols
Jean-Luc Designolle collection;
  • Bourgogne-Franche-Comté
    • Territoire-de-Belfort
      • Giromagny
Hohl: "Minéraux et Mines du Massif Vosgien", Editions du Rhin (Mulhouse), 1994
  • Brittany
    • Côtes-d'Armor
      • Plélauff
Germain C. (1995), Les haldes de la mine abandonnée du Rhun en Plélauff (Côtes d'Armor), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°3, 8-13
    • Finistère
J.J. Berzelius "Nouv. Syst. Mineral." (1819), p.283; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 831; Clark (1993) - "Hey's Mineral Index" Lacroix, A. (1910): Minéralogie de la France et de ses colonies, Librairie Polytechnique, Ch. Béranger Editeur, Tome IV, 589-591.
R.PIERROT, L. CHAURIS, C. LAFORET (1973) : "Inventaire minéralogique de la France : 29- Finistère.", B.R.G.M. Paris.
    • Morbihan
      • Kernascleden
R. Pierrot, L. Chauris, C Laforêt and F. Pillard : "Inventaire Minéralogique de la France N° 9 : Morbihan", BRGM, 1980.
  • Centre-Val de Loire
    • Indre
      • Chaillac
Patrice Queneau Collection
  • Nouvelle-Aquitaine
    • Haute-Vienne
      • Saint-Yrieix-la-Perche
Queneau Patrice collection
  • Occitanie
    • Aveyron
      • Asprières
Leconte J., Hatert F., Grégoire L., (2016) - Bréziès, Asprières, Aveyron, France - Micromonteurs, p. 87
      • Lunel
Patrice Queneau Collection
    • Tarn
      • Castelnau-de-Brassac
        • Fumade
LHEUR, C. & MEISSER, N. (2010): Découverte de minéraux rares à Castelnau-de-Brassac (Tarn), Le Règne Minéral, 91, 46.
  • Pays de la Loire
    • Loire-Atlantique
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Badenweiler
        • Badenweiler Pb mining District
          • Sehringen
K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
      • Gengenbach
        • Haigerach valley
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
      • Wolfach
        • Oberwolfach
          • Rankach valley
Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German); KOLITSCH, U. (1997): Uranosphärit und weitere neue Mineralfunde von der Grube Clara im Schwarzwald. - Mineralien-Welt 8 (3), 18-26.
  • Hesse
    • Odenwald
      • Lautertal (Odenwald)
        • Reichenbach
          • Borstein
Collection of Steffen Michalski, ex-collection and collected by Klaus PETITJEAN
Collection of Steffen Michalski, ex-collection and collected by Klaus PETITJEAN;
          • Hohenstein
Lapis 25(2), 13-30 (2000)
Collection of Steffen Michalski, ex-collection and collected by Klaus PETITJEAN
Lapis, 12 (10), 23-32+58.
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • Clausthal-Zellerfeld
        • Bockswies veins
          • Oberschulenberg
Lapis, 11 (1), 9-18+42
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Lahn valley
      • Bad Ems District
        • Bad Ems
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
Paul De Bondt
        • Frücht
http://www.tkmin.de/Fundstellen/Rhein/Friedrichssegen.htm and many local collections of the mine.
    • Westerwald
      • Linz am Rhein
        • Kalenborn
          • Kasbach
S. Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990, 76-77.
      • Wied Iron Spar District
        • Neuwied
          • Dernbach
Belendorff, K. (2012) Neuigkeiten von der Grube Schöne Aussicht bei Dernbach. Mineralienwelt, 23(5), 28-37.
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
      • Ehrenfriedersdorf
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
      • Schneeberg District
[MinRec 33:351]
    • Glauchau
      • Callenberg
Lapis, 16 (9), 13-26.
  • Thuringia
    • Wurzbach
      • Weitisberga
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
Greece
 
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
      • Lavrion District Mines
        • Agios Konstantinos [St Constantine] (Kamariza)
No reference listed
Hungary
 
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co.
    • Bükk Mts
      • Bükkszentkereszt
collector: Regina Körmendy, XRD: Sándor Szakáll, EDS: Judit Turi
  • Fejér Co.
    • Velencei Mts
      • Pátka
  • Heves Co.
    • Mátra Mts
      • Recsk
GEODA 2013/2
Italy
 
  • Piedmont
    • Cuneo Province
      • Stura Valley
        • Vinadio
          • Bagni di Vinadio Valley (Corborant Valley)
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
    • Novara Province
      • Armeno
        • Coiromonte
ALBERTINI C. (2014) – Minerali del Vergante e della Valle dell’Agogna. In: Miniere e Minerali del Vergante e Val d’Agogna. GASMA – Arona, pp. 442-508. (Analyses P. Gentile and P. Vignola - UNI Milan)
  • Sardinia
    • Cagliari Province
      • Muravera
Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Brizzi G., (1993): Sarrabus Miniere e Minerali. Edito a cura dell'EMSA e "varie associazioni mineralogiche", 208 pp.
Japan
 
  • Hokkaido
    • Oshima peninsula
      • Hiyama Subprefecture
        • Kaminokuni
Nambu & Kitamura (1974) Chigaku Kenkyu, 25, 102-110.
    • Sapporo
      • Nishi-ku
Matsubara et al (1997) Ganko-Gakkai Kou'en-Youshi, 159.
Morocco
 
  • Béni Mellal-Khénifra Region
    • Khénifra Province
      • M'Rirt
Tristan Mantoy's collection
Namibia
 
  • Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto)
    • Tsumeb
Mills, S. J., Kampf, A. R., Raudsepp, M. & Christy, A. G. (2009) The crystal structure of Ga-rich plumbogummite from Tsumeb, Namibia, Mineralogical Magazine, 73(5), 837–845.
Peru
 
  • Cuzco Department
    • Paruro Province
Mondillo, N., Boni, M., Balassone, G. & Villa. I. M. (2014): The Yanque Prospect (Peru): From Polymetallic Zn-Pb Mineralization to a Nonsulfide Deposit. Economic Geology. 109, 1735-1762.
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
    • Ząbkowice District
      • Ząbkowice (Frankenstein)
        • Szklary (Gläsendorf)
Pieczka, A., Włodek, A., Gołębiowska, B., Szełęg, E., Szuszkiewicz, A., Ilnicki, S., Nejbert, K., Turniak, K. (2015): Phosphate-bearing pegmatites in the Góry Sowie Block and adjacent areas, Sudetes, SW Poland. 7th International Symposium on Granitic Pegmatites, PEG 2015 Książ, Poland. Abstracts: 77-78
  • Małopolskie
    • High Tatra Mts
Czaplińska, D., Michalik, M. (2011): Plumbogummite series minerals in deformed High Tatra granitoid rocks. Mineralogia Special Papers: 38: 82-83
Czaplińska, D., Michalik, M. (2011): Plumbogummite series minerals in deformed High Tatra granitoid rocks. Mineralogia Special Papers: 38: 82-83
Portugal
 
  • Setúbal District
    • Santiago do Cacém
      • Cercal
Pedro Alves collection
  • Viseu District
    • Mangualde
      • Chãs de Tavares
        • Tragos
Pedro Alves collection
    • São Pedro do Sul
      • Manhouce
        • Gestoso
Pedro Alves collection
Slovakia
 
  • Košice Region
    • Gelnica Co.
      • Henclová (Henzlová)
Petrík, I., Kubiś, M., Konečný, P. & Malachovský, P. (2011): Rare phospates from the Surovec Topaz-Li-Mica microgranite, Gemeric Unit, Western Carpathians, Slovak Republik: Role of F/H2O of melt. Canadian Mineralogist. 49. 521-540
    • Rožňava Co.
Pauliš P., Ďuďa R., 2002:Nejznámejší mineralogická nalezište Slovenska. Kuttna, Kutná Hora, 136p
        • Čučma
Rojkovič, I. et al. (1999): Quartz - apatite - REE vein mineralization in early paleozoic rocks of the Gemeric superunit. Geol. carphat., 50, 3, 215-227
South Africa
 
  • Mpumalanga Province
    • Nkangala District
      • Mkobola
Atanasova, M., Cairncross, B. and Windisch, W.R. (2016) Microminerals of the Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Popular Geoscience Series 6, Council for Geoscience, Pretoria, South Africa, 57 pg
  • North West Province
    • Ngaka Modiri Molema District
Econ Geol (1990) 85:1172-1185
  • Northern Cape Province
    • Namakwa District (Namaqualand)
Minerals of South Africa
Spain
 
  • Andalusia
    • Almería
      • Cuevas del Almanzora (Cuevas de Vera)
        • Sierra Almagrera
          • Jaroso Ravine
Calvo, M. (2015). Minerales y Minas de España. Vol VII. Fosfatos, Arseniatos y Vanadatos. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid. Fundación Gómez Pardo. 479 págs.
    • Córdoba
      • Villanueva de Córdoba
Schnorrer, G. & Kronz, A. (2005): Cobaltneustädtelit, Metatorbernit, Churchit und Plumbogummit, vier von der ehemaligen Grube Espuela de San Miguel bei Villanueva de Cordoba, Prov. Cordoba in Spanien. Der Aufschluss, 56, 177-182. (in German)
  • Asturias
José Rafael González López collection.
      • Meredo
Calvo, M. (2015). Minerales y Minas de España. Vol VII. Fosfatos, Arseniatos y Vanadatos. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid. Fundación Gómez Pardo. 479 págs.
  • Castile-La Mancha
    • Ciudad Real
      • Minas de Horcajo
Sáinz de Baranda, B., Palero, F.J., García, G. (2004): El Horcajo, las piromorfitas más famosas del mundo. Bocamina, 13, 32-68.
  • Castile and Leon
    • León
      • Sobrado
M. Calvo collection
  • Madrid
    • Navalagamella
Viñals, J. and Calvo, M. (2001). Plumbogummita en la mina "La Montañanesa", Navalagamella, Madrid. Revista de Minerales, 2 (2), 26-27
Togo
 
  • Centre Region
    • Sotouboua Prefecture
      • Lalamila
Alain Blot: http://www.gossans.com/english/ferruginous-rocks-of-pagala-togo-and-tin-akoff-burkina-faso/mineralogical-composition/
Tunisia
 
  • Al Kåf Governorate (El Kef; Le Kef)
    • Sakiet Sidi Youssef (Saqiyat Sidi Yusuf)
Mlayah, A., Ferreira da Silva, E., Rocha, F., Hamza, C. B., Charef, A., & Noronha, F. (2009). The Oued Mellègue: Mining activity, stream sediments and dispersion of base metals in natural environments, North-western Tunisia. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 102(1), 27-36.
    • Tajerouine
      • Garn Alfaya (Jebel Garn Halfaya; Djebel Garn Halfaya; Djebel Gueurn Halfaya; Jabal Qarn 'alfåyah; Djebel Gulurn Halfaya)
Mlayah, A., Ferreira da Silva, E., Rocha, F., Hamza, C. B., Charef, A., & Noronha, F. (2009). The Oued Mellègue: Mining activity, stream sediments and dispersion of base metals in natural environments, North-western Tunisia. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 102(1), 27-36.
      • Slata Pb-Zn deposit
Mlayah, A., Ferreira da Silva, E., Rocha, F., Hamza, C. B., Charef, A., & Noronha, F. (2009). The Oued Mellègue: Mining activity, stream sediments and dispersion of base metals in natural environments, North-western Tunisia. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 102(1), 27-36.
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Camborne - Redruth - St Day District
        • Gwennap
          • St Day United Mines (Poldice Mines)
[Golley & Williams, 1995, 48 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual"]
      • Mount's Bay District
        • St Hilary
[Golley & Williams, 1995, 48 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual"]
      • St Agnes District
        • Perranzabuloe
          • Hendra Croft
Paul De Bondt collection
      • St Erth - Gwithian Area
        • Hayle
          • Great Wheal Alfred (Alfred Consols)
[Golley & Williams, 1995, 48 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual"]
      • Wadebridge District
        • Altarnun
[Golley & Williams, 1995, 48 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual"]
    • Cumbria
      • Caldbeck Fells
BMS Database
        • Carrock Fell
No reference listed
        • Coombe Height
Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 9, 2006
Journal of The Russell Society, Volume 8, 2003
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 831.
No reference listed
BMS Database
        • Potts Gill
No reference listed
        • Roughton Gill
No reference listed
BMS Database; Journal of The Russell Society, Volume11, 2008
M.Rothwell:EDAX
No reference listed
No reference listed
Förtsch, E.B. (1967) ‘Plumbogummite’ from Roughten Gill, Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 36, n° 280, 530-538.; Embrey, P.G. (1978) Fourth supplementary list of British minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 42, n° 322, 169-177.; Trevor F. Bridges, David Green, Michael S. Rumsey and C. Michael Leppington (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine Journal of the Russell Society 14:3-23.
BMS Database
      • Thirlmere
Paul Nicholson
      • Threlkeld District
        • Blencathra
Mineralisation in the upper Glenderamackin Valley, Mungrisdale, Cumbria, UK Journal of Mines & Minerals, number 29, 2008
  • Scotland
    • Dumfries & Galloway
      • Wanlockhead
        • Wanlock Dod-Whytes Cleuch
    • Strathclyde
      • South Lanarkshire
        • Leadhills
          • Mine Hill-Broad Law
          • Wanlock Dod
BMS Database
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
      • Huachuca Mts
        • Hartford District (Huachuca Mountains District)
          • Carr Canyon
"The Accidental Pocket" talk presented by Robert E. Walstrom at 2012 NCMA meeting.
    • Gila Co.
      • Globe-Miami District
        • Miami-Inspiration District
          • Miami
            • Sleeping Beauty Peak
              • Copper Cities Mine area
                • Copper Cities Mine (Sleeping Beauty Mine; Lost Gulch Mine; Yellow Metal Mine; Diamond-H Mine)
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 331.
    • Graham Co.
      • Aravaipa District
        • Santa Teresa Mts
          • Klondyke
            • Grand Reef Mountain
              • Laurel Canyon
Specimen in collection of Michael Cline, ex Jungles and Dakota Matrix Minerals. Analyzed.
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Inyo Mts (Inyo Range)
Calif. Div. of Mines & Geology Bull. #189, Murdoch, et al (1966): 50.; Calif. Div. of Mines & Geology Bull. #189, Murdoch, et al (1966): 50.
          • Cerro Gordo
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 292.
        • Russ District
          • Reward
Adams, Paul (2010) The Brown Monster and Reward Mines Inyo County, California. Mineralogical Record 41:175-193.; Adams, Paul (2010) The Brown Monster and Reward Mines Inyo County, California. Mineralogical Record 41:175-193.
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Silver Lake District
        • Soda Mts
          • Baker
Joe Marty, Anthony Kampf, Robert Housley, Stuart Mills, Stefan Weiss (2010) Seltene neue Tellurmineralien aus Kalifornien, Utah, Arizona und New Mexico (USA). Lapis, 35, #12, 42-51.
          • Zzyzx (Fort Soda; Soda; Soda Springs; Zzyzx Mineral Spring Resort)
The Blue Bell Claims San Bernardino County, California, Maynard, M., et al., pg. 45; American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1198–1204, 2009
  • Colorado
    • Gilpin Co.
      • Black Hawk District
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    • Routt Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
  • Connecticut
    • New London Co.
      • North Stonington
Altamura, Robert J. (1995), Tectonics, Wall-Rock Alteration and Emplacement History of the Lantern Hill Giant Quartz Lode, Avalonian Terrane, Southeastern Connecticut. Trip E in Guidebook for Fieldtrips in Eastern Connecticut and the Hartford Basin. Northeast Section Geological Society of America 30th Annual Meeting. State Geological and Natural History Survey of Connecticut Guidebook No. 7.
  • Georgia
    • Cherokee Co.
      • Canton
Shearer & Hull (1918); Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 831; Rocks & Minerals: 64: 189.
  • Massachusetts
    • Hampshire Co.
      • Easthampton
Harvard U. collection
  • Missouri
    • Jefferson Co.
R&M 73:2 pp 98-117
    • Madison Co.
      • Fredericktown District
        • Mine La Motte
Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 1083; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 832..; American Mineralogist 6:7-10
  • Nevada
    • Eureka Co.
      • Carlin Trend
        • Maggie Creek Subdistrict
MinRec 26(5):449-469.
    • Humboldt Co.
      • Iron Point District
        • Valmy
Dr. William S. Wise presentation to Northwest Micro Mineral Study Group on 1 May 2004, Update on Mineralogy of the Silver Coin Mine, Iron Point District, Edna Mountains, Humboldt Co., Nevada
    • Nye Co.
      • Lodi Hills
        • Lodi District
          • Quartz Mountain camp
Rocks & Minerals, Nov. 1999; Rocks & Minerals (2010) 85:512-524
  • New Mexico
    • Grant Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
        • Tyrone Area
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Socorro Co.
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. ed., 1996
        • Bingham
[Mineralogical Record 30:337]
  • Wisconsin
    • Marathon Co.
      • Wausau Intrusive Complex
        • Nine Mile pluton
Rocks & Min. (2007) 82:233
    • Rusk Co.
      • Ladysmith
Jones, C., J. Jones & G. LaBerge, G. (1999) The Flambeau Mine, Ladysmith, Wisconsin. Mineralogical Record, 30 (2), 107-131
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