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About PseudobrookiteHide

Brownish black, reddish brown, or black
Adamantine, Greasy, Metallic
Specific Gravity:
4.33 - 4.39
Crystal System:
From the Greek ψευδής, false, and brookite since its resemblance to brookite is misleading.
Armalcolite-Pseudobrookite Series.
See also "karrooite" and compare also Unnamed (Monoclinic polymorph of pseudobrookite).

A larger number of synthetic analogues are known and well studied.

Classification of PseudobrookiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
C : Metal: Oxygen = 2: 3,3: 5, and similar
B : With medium-sized cations

7 : AB2X5

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
9 : Oxides of Ti

Physical Properties of PseudobrookiteHide

Adamantine, Greasy, Metallic
Brownish black, reddish brown, or black
On {010}.
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
4.33 - 4.39 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.39 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of PseudobrookiteHide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 2.350 nβ = 2.390 nγ = 2.420
Measured: 50° , Calculated: 80°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.070
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High

Chemical Properties of PseudobrookiteHide

IMA Formula:

Crystallography of PseudobrookiteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.81 Å, b = 9.95 Å, c = 3.73 Å
a:b:c = 0.986 : 1 : 0.375
Unit Cell V:
364.08 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals usually tabular {100} and elongated [001]; long prismatic at times or needle-like [001]. {100} and hk0} striated [001].
Reported on various {hk0} planes (doubtful).

Crystallographic forms of PseudobrookiteHide

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Pseudobrookite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Pseudobrookite no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Edge Lines | Miller Indices | Axes

Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
Epitaxi Comments:
Pseudobrookite on hematite with pseudobrokite {121}[21¯0] parallel to hematite {0001}[1¯100].
Pseudobrookite on magnetite with pseudobrookite {100}[001] parallel to magnetite {111}[110].
Oriented inclusions of rutile in pseudobrookite.

Type Occurrence of PseudobrookiteHide

Synonyms of PseudobrookiteHide

Other Language Names for PseudobrookiteHide

Relationship of Pseudobrookite to other SpeciesHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Hematite58 photos of Pseudobrookite associated with Hematite on mindat.org.
Topaz48 photos of Pseudobrookite associated with Topaz on mindat.org.
Sanidine45 photos of Pseudobrookite associated with Sanidine on mindat.org.
Enstatite31 photos of Pseudobrookite associated with Enstatite on mindat.org.
Bixbyite29 photos of Pseudobrookite associated with Bixbyite on mindat.org.
Quartz21 photos of Pseudobrookite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Tridymite19 photos of Pseudobrookite associated with Tridymite on mindat.org.
Fluoro-edenite18 photos of Pseudobrookite associated with Fluoro-edenite on mindat.org.
Mullite14 photos of Pseudobrookite associated with Mullite on mindat.org.
Pyroxene Group8 photos of Pseudobrookite associated with Pyroxene Group on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.CB.05BrizziiteNaSb5+O3Trig. 3 : R3
4.CB.05CorundumAl2O3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
4.CB.05Ecandrewsite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
4.CB.05GeikieliteMgTiO3Trig. 3 : R3
4.CB.05HematiteFe2O3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
4.CB.05IlmeniteFe2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
4.CB.05PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
4.CB.05Unnamed (Auroantimonate)AuSbO3
4.CB.05TistariteTi3+2O3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
4.CB.10AvicenniteTl2O3Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Ia3
4.CB.10BixbyiteMn3+2O3Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Ia3
4.CB.15Armalcolite(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N2S[(Zn,Al,Fe2+)3(Al,Fe3+,Ti)8O15(OH)]2Hex. 6mm : P63mc
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N6S[(Zn,Mg)7(Al,Fe3+,Ti)16O31(OH)]2Hex. 6mm : P63mc
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-6N6S[(Mg,Fe2+)3(Al,Ti,Fe3+)8O15(OH)]6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N3S[(Mg,Fe2+,Zn)4(Al,Ti,Fe3+)10O19(OH)]2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N2S[(Mg,Fe2+)3[Al7(Ti,Fe3+)]O15(OH)]2Hex. 6mm : P63mc
4.CB.20Ferrohögbomite-6N12S[(Fe2+,Mg,Zn)5(Al,Ti,Fe3+)12O23(OH)]6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.CB.25KleberiteFeTi6O11(OH)5Mon. 2/m : P21/b
4.CB.30OxyvaniteV3+2V4+O5Mon. 2/m : B2/b
4.CB.40RinmaniteZn2Sb2Mg2Fe4O14(OH)2Hex. 6 : P63
4.CB.40IseiteMn2Mo3O8Hex. 6mm : P63mc
4.CB.40MajindeiteMg2Mo3O8Hex. 6mm : P63mc
4.CB.45ClaudetiteAs2O3Mon. 2/m
4.CB.45StibioclaudetiteAsSbO3Mon. 2/m : P21/m
4.CB.50ArsenoliteAs2O3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.CB.50SenarmontiteSb2O3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.CB.55ValentiniteSb2O3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pccn
4.CB.60BismiteBi2O3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
4.CB.70SilléniteBi12SiO20Iso. 2 3 : I2 3
4.CB.75KyzylkumiteV3+Ti2O5(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/b

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide,Fe2+)Ti2O5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.9.2RutileTiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
7.9.3AnataseTiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
7.9.4BrookiteTiO2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.9.5GeikieliteMgTiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.6PerovskiteCaTiO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.9.8TausoniteSrTiO3Iso. 4 3m
7.9.9CrichtoniteSr(Mn,Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH)38Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.13PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.14Jacobsite-QT(Mn2+)M(Fe3+2)O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
7.9.15IlmeniteFe2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.17UlvöspinelTiFe2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.9.21Armalcolite(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.9.24CafetiteCaTi2O5 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.9.29AnkangiteBa(Ti,V3+,Cr)8O16Tet. 4/m : I4/m
7.9.30Ecandrewsite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
7.9.31LandauiteNaMnZn2(Ti,Fe)6Ti12O38Trig. 3 : R3

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for PseudobrookiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Koch, A. (1878): "XXII. Neue Minerale aus dem Andesit des Aranyer Berges in Siebenbürgen", Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen 1, Neue Folge, 331-361.
Pauling (1930) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 73: 97.
Palache, C. (1934), American Mineralogist: 19: 14.
Palache, C. (1935), American Mineralogist: 20: 660.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 736-738.
Taylor, R. W. (1964): Phase equilibriums in the system FeO-Fe2O3-TiO2 at 1300°C. American Mineralogist 49, 1016-1030.
Åsbrink, G. & Magnéli, A. (1967): X-ray studies on some mixed oxide systems of the pseudobrookite structure. Acta Chemica Scandinavica, 21, 1977.
Hauck, J. (1981): Crystallography and phase relations of MeO-M2O3-titanium dioxide systems (Me = Fe, Mg, Ni; M = Al, Cr, Fe). J. Solid State Chem. 36, 52-65.
Bowles, J.F. (1988) Definition and range of composition of naturally occurring minerals with the pseudobrookite structure. American Mineralogist (1988): 73: 1377.

Internet Links for PseudobrookiteHide

Localities for PseudobrookiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Tamanghasset Province
    • Ahaggar Mtn (Hoggar Mtn)
      • Laouni
J.P. Lorand and J.Y. Cottin, Bull. Minéral. , 1987, 110, pp. 373-378.
  • Victoria
    • City of Greater Geelong
      • Anakie
W. D. Birch et al, Australian Journal of Mineralogy (in press)
Museum Victoria Mineralogy Collection
Museum Victoria Mineralogy Collection
    • Moyne Shire
      • Mortlake
U. Kolitsch (SXRD); Birch, W. D., Wood, A., White, A. J. R., Mills, S. J. and Freeman, R. (2008): Aegirine-augite crystals in scoria from Mt Shadwell and Mt Anakie, Victoria, Australia. Australian Journal of Mineralogy 14, 37-42.
  • Burgenland
    • Oberpullendorf
      • Kobersdorf
        • Pauliberg
Schebesta, K. (1983) Der Pauliberg - Eine Micromountfundstelle vor den Toren Wiens. Eisenblüte, 4 (10), 8-11.; R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993); U. Kolitsch, W. Postl, H.-P. Bojar and W. Trattner (2009): Die Mineralvorkommen im Basalt des Pauliberges. In: Autorenkollektiv (Red. M. A. Götzinger und P. Huber) (2009): Die Mineralien des Burgenlandes - Geologie, Mineralogie und mineralische Rohstoffe. – Wissenschaftliche Arbeiten aus dem Burgenland, Band 126, Amt der Burgenländischen Landesregierung, Abteilung 7 - Landesmuseum, Eisenstadt, 83-99.
  • Styria
    • Bad Gleichenberg
      • Wilhelmsdorf
Postl, W., Taucher, J. & Moser, B. (1996): Neue Mineralfunde im oststeirischen Vulkangebiet. Mitt. Abt. Miner. Landesmuseum Joanneum, 60/61, 3-76.
    • Bad Radkersburg
      • Klöch
Postl, W., Taucher, J. & Moser, B. (1996): Neue Mineralfunde im oststeirischen Vulkangebiet. Mitt. Abt. Miner. Landesmuseum Joanneum, 60/61, 3-76.; "Aus der Tiefe der Vulkane", Fritz-Jandl-Postl (2011)
    • Graz
      • Wildon
        • Weitendorf
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
  • Tyrol
    • East Tyrol
      • Virgen valley
        • Prägraten
          • Dorferbach valley
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
  • Paraná
    • Foz do Iguaçu
Geological Survey Professional Paper 327 (U.S. Department of the Interior, 1959)
  • Pazardzhik Province
    • Panagyurishte (Panagurishte) Obshtina
      • Panagyurishte
Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155
  • Atacama
    • Huasco Province
      • Freirina
        • Sierra La Totora district
Bournat C. (1974); "Estudios geológico del sector de Freirina; UN, Chile.
  • Shandong
    • Linyi
Lei Zhao (1991): Geological Science and Technology Information 10(s1)
Czech Republic
  • Liberec Region
Scharm, B.: Přehled minerálů nalezených v oblasti uranových koncentrací v severočeské křídě. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1995, roč. 3, s. 169-172.
  • Vysočina Region
    • Třebíč District
      • Třebíč
Novák, M. & Škoda, R. (2007): Mn3+-rich andalusite to kanonaite and their breakdown products from metamanganolite at Kojetice near Třebíč, the Moldanubian Zone, Czech Republic. Journal of Geosciences, 52(1-2), 161-167.
  • North Ostrobothnia
    • Pudasjärvi
Karinen, Tuomo 2010. The Koillismaa intrusion northeasten Finland - evidence for PGE reef forming processes in the layered series. Geological Survey of Finland Bulletin 404
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Haute-Loire
      • Le Puy-en-Velay
        • Espaly-Saint-Marcel
Barrier D, Pourtier G, Médard P (2004) Minéralogie du mont Denise (Haute-Loire). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs 83: 3-11.
      • Solignac-sur-Loire
        • Le Brignon
P & E Médard collection
    • Puy-de-Dôme
      • Besse-et-Saint-Anastaise
        • Murol
Queneau Patrice collection
      • Mazaye
Philippe Rémy collection
      • Mont-Dore
A. Lacroix (1905) Minéralogie de la France
      • Pontgibaud
        • Saint-Ours-les-Roches
Vernay, R. (1996) - Le Puy de Lemptégy, Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, (1), 12-17.
Mboungou-Kongo J.B. (2002), L'hématite spéculaire du puy de Tunisset, Chaîne des Puys (Puy de Dôme), Le Régne Minéral, n°46, pp: 51-55
  • French Southern and Antarctic Lands
Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 122, 174-190 (1995)
  • Occitanie
    • Aveyron
Kruszewski, Ł., Gatel, P., Thiéry, V., Moszumańska, I., Kusy, D. (2018)(?): Lapanouse-de-Sévérac (France): an example of unique crystallochemical behaviour of slag minerals and new mineral potential. Coal and Peat Fires, vol. 5, xx-xx (in review/correction); Ł. Kruszewski EPMA/PXRD/Rietveld data
    • Hérault
photo and collection Bernard Bouissac
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Odenwald
      • Eberbach
        • Katzenbuckel
Stahle, V., Koch, M., McCammon, C. A., Mann, U. & Markl, G. (2002): Occurrence of low-Ti and high-Ti freudenbergite in alkali syenite dikes from the Katzenbuckel volcano, southwestern Germany. Canadian Mineralogist 40, 1609-1627.
  • Bavaria
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Waidhaus
Dill, H.G. (2009) The Hagendorf-Pleystein phosphate pegmatites (NE Bavaria, Germany) - A mineralogical, chronological and sedimentological overview. Estudos Geológicos: 19(2): 117-120.
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Aachen
      • Stolberg
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
International Association of Collectors of Slag Minerals, 9 (3), 3-6
    • Eifel
      • Mechernich
        • Kall
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    • Sauerland
      • Iserlohn
        • Letmathe
Bender, D. and Krimmelbein, W. (1994) Aktuelle Übersicht: Mineralien der Zinkhütte Genna/Sauerland. Stand Juni 1994. Mineralien-Welt, 4/94, 10.
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Ahrweiler
      • Bad Breisig
        • Brohl-Lützing
Brauns, R., Die Mineralien der Niederrheinischen Vulkangebiete, Schweizerbart, Stuttgart, 1922
      • Brohltal
        • Burgbrohl
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
        • Wassenach
Hentschel, G. (1975) Die Mineralien der basaltischen Gesteine im Laacher Vulkangebiet. Der Aufschluß, Heft 2.; Blaß, G. and Kruijen, F. (2015) Neuigkeiten aus der Vulkaneifel (II/2015). Mineralien-Welt, 26(5), 80-90.
    • Bernkastel-Wittlich
      • Wittlich
        • Bettenfeld
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Cochem-Zell
      • Ulmen
        • Utzerath
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Mayen-Koblenz
      • Andernach
        • Nickenich
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der basaltischen Gesteine im Laacher Vulkangebiet, Der Aufschluß, Heft 2, 1975
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
      • Maifeld
        • Ochtendung
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Lapis 1988(7+8), 70-72
      • Mayen
        • Ettringen
          • Bellerberg volcano
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise (München), 1983
        • Hochsimmer volcano
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Mendig
        • Bell
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der basaltischen Gesteine im Laacher Vulkangebiet, Der Aufschluß, Heft 2, 1975
        • Niedermendig
Blass, G., Graf, H.W., Kolitsch,U., Neue Funde aus der Vukaneifel, Mineralien-Welt 5/2003
Blass, G., Graf, H.W., Kolitsch,U., Neue Funde aus der Vukaneifel, Mineralien-Welt 5/2003
          • Wingertsberg
Blass, G., Graf, H.W., Kolitsch,U., Neue Funde aus der Vulkaneifel, Mineralien-Welt 5/2003
collection C.&H. Schäfer
      • Pellenz
        • Kruft
Brauns, R., Die Mineralien der Niederrheinischen Vulkangebiete, Schweizerbart, Stuttgart, 1922
Blass, G., Graf, H.W., Kolitsch,U., Neue Funde aus der Vukaneifel, Mineralien-Welt 5/2003
Leu, K. (2017): Unbekannte Fundstellen in der Eifel - der Tönchesberg bei Kruft, Mineralienwelt Vol. 28, 6, pp. 24-38
    • Vulkaneifel
      • Daun
        • Daun
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 2. Auflage) 1987
        • Oberstadtfeld
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München (2. Auflage), 1987
        • Strohn
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
        • Üdersdorf
Schäfer, H., Die Mineralien der Einschlüsse und Auswürflinge in den Schlacken des Emmelberges bei Üdersdorf / Eifel, Der Aufschluss 30, 273-282, 1979
Guth, G., Interessante Neufunde für den Basaltbruch Liley (Löley) bei Üdersdorf in der Westeifel Mineralien-Welt 2/2000
      • Gerolstein
        • Rockeskyll
          • Rockeskyll volcanic complex
Hentschel, G. (1987): Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München
        • Roth
Blaß, G. & Schüller, W. (2012): Der Rother Kopf in der Vulkaneifel. Lapis, 37 (3), 20-29.
Hentschel, G.(1987): Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 2. Auflage
      • Hillesheim
Hentschel, G., Die Lavaströme der Graulai: eine neue Fundstelle in der Westeifel, Lapis, Weise Verlag München, 09/1993
        • Oberbettingen
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, (2. Auflage), 1987
        • Walsdorf
Hentschel, G.(1987): Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 2. Auflage
      • Kelberg
        • Drees
Schüller, W., Die Mineralien des Niveligsberges bei Drees in der Eifel, Der Aufschluß SB 33, 1990
  • Thuringia
    • Gera
      • Ronneburg U deposit
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
    • Meiningen
Schüller, A. (1953): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 3(6), 472-494.
  • West Macedonia
    • Kozani and Grevena border area
      • Vourinos Mt ophiolite complex
No reference listed
  • Nógrád
    • Mátra Mts
      • Mátrakeresztes
  • Aosta Valley
    • Bard
Ch. Wagner and D. Velde, Bull. Minéral. , 1985, 108, pp. 173-187.
  • Campania
    • Benevento
      • Cusano Mutri
Mondillo N., Balassone G., Boni M., Rollinson G. (2011): Karst bauxites in the Campania Apennines (southern Italy): a new approach. Per. Mineral., 80, 3, 407-432.
    • Naples
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
        • Monte Somma
          • Sant'Anastasia
Imma Punzo find and collection
Russo, M., Punzo, I. (2004): I minerali del Somma-Vesuvio, AMI
  • Lazio
    • Viterbo Province
"Giorgio Bortolozzi (visual identification)"
      • Piansano
Burli, M., Nizi, L., Pucci, R., Signoretti, E (2010): Mullite et Cordierite nella cava di Cellere (VT), Il Cercapietre , 1-2 / 2010, pp. 41-48
      • Vico volcanic complex (Vico Lake)
No reference listed; No reference listed
Parodi, G. C., Della Ventura, G., & Lorand, J. P. (1989). Mineralogy and petrology of an unusual osumilite+ vanadium-rich pseudobrookite assemblage in an ejectum from the Vico volcanic complex (Latium, Italy). American Mineralogist, 74(11-12), 1278-1284.
Signoretti, E., Carlini, R., Mattei, L. (2004): Località minori del vulcano Vicano: Pian di S. Martino, Le Carcarelle, Torre del Quercio. Il Cercapietre, 1-2, articolo 3; http://www.gminromano.it/Cercapietre/rivista04/testo/04A04.html
  • Sardinia
    • Oristano Province
      • Mt. Arci
        • Marrubiu
- G.Conti-Vecchi, P. Stara,: (1991) "I Minerali della Sardegna" STEF S.p.A. Cagliari pp.176
Bortolozi G. (1986) - Mullite e Pseudobrookite del M. Arci (Or) - Riv. Mineral. Ital. , Milano, Fasc. 3, pag. 136
    • Sassari Province
      • Anglona
"Giorgio Bortolozzi (visual identification)"
  • Sicily
    • Agrigento Province
      • Pelagie Islands (Pelagian Islands)
        • Lampedusa (Lampedusa Island)
"Giorgio Bortolozzi (visual identification)"
    • Catania Province
      • Etna Volcanic Complex
        • Biancavilla
Gianfagna, A. & Oberti, R.(2001): Fluoro-edenite from Biancavilla (Catania, Sicily, Italy): crystal chemistry of a new amphibole end-member. American Mineralogist, 86, 1489-1493. - Sicurella, G., Ciriotti, M.E., Gianfagna, A., Mazziotti-Tagliani, S., Blass, G. (2010): Minerali di Monte Calvario, Biancavilla (Catania, Sicilia). Micro (località), 2/2010, 329-368.
  • Veneto
    • Padova Province
      • Euganean Hills (Euganei Hills)
"Giorgio Bortolozzi (visual identification)"
    • Vicenza Province
      • Altissimo
Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
      • Trissino
Daleffe, A., Rigoni M., M.T. (2000): Pseudobrookite di Monte Faldo, Selva di
M. Boscardin (2002): " Presenze Mineralogiche significative nei Lessini Vicentini - Studi e Ricerche- Associazione Amici del Museo- Museo Civico "G. Zannato" Montecchio Maggiore (VI). 15 Dicembre 2002, pp. 49-56.
  • Fukushima
    • Mt Uzumine (Utsumine)
Nakajima & Kurosawa (2006), Canadian Mineralogist: 44: 40.
  • Durango
    • Coneto de Comonfort Municipality
      • América-Sapioris District (Potrillos)
        • Sierra de San Francisco
          • Potrillos
Panczner(1987): 305.
    • Durango Municipality
      • Cerro de los Remedios
        • Victoria de Durango
"Rock-magnetism and ore microscopy of the magnetite-apatite ore deposit from Cerro de Mercado, Mexico" Earth Planets Space, 53, 181–192, 2001
  • Guanajuato
    • San Felipe Municipality
      • San Felipe
Panczner (1987): 305.
New Zealand
  • Bay of Plenty Region
    • Rotorua District
      • Mount Ngongotaha
Martin Stolworthy Collection
  • Northland Region
    • Kaipara District
      • Aranga
Essence of Microscope
  • Tasman Region
    • Collingwood
Challis, G. A., Grapes, R., & Palmer, K. (1995). Chromian muscovite, uvarovite, and zincian chromite; products of regional metasomatism in Northwest Nelson, New Zealand. The Canadian Mineralogist, 33(6), 1263-1284.
  • Waikato Region
    • Taupo District
      • Lake Taupo
Collection of RJ Martin
  • Telemark
    • Bamble
      • Havredal (Hafredal)
        • Midtre Havredal
Brøgger, W.C. (1888): Om en norsk forekomst af pseudobrookit i store krystaller. Geol.Fören. Förhandl.Stockholm 10: 21-24; Smith, D.G.W. (1969): Contributions to the Mineralogy of Norway No.42. A reinvestigation of the pseudobrookite from Havredal (Bamble), Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift: 49: 284-288.
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Kłodzko Co.
      • Gmina Nowa Ruda
        • Przygórze
          • Bolesław Mine
Kruszewski, Ł., Ciesielczuk, J., Misz-Kennan, M., 2014: Mineralogy of some metacarbonate rocks from burned coal-mining dump in Przygórze (Lower Silesian Coal Basin) and its analogy to "olive" rocks from the Hatrurim Formation. Proceedings of the International Symposium CEMC 2014, Skalský Dvůr, April 23-26th, 26-27
  • Faro
    • Loulé
Pedro Alves collection
  • Covasna
Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F., Eds. (2010): Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Csík County Nature and Conservation Society, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania, 321 pp.
  • Hunedoara
    • Simeria
Koch, 1878; König et al., 2001; Bojar, H.-P. & Walter, F. (2006): Fluoro-magnesiohastingsite from Dealul Uroi (Hunedoara county, Romania): mineral structure of a new amphibole end-member. European Journal of Mineralogy, 18, 503-508.
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
  • Kabardino-Balkaria
Kaigorodova, E. N. (2017). Rare-earth and Rare-metal Mineralization in Trachytes of the Khulam Complex (Kabardino-balkaria Republic, Russia). In Magmatism of the Earth and related strategic metal deposits (pp. 87-89).
  • Kamchatka Krai
    • Tolbachik volcano
      • Great Fissure eruption (Main Fracture)
        • Northern Breakthrough (North Breach)
          • Second scoria cone
Pekov, I.V., Sandalov, F.D., Koshlyakova, N.N., Vigasina, M.F., Polekhovsky, Y.S., Britvin, S.N., Sidorov, E.G., Turchkova, A.G. (2018): Copper in Natural Oxide Spinels: The New Mineral Thermaerogenite CuAl2O4, Cuprospinel and Cu-Enriched Varieties of Other Spinel-Group Members from Fumaroles of the Tolbachik Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia[i]. Minerals: 8: 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/min8110498; http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=14995
Pekov, I. V., Zelenski, M. E., Zubkova, N. V., Yapaskurt, V. O., Chukanov, N. V., Belakovskiy, D. I., & Pushcharovsky, D. Y. (2012). Calciolangbeinite, K2Ca2 (SO4) 3, a new mineral from the Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. Mineralogical Magazine, 76(3), 673-682.
  • Murmansk Oblast
  • Zabaykalsky Krai
    • Chitinskaya Oblast
Victor V. Sharygin analytycal data (2012)
  • Prešov Region
    • Vranov nad Topľou Co.
Ďuďa,R., et al., 1981: Mineralógia severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovaca, Monografia 2, 98s
South Africa
  • Limpopo
Minerals of South Africa
  • Aragón
    • Huesca
      • Estopiñán del Castillo
B. Azambre et al. , Bull. Minéral; , 1987, 110, pp. 379-396.
      • Sopeira
B. Azambre et al. , Bull. Minéral; , 1987, 110, pp. 379-396.
  • Canary Islands
    • Las Palmas Province
      • Gran Canaria
        • Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
Alex Hansen Machín (2009). Volcanología y geomorfología de la etapa de rejuvenecimiento plio-pleistocena de Gran Canaria (Islas Canarias). Tesis doctoral. Personally collected in January 2013
  • Cantabria
    • Santander
B. Azambre et al. , Bull. Minéral; , 1987, 110, pp. 379-396.
  • Castile-La Mancha
    • Albacete
      • Hellín
        • Cancarix
E. Salvioli-mariani et al. , Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, pp. 1027-1039.
  • Murcia
    • Cartagena
      • La Aljorra
Sevillano, G. C., Viñals,J., Rebollar, M.C (2009): Minerales de las Vesículas de las Rocas Lamproíticas del afloramiento de La Aljorra (Murcia). Macla (11), 43-44
    • Jumilla
      • La Celia
- Lewis,W.J. (1883) Mineralogische Notizen 1. Pseudobrookit - Zeitschrift für Kristallographie und Mineralogie,7, 181-182
  • Dodoma Region
    • Kongwa District
      • Kongwa
Mineralogical Magazine 1963 33 : 635-645
  • Northern Ireland
    • Co. Antrim
Agrell, S. O. and Langley, J. M. (1958) Proc. R. Irish Acad. 59B, 93-127.; Ryback, G., Nawaz, R. and Farley, E. (1988) Seventh Supplementary List of British Isles Minerals (Irish). Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 52, n° 365, pp. 267-274.
  • Scotland
    • Argyll and Bute
      • Isle of Mull
        • Loch Scridain
J.Ralph 2007
Smith, D.G.W. (1965) The chemistry and mineralogy of some emery-like rocks from Sithean Sluaigh, Strachur, Argyllshire. American Mineralogist 50: 1982-2022.; Livingstone, A. and Macpherson, H.G. (1983) Fifth supplementary list of British minerals (Scottish). Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 47, n° 342, p. 99-105.
  • Arizona
      • Big Lue Mountains (Big Laue Mountain)
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 402.
    • Pima Co.
      • Ajo District
        • Little Ajo Mts
          • Ajo area
            • Batamote Mts
Data provided by Janet Clifford, Cleveland Micromineral Symposium
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 336.
    • Pinal Co.
      • Dripping Spring Mts
        • Saddle Mountain District
          • Winkelman area
            • Saddle Mountain area
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 336, 376, 399; White, Jr., J.S. (1992), An occurrence of bixbyite, spessartine, topaz and pseudobrookite from Ash Creek near Hayden, AZ, Min.Rec.: 23: 487-492.
      • Hayden
Mineralogical Record 23:487-492
  • Arkansas
Jay Ellis Ransom,1974, Gems and Minerals of America
  • California
    • Kern Co.
      • Kramer District (Kramer Borate District)
        • Boron
Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22(9): 165-166; Carnahan, V. (1970), Notes on some minerals from Boron: Bulletin of the Mineralogical Society of Southern California, November: 10; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 174.
    • Los Angeles Co.
      • Santa Monica Mts
        • Agoura Hills
R. Housley, pers.comm., SEM-EDS verified, 2014
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Trojan
MarekC pers. coll. 2019
    • Ventura Co.
      • Santa Monica Mts
        • Thousand Oaks
DeVito, A. N. (1992), Brookite and stilbite in the Santa Monica Mountains. Bull. Min. Soc. So. Calif.: 62(2) (Feb 1992): 7.
  • Colorado
    • Chaffee Co.
      • Nathrop
("Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997); USGS Bull 1716C
    • Eagle Co.
      • Gore Mts
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
    • Larimer Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
    • Park Co.
AmMin 84:754-763
  • Hawaii
    • Kauai Co.
AmMin 69:57
  • Montana
    • Garfield Co.
  • Nevada
    • Lander Co.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada; Fries, Carl, Jr., Tin deposits of northern Lander County, Nevada. USGS Bulletin 931-L, p. 279-294, illus., 1942.
USGS Bulletin 931-1; Tin Deposits of Northern Lander County Nevada
    • White Pine Co.
Tony Nikischer specimen
  • New Hampshire
    • Grafton Co.
Rice, Jack M., Dickey, John S. Jr., and Lyons, John B. (1971): Skeletal Crystallization of Pseudobrookite (American Mineralogist 56:158-162.)
  • New Mexico
    • Catron Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
      • Taylor Creek District
        • Sawmill Creek
NMGS 37th Field Conference
Min.Rec.: 20(5):404.
    • Grant Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Ronald Gibbs, Microminerals from the Big Lue Mountains, 13th Annual New Mexico Mineral Symposium, November 14-15, 1992
    • Sierra Co.
Min Rec 16:2 p145
      • Hillsboro District
        • Hillsboro
Steve Stuart collection- from giveaway tables at 2013 Arthur Roe Micromineral Symposium
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Gibbs, R. (2013) Microminerals near San Juan Peak in the San Mateo Mountains, Socorro County, New Mexico. 34th Annual New Mexico Mineral Symposium, November 9-10, Socorro, New Mexico, Program with Abstracts: 34(14): 27.
      • Paramount Canyon
Min Rec 16:2 p137; New Mexico rocks & minerals: the collecting guide (including maps) By Frank S. Kimbler, Robert J. Narsavage
      • Sierra Cuchillo (Cuchillo Negro Mts)
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed. Min Rec, Vol. 20, No. 1, p. 60
    • Taos Co.
      • No Agua District
Ramon DeMark and Jessie Kline, New Mexico Mineral Symposium, November 2000
NMBMMR New Mexico Mineral symposium (2000) p.11
  • Oregon
    • Douglas Co.
      • Diamond Lake
K. Starnes, personal ID, 1992
Mineralogical Record Vol 16 Num 2
Don Howard and Kent England Micro Probe Vol. X No. 8 page 3
    • Klamath Co.
Kleck. W. D. (1970): Cavity Minerals At Summit Rock. American Mineralogist. 55, 1396-1404
  • Utah
    • Beaver Co.
Min Rec 10:5 pp261-278
    • Juab Co.
No reference listed
Mineralogical Record, March/April 1995, page 126
Microprobe 7:9 pp 12-14
Min Rec 10:5 pp261-278; Bowling, R. (2011) Topaz from Utsh's Maynard Mine Extra Lapis English 14:22-25
Grüll, M. (2014): Weltklasse: Bixbyite aus Utah/USA. Lapis 39 (9), 40-45.
Personally collected by Dr. Scott Campbell.
Rick Dalrymple Collection
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
J. Holfert, W. Mroch, J. Fuller (1996) A Field Guide to Topaz and Associated Minerals of the Thomas Range, Utah (Topaz Mountain) Vol I HM Publishing 103pp
    • Millard Co.
Personally Collected by Dr. Scott Campbell.
    • Piute Co.
Mineralogical Magazine 1998 62 : 265-269
      • Tushar Mts
        • Marysvale area
Steve Rust collection
  • Wisconsin
    • Marathon Co.
      • Wausau Intrusive Complex
        • Nine Mile pluton
Buchholz, T.W., Falster, A.U., and Simmons, WmB. (2007) 34th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, Contributed Papers.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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