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Sub-Metallic, Dull
5 - 6
From the Greek ψιλός (psilos) "smooth" or "bald", and μέλας (melas) "black" in allusion to the form and colour.
Obsolete group name for hard black Manganese Oxides.

Visit for gemological information about Psilomelane.

Classification of Psilomelane


4 : Oxides & Hydroxides
X : Unclassified oxides
0 :

Physical Properties of Psilomelane

Sub-Metallic, Dull
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Brownish black to black, shiny
Hardness (Mohs):
5 - 6
4.7 - 4.72 g/cm3 (Measured)    0.42 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Relationship of Psilomelane to other Species


Other Names for Psilomelane

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Psilomelane

Reference List:
Wallerius (1747) 268.

Haidinger (1827) Royal Society of Edinburgh, Transactions: 11: 129.

Egleston (1887) U.S. National Museum Bulletin 33: 137.

Krusch (1907) Zeitschrift für praktische Geologie, Berlin Halle a.S.: 15: 129.

Hintze (1929) 1(3A): 3597.

Ramsdell (1932) American Mineralogist: 17: 143.

Vaux (1937) Mineralogical Magazine: 24: 521.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 668-670.

Fleischer, M. (1960) Studies of the manganese oxide minerals: III: Psilomelane: American Mineralogist: 45: 176-187.

Mineralogical Magazine (1965) 34: 634-655.

Internet Links for Psilomelane URL:
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The following Psilomelane specimens are currently listed for sale on

Localities for Psilomelane

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