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Pyrochroite

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Formula:
Mn(OH)2
Colour:
Colourless, greenish, bluish (fresh), brown to black (exposed); flesh-red or amethystine in transmitted light
Lustre:
Pearly
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Specific Gravity:
3.23 - 3.27
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1864 by Lars Johan Igelstrom from the Greek πύρ, "fire", and χρώσις, "colouring", in allusion to the change of color upon ignition.
Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of PyrochroiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.FE.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
F : Hydroxides (without V or U)
E : Hydroxides with OH, without H2O; sheets of edge-sharing octahedra
6.2.1.3

6 : HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
2 : X(OH)2
7.18.10

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
18 : Oxides of Mn

Physical Properties of PyrochroiteHide

Pearly
Transparency:
Translucent, Opaque
Colour:
Colourless, greenish, bluish (fresh), brown to black (exposed); flesh-red or amethystine in transmitted light
Hardness:
2½ - 3 on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Elastic
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {0001}
Density:
3.23 - 3.27 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.25 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of PyrochroiteHide

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.680 - 1.681 nε = 1.720 - 1.723
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.040
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
Dichroic: O = brown; E = lighter brown.
Comments:
Strongly reflecting in polished section (black altered material).

Chemical Properties of PyrochroiteHide

Formula:
Mn(OH)2
IMA Formula:
Mn2+(OH)2

Crystallography of PyrochroiteHide

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Cell Parameters:
a = 3.31 Å, c = 4.74 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 1.432
Unit Cell V:
44.97 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals tabular {0001}; also less commonly rhombohedral with large {101¯2} or {101¯1}. Rarely prismatic [0001] with {112¯0} and {0001} developed. Foliated masses.

Type Occurrence of PyrochroiteHide

Synonyms of PyrochroiteHide

Other Language Names for PyrochroiteHide

German:Pyrochroit
Simplified Chinese:羟锰矿
Spanish:Pirocroita

Varieties of PyrochroiteHide

HydrohausmanniteThe original natural "hydrohausmannite" is a pseudomorph of pyrochroite containing feitknechtite and hausmannite.

Relationship of Pyrochroite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
BruciteMg(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
PortlanditeCa(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Lead31 photos of Pyrochroite associated with Lead on mindat.org.
Zincite19 photos of Pyrochroite associated with Zincite on mindat.org.
Hydrocerussite14 photos of Pyrochroite associated with Hydrocerussite on mindat.org.
Calcite12 photos of Pyrochroite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Allactite9 photos of Pyrochroite associated with Allactite on mindat.org.
Loseyite6 photos of Pyrochroite associated with Loseyite on mindat.org.
Hauckite6 photos of Pyrochroite associated with Hauckite on mindat.org.
Leucophoenicite6 photos of Pyrochroite associated with Leucophoenicite on mindat.org.
Torreyite5 photos of Pyrochroite associated with Torreyite on mindat.org.
Rhodochrosite5 photos of Pyrochroite associated with Rhodochrosite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.FE.05Amakinite(Fe2+,Mg)(OH)2Trig.
4.FE.05BruciteMg(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
4.FE.05PortlanditeCa(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
4.FE.05TheophrastiteNi(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
4.FE.10BayeriteAl(OH)3Mon. 2/m : P21/m
4.FE.10DoyleiteAl(OH)3Tric.
4.FE.10GibbsiteAl(OH)3Mon. 2/m
4.FE.10NordstranditeAl(OH)3Tric. 1 : P1
4.FE.15BöhmiteAlO(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.FE.15Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
4.FE.20GrimaldiiteCrO(OH)Trig.
4.FE.20HeterogeniteCo3+O(OH)Hex.
4.FE.25FeitknechtiteMn3+O(OH)Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
4.FE.25Lithiophorite(Al,Li)MnO2(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.FE.30QuenselitePbMnO2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.FE.35FerrihydriteFe3+10O14(OH)2Trig.
4.FE.40FeroxyhyteFe3+O(OH)Hex.
4.FE.40Vernadite(Mn4+,Fe3+,Ca,Na)(O,OH)2 · nH2OHex.
4.FE.45QuetzalcoatliteZn6Cu3(TeO6)2(OH)6 · AgxPbyClx+2yTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

6.2.1.1BruciteMg(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
6.2.1.2Amakinite(Fe2+,Mg)(OH)2Trig.
6.2.1.4PortlanditeCa(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
6.2.1.5TheophrastiteNi(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.18.1ManganositeMnOIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
7.18.2HausmanniteMn2+Mn3+2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
7.18.3PyrolusiteMnO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
7.18.4RamsdelliteMn4+O2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
7.18.5Akhtenskiteε-Mn4+O2Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
7.18.6FeitknechtiteMn3+O(OH)Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
7.18.7ManganiteMn3+O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
7.18.8GroutiteMn3+O(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.18.9Nsutite(Mn4+,Mn2+)(O,OH)2Hex.
7.18.11Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
7.18.12Aurorite(Mn2+,Ag,Ca)Mn4+3O7 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3
7.18.13CianciulliiteMn(Mg,Mn)2Zn2(OH)10 · 2-4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for PyrochroiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Igelström (1864), Ann. Phys.: 122: 181.
Igelström (1864), Ak. Stockholm, Öfv.: 21: 205.
Flink (1886), Ak. Stockholm, Handl.: 12(2), n. 2: 2.
Flink (1900), Bull. Geol. Inst. Upsala: 5.
Sjogren (1905), Geol. För. Förh.: 27: 37.
Flink (1910), Ark. Kemi.: 3(35) 106.
Aminoff (1919), Geol. För. Förh.: 41: 407.
Flink (1919), Geol. För. Förh.: 41: 433 (as Eisenpyrochroite).
Palache, C (1935) The Minerals of Franklin andSterling Hill, New Jersey, USGS Professional Paper 180: 50.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 639-641.
American Mineralogist (1965): 50: 1296-1354.

Internet Links for PyrochroiteHide

Localities for PyrochroiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Atlantic Ocean
 
  • Mid-Atlantic Ridge complex
Gablina, I.F., Semkova, T.A., Stepanova, T.V., and Gor'kova, N.V. (2006): Lithology and Mineral Resources 41(1), 27-44.
Canada
 
  • Québec
    • Estrie
      • Les Sources RCM
        • Asbestos
Grice, J.D. and Williams, R. (1979): Famous mineral localities: The Jeffrey Mine, Asbestos, Québec. Mineralogical Record, 10(2):69-80
China
 
  • Shaanxi Province
    • Hanzhong Prefecture
      • Mian Co.
Zhongtang Yang, Zhiming Li, Gengbiao Qiao, Zhongbao Song, Xiaozhou Liu, and Wei Wan (2008): Geology and Prospecting 44(2), 38-44; Zhongtang Yang, Gengbiao Qiao, Zhiming Li, Xiaoyong Yang, Hongping Huang, Xianghua Lan, Zhongbao Song, Xiaozhou Liu, and Wei Wan (2009): Chinese Journal of Geology 44(1), 88-102
      • Ningqiang Co.
Yeh, H.-W., Hein, J.R., Ye, J., and Fan, D. (1999): Ore Geology Reviews 15(1), 55-69.
  • Sichuan Province
    • Leshan Prefecture
      • Jinkouhe District
Xingfen Wang (1989): Geology and Prospecting 25(12), 8-11; Hongjun Qu (1992): Geology and Prospecting 28(6), 1-5
    • Meishan Prefecture
      • Hongya Co.
Hongjun Qu (1992): Geology and Prospecting 28(6), 1-5
    • Ya'an Prefecture
      • Hanyuan Co.
Hongjun Qu (1992): Geology and Prospecting 28(6), 1-5
Hongjun Qu (1992): Geology and Prospecting 28(6), 1-5
  • Yunnan Province
    • Dali Autonomous Prefecture
      • Heqing Co.
Zhangxiang Peng (1990): Geology and Prospecting 26(10), 14-18
Egypt
 
  • South Sinai Governorate
    • Abu Zeneima (Abu Zenima)
Manganese Reserves and Resources of the World and its Industrial
Germany
 
  • Lower Saxony
    • Osnabrück
      • Georgsmarienhütte
Schnorrer, G., Stahlmann, W., Mollenkamp, A. (2001): Sekundärmineralisation in den Hochofenschlacken des Hüttenwerkes in Georgsmarienhütte, heutige Georgsmarienhütte GmbH. Aufschluss 52, 99-108.
Ghana
 
  • Western Region
    • Tarkwa
Mineralium Deposita Volume 34 Issue 3 (1999) pp 297-311
India
 
  • Karnataka
    • Bellary District
      • Bellary-Hospet iron belt
        • Sandur
Rao, J. S. R. K., Naidu, B. V. & Rao, K. V. (1979): Ore microscopic, x-ray and trace elemental data on manganese ores from Sandur, Karnataka, India. Acta Mineralogica-Petrographica 24, 91-97.
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Chubu Region
      • Aichi Prefecture
        • Kita-Shidara-gun
          • Shidara-cho
Mayumi Yoshinaga (1963) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 14, 1, 1-22.
      • Fukui Prefecture
        • Mikata-kaminaka-gun
          • Wakasa-cho
Kato, A. (2010) Mumeikai Group meeting, No. 30.
      • Nagano Prefecture
        • Kami-Ina-gun
          • Hamayokokawa mine (Hamayokogawa mine)
Akira Kato (2011) Explanations of distributed specimens at the Ordinary Meeting of Mumeikai Group, No. 34 (January, 20011).
Akira Kato (2011) Explanations of distributed specimens at the Ordinary Meeting of Mumeikai Group, No. 34 (January, 20011).
    • Chugoku Region
      • Yamaguchi Prefecture
        • Iwakuni City
Mayumi Yoshinaga (1963) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 14, 1, 1-22.
        • Kudamatsu City
Fumitoshi HIROWATARI (1961) Minerals and Their Paragenetic Relations of the Manganese Deposits of Fukumaki Mine, Yamaguchi Prefecture. Bulletin of the Geological Survey of Japan Vol.12:565-572
Mayumi Yoshinaga (1963) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 14, 1, 1-22.
    • Kanto Region
      • Gunma Prefecture
        • Kiryuu City
Matsubara, S., & Kato, A. (1980) Nagashimalite, Ba4 (V3+, Ti) 4 [(O, OH) 2| Cl| Si8B2O27], a new mineral from the Mogurazawa mine, Gumma prefecture, Japan. Mineralogical Journal, 10(3), 122-130.
      • Tochigi Prefecture
        • Kanuma City
Mayumi Yoshinaga (1963) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 14, 1, 1-22.; Akira Kato (undated manuscript): Country rock and Minerals of the Kaso mine, Kanuma City, Tochigi Prefecture. (in japanese); Yoshinaga, Mayumi. "Sonolite, a new manganese silicate mineral." Mem Fac Sci Kyushu Univ Ser D Geol 14 (1963): 1-21.
    • Kinki Region
      • Kyoto Prefecture
        • Sohraku-gun
          • Wazuka-cho
      • Shiga Prefecture
        • Ritto City
Yoshinaga, Mayumi. "Sonolite, a new manganese silicate mineral." Mem Fac Sci Kyushu Univ Ser D Geol 14 (1963): 1-21.
    • Tohoku Region
      • Iwate Prefecture
        • Kunohe-gun
          • Noda-mura
Okamoto collection (curated at the Geological Survey museum, Japan); Katsu Kaneko (1956) Symposium del Manganeso, XX Congreso Geologico Internacional, Mexico D.F.
        • Miyako City
Mayumi Yoshinaga (1963) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 14, 1, 1-22.
Namibia
 
  • Otjozondjupa Region
    • Grootfontein District
      • Kombat
Dunn, P.J. (1991), Rare minerals of the Kombat Mine, Mineralogical Record: 22(6): 421-425.
Romania
 
  • Suceava Co.
    • Suceava district
      • Iacobeni (Jakobeny; Jacobeny; Jakabfalva)
http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
Russia
 
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Orenburgskaya Oblast'
        • Svetlyi
          • Buruktal District
            • Buruktal massif
Talovina, I.V., Lazarenkov, V.G., and Vorontsova, N.I. (2003): Lithology and Mineral Resources 38(5), 403-415.
South Africa
 
  • North West Province
    • Bojanala Platinum District
      • Western Bushveld Complex
The Canadian Mineralogist, V 42, 2004, pp. 1169-1178.; MITCHELL, R.H. & LIFEROVICH, R.P. (2004) Ecandrewsite - zincian pyrophanite from lujavrite. Pilansber alkaline complex, South Africa. Canadian Mineralogist), 42, 1169-1178.
  • Northern Cape Province
    • Kalahari manganese field
      • Hotazel
[MinRec 22:289]
      • Kuruman
        • N'Chwaning Mines
[Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) - The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field : an update, Mineralogical Record, 22 (3), 279-302.]
[MinRec 22:289]
Sweden
 
  • Dalarna
    • Hedemora
      • Garpenberg
Kjell Gatedal
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 927; Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183.
Flink, G. (1922): Akrochordit, ett nytt mineral från Långbans gruvor. Geologiska Föreningens i Stockholm Förhandlinger. 44: 773-776.
      • Långban district
Kjell Gatedal
      • Nordmark district
        • Jakobsberg ore field
Kjell Gatedal
      • Nordmark Odal Field (Nordmarksberg)
Mineralogical Magazine(1978) 42, 133-136
Mineralogical Magazine (1998) 62 (3), 395-407
Flink, G. (1886): Mineralogiska Notiser I. Pyrokroit från Nordmarken. Anhang til K. Svenska Vet.Akad. Handlingar. 12. Afdeling 2. No. 3, p.12-13; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 782; Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 4, 2000
      • Persberg district
        • Pajsberg
Nysten, P. (1984): Kleinod des Nordens - Harstigen in Schweden. Magma 2/1984, 12-30.
[Am Min 50 (1965), 1296; MinRec 1:165]
  • Västmanland
    • Hällefors
      • Grythyttan
No reference listed
Switzerland
 
  • St Gallen
    • Alvier Group
      • Sargans
Die Mineralien der Schweiz, M. Weibel et al. 1990
UK
 
  • England
    • Devon
      • Dartmoor & Teign Valley District
        • Doddiscombsleigh
Bernie Millington Collection
  • Wales
    • Gwynedd
      • Lleyn Peninsula
        • Llanfaelrhys
          • Rhiw
R. E. Bevins (1988) Sixth Supplementary List of British Isles Minerals (Welsh). Mineralogical Magazine 52:121-124
USA
 
  • California
    • Alpine Co.
MinRec 22:29-42
        • Loope (Monitor; Loopeville)
          • Colorado Hill
Mineralogical Record (1991): 22: 37.
    • Santa Clara Co.
      • Diablo Range
        • Black Wonder District
          • East Foothills
Rogers, Austin Flint (1919b), An interesting occurrence of manganese minerals near San Jose, California: American Journal of Science, 4th. Series: 48: 445; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 235, 302; www.mineralsocal.org
  • Michigan
www.deq.state.mi.us/documents/deq-glm-rcim-geology-Minerals_Found_In_Michigan.Pdf.
  • Nevada
    • White Pine Co.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
Palache(1935):50-52; Dunn(1995):Pt4:601-603.
Palache(1935):50.
Palache(1935):50.
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
Palache(1935):50-52; Dunn(1995):Pt4:601-603.
Peter Chin
Mineral and/or Locality  
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