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Pyrope

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Formula:
Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
Colour:
Blood red, orange red, purple red, pink, black red, colorless.
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
3.582
Crystal System:
Isometric
Name:
From the Greek, pyropos, "fiery-eyed" in allusion to the red hue.
Type Locality:
Dimorph of:
Garnet Group.
Almandine-Pyrope Series, Knorringite-Pyrope Series, Pyrope-Grossular Series.

Occurs predominantly in ultrabasic igneous rocks.

Pure end-member pyrope is colorless! (but rare).

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Pyrope.


Classification of Pyrope

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.AD.25

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
D : Nesosilicates without additional anions; cations in [6] and/or greater coordination
51.4.3a.1

51 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
4 : Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
16.7.1

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
7 : Aluminosilicates of Mg

Physical Properties of Pyrope

Vitreous
Colour:
Blood red, orange red, purple red, pink, black red, colorless.
Streak:
White
Hardness:
7½ on Mohs scale
Cleavage:
None Observed
None
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
3.582 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Optical Data of Pyrope

Type:
Isotropic

Chemical Properties of Pyrope

Formula:
Mg3Al2(SiO4)3
Common Impurities:
Fe,Mn,Ca

Crystallography of Pyrope

Crystal System:
Isometric
Cell Parameters:
a = 11.45 Å
Unit Cell V:
1,501.12 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

X-Ray Powder Diffraction

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of Pyrope

Synonyms of Pyrope

Other Language Names for Pyrope

Dutch:Pyroop
German:Vogesit
Hungarian:Pirop
Italian:Piropo
Lithuanian:Piropas
Polish:Pirop
Russian:Пироп
Simplified Chinese:镁铝榴石
Slovak:Pyrop
Spanish:Vogesita
Swedish:Pyrop
Traditional Chinese:鎂鋁榴石
Ukrainian:Піроп

Varieties of Pyrope

Chromian Pyrope

A chrome-rich variety of pyrope.

Rhodolite

Originally a rose-red gem variety of Pyrope. Current usage has extended the name to any pink garnet in the almandine-pyrope series with most of the occurrences in the almandine compositional field. True pyrope does occur at the "type" locality described b...

Titanian Pyrope

A Ti variety of Pyrope associated with kimberlites.

Umbalite

Originally described from Umba River (Umba Valley), Tanga Region, Tanzania in 1978.

Relationship of Pyrope to other Species

Other Members of this group:
AlmandineFe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
AndraditeCa3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
Berzeliite(NaCa2)Mg2(AsO4)3
Bitikleite Group
BlythiteMn2+3Mn3+2[SiO4]3
Calderite(Mn2+,Ca)3(Fe3+,Al)2(SiO4)3
GoldmaniteCa3V3+2(SiO4)3
GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
HenritermieriteCa3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
HutcheoniteCa3Ti2(SiAl2)O12
IrinarassiteCa3Sn2Al2SiO12
KatoiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
KerimasiteCa3Zr2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2
KhohariteMg3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
KimzeyiteCa3(Zr,Ti)2((Si,Al,Fe3+)O4)3
KnorringiteMg3Cr2(SiO4)3
MajoriteMg3(Fe2+,Si,Al)2(SiO4)3
Menzerite-(Y){(Y,REE),(Ca,Fe2+)}3{(Mg,Fe2+),(Fe3+,Al)}2[SiO4]3
Momoiite(Mn2+,Ca)3V3+2(SiO4)3
MorimotoiteCa3(Ti,Fe2+,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
Palenzonaite(Ca,Na)3CaMn2+2(VO4)3
SchäferiteCa2NaMg2(VO4)3
SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
SkiagiteFe2+3Fe3+2[SiO4]3
SpessartineMn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
ToturiteCa3Sn2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2
UM1984-37-SiO:CrMnMn2+3(Cr3+,Mn3+)2Si3O12
UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3
YafsoaniteCa3Zn3(TeO6)2
Forms a series with:

Common Associates

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Chromian Diopside7 photos of Pyrope associated with Chromian Diopside on mindat.org.
Rutile6 photos of Pyrope associated with Rutile on mindat.org.
Ilmenite4 photos of Pyrope associated with Ilmenite on mindat.org.
Olivine4 photos of Pyrope associated with Olivine on mindat.org.
Diopside4 photos of Pyrope associated with Diopside on mindat.org.
Quartz3 photos of Pyrope associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Kaersutite3 photos of Pyrope associated with Kaersutite on mindat.org.
Diamond2 photos of Pyrope associated with Diamond on mindat.org.
Calcite2 photos of Pyrope associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Enstatite2 photos of Pyrope associated with Enstatite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping

9.AD.05LarniteCa2SiO4
9.AD.10Calcio-olivineCa2SiO4
9.AD.15MerwiniteCa3Mg(SiO4)2
9.AD.20BredigiteCa7Mg(SiO4)4
9.AD.25AndraditeCa3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25AlmandineFe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25Calderite(Mn2+,Ca)3(Fe3+,Al)2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25GoldmaniteCa3V3+2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25GrossularCa3Al2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25HenritermieriteCa3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
9.AD.25HibschiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
9.AD.25HydroandraditeCa3Fe3+2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
9.AD.25KatoiteCa3Al2(SiO4)3-x(OH)4x
9.AD.25KimzeyiteCa3(Zr,Ti)2((Si,Al,Fe3+)O4)3
9.AD.25KnorringiteMg3Cr2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25MajoriteMg3(Fe2+,Si,Al)2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25MorimotoiteCa3(Ti,Fe2+,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
9.AD.25SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
9.AD.25SpessartineMn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25UvaroviteCa3Cr2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25Wadalite(Ca,Mg)6(Al,Fe3+)4((Si,Al)O4)3O4Cl3
9.AD.25HoltstamiteCa3(Al,Mn3+)2(SiO4)2(OH)4
9.AD.25KerimasiteCa3Zr2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2
9.AD.25ToturiteCa3Sn2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2
9.AD.25Momoiite(Mn2+,Ca)3V3+2(SiO4)3
9.AD.25EltyubyuiteCa12Fe3+10Si4O32Cl6
9.AD.25HutcheoniteCa3Ti2(SiAl2)O12
9.AD.30Coffinite(U4+,Th)(SiO4)1-x(OH)4x
9.AD.30HafnonHfSiO4
9.AD.30ThoriteTh(SiO4)
9.AD.30ZirconZr(SiO4)
9.AD.30Stetindite-(Ce)Ce(SiO4)
9.AD.35HuttoniteThSiO4
9.AD.35Tombarthite-(Y)Y4(Si,H4)4O12-x(OH)4+2x
9.AD.40EulytineBi4(SiO4)3
9.AD.45ReiditeZrSiO4

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals Grouping

16.7.2SapphirineMg4(Mg3Al9)O4[Si3Al9O36]
16.7.3Sapphirine-1A(Mg,Al,Fe2+)8[(Al,Si,Fe3+)6O18]O2
16.7.4MagnesiochloritoidMgAl2(SiO4)O(OH)2
16.7.5KulkeiteMg8Al(AlSi7O20)(OH)10
16.7.6Palygorskite(Mg,Al)5(Si,Al)8O20(OH)2 · 8H2O
16.7.7SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
16.7.8AliettiteCa0.2Mg6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 4H2O
16.7.9Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
16.7.10Baumite(Mg,Al,Mn,Zn,Fe)3(Si,Al)2O5(OH)4

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)

51.4.3a.2AlmandineFe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
51.4.3a.3SpessartineMn2+3Al2(SiO4)3
51.4.3a.4KnorringiteMg3Cr2(SiO4)3
51.4.3a.5MajoriteMg3(Fe2+,Si,Al)2(SiO4)3
51.4.3a.6Calderite(Mn2+,Ca)3(Fe3+,Al)2(SiO4)3

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Pyrope in petrology

An essential component of (items highlighted in red)
Common component of (items highlighted in red)

References for Pyrope

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Klaproth, M.H. (1797) Untersuchung des böhmischen Granats, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, Zweiter Band, Rottmann Berlin, 16-21.
Novak, G.A., Gibbs, G.V. (1971) The crystal chemistry of the silicate garnets. American Mineralogist: 56: 791.
Kolesnik, Y.N., Nogteva, V.V., Paukov, I.Y. (1977) The specific heat of pyrope at 13 to 300 K and the thermodynamic parameters of some natural varieties of garnet. Geochemistry International 1977: 126-133.
Richet, P., Bottinga, Y. (1984) Anorthite, andesine, wollastonite, diopside, cordierite, and pyrope thermodynamics of melting, glass transitions, and properties of the amorphous phases. Earth and Planetary Science Letters: 67: 415-432.
Rossman, G.R., Rauch, F., Livi, R., Tombrello, T.A., Shi, C.R., Zhoi, Z.Y. (1988) Nuclear reaction analysis of hydrogen in almandine, pyrope and spessartine garnets. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie Monatshefte: 4: 172-178.
Hofmeister, A.M., Chopelas, A. (1991) Thermodynamic properties of pyrope and grossular from vibrational spectroscopy. American Mineralogist: 76: 880-891.
Armbruster, T., Geiger, C.A., Lager, G.A. (1992) Single-crystal X-ray structure study of synthetic pyrope almandine garnets at 100 and 293 K. American Mineralogist: 77: 512-521.
Pavese, A., Artioli, G., Moze, O. (1998) Inelastic neutron scattering from pyrope powder: experimental data and theoretical calculations. European Journal of Mineralogy: 1: 59-70.
Wang, L., Essene, E.J., Zhang, Y. (1999) Mineral inclusions in pyrope crystals from Garnet Ridge, Arizona, USA; implications for processes in the upper mantle. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 135: 164-178.
Gwanmesia, G.D., Liu, J., Chen, G., Kesson, S., Rigden, S.M., Liebermann, R.C. (2000) Elasticity of the pyrope (Mg3Al2Si3O12) - majorite (MgSiO3) garnets solid solution. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 27: 445-452.
Kolesov, B.A., Geiger, C.A. (2000) Low-temperature single-crystal Raman spectrum of pyrope. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 27: 645-649.
Wang, L., Essene, E.J., Zhang, Y. (2000) Direct observation of immiscibility in pyrope-almandine-grossular garnet. American Mineralogist: 85: 41-46.
Li, L., Long, H., Raterron, P., Weidner, D. (2006) Plastic flow of pyrope at mantle pressure and temperature. American Mineralogist: 91: 517-525.

Internet Links for Pyrope

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https://www.mindat.org/min-3321.html
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Localities for Pyrope

Mineral and/or Locality  
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