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Pyrophanite

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Formula:
Mn2+TiO3
System:
Trigonal
Colour:
Blood red, greenish ...
Lustre:
Metallic, Sub-Metallic
Hardness:
5 - 6
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1890 by Axel Hamberg from the Greek πΰρ, fire, and φαίνεσθαι, to appear, in allusion to its red color.

Classification of Pyrophanite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.CB.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
C : Metal: Oxygen = 2: 3,3: 5, and similar
B : With medium-sized cations
4.3.5.3

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
3 : A2X3
7.9.13

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
9 : Oxides of Ti

Physical Properties of Pyrophanite

Metallic, Sub-Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Blood red, greenish yellow, brownish, blackish
Comment:
Orange in transmitted light
Streak:
Ochre yellow with greenish tinge
Hardness (Mohs):
5 - 6
Hardness (Vickers):
VHN50=435 - 579 kg/mm2
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {0221} perfect; {1012} less perfect.
Fracture:
Conchoidal, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
4.537 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.596 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Pyrophanite

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 2.481 nε = 2.210
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.271
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High

Chemical Properties of Pyrophanite

Formula:
Mn2+TiO3
Elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Fe,Zn

Crystallography of Pyrophanite

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3 - Rhombohedral
Space Group:
R3
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.13948(7) Å, c = 14.2829(4) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 2.779
Unit Cell Volume:
V 326.73 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
6
Morphology:
Fine scaly; tabular.

Occurrences of Pyrophanite

Type Occurrence of Pyrophanite

Relationship of Pyrophanite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Ilmenite (see here)
Member of:
Other Members of Group:
Akimotoite(Mg,Fe2+)SiO3
Ecandrewsite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3
GeikieliteMgTiO3
Hemleyite(Fe2+0.48Mg0.37Ca0.04Na0.04Mn2+0.03Al0.03Cr3+0.01)sum=1.00Si1.00O3
IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
Unnamed (Fe-Cr Oxide)FeCrO3
4.CB.05BrizziiteNaSbO3
4.CB.05CorundumAl2O3
4.CB.05EcandrewsiteZnTiO3
4.CB.05EskolaiteCr2O3
4.CB.05GeikieliteMgTiO3
4.CB.05HematiteFe2O3
4.CB.05IlmeniteFe2+Ti4+O3
4.CB.05KarelianiteV2O3
4.CB.05MelanostibiteMn2+(Sb5+,Fe3+)O3
4.CB.05AkimotoiteMgSiO3
4.CB.05AuroantimonateAuSbO3
4.CB.05UM1998-11-O-AuHSbAu2+Sb3+O2(OH)
4.CB.05TistariteTi2O3
4.CB.10AvicenniteTl2O3
4.CB.10BixbyiteMn23+O3
4.CB.15Armalcolite(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5
4.CB.15PseudobrookiteFe23+TiO5
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N2S(Zn,Al,Fe)3(Al,Fe,Ti)8O15(OH)
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N6S(Zn,Al)7(Al,Fe3+,Ti,Mg)16O31(OH)
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-6N6S(Mg,Al,Fe)3(Al,Ti)8O15(OH)
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N3S(Mg,Fe,Zn,Ti)4(Al,Fe)10O19(OH)
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N2S(Al,Mg,Fe,Ti)22(O,OH)32
4.CB.20Ferrohögbomite-6N12S[(Fe2+,Mg,Zn)5(Al,Ti,Fe3+)12O23(OH)]6
4.CB.25PseudorutileFe23+Ti34+O9
4.CB.25KleberiteFeTi6O11(OH)5
4.CB.30BerdesinskiiteV23+TiO5
4.CB.30OxyvaniteV3O5
4.CB.35OlkhonskiteCr2Ti3O9
4.CB.35SchreyeriteV23+Ti34+O9
4.CB.40KamiokiteFe22+Mo34+O8
4.CB.40Nolanite(V3+,Fe3+,Fe2+,Ti)10O14(OH)2
4.CB.40RinmaniteMg2Fe4Zn2Sb2O14(OH)2
4.CB.40IseiteMn2Mo3O8
4.CB.40MajindeiteMg2Mo3O8
4.CB.45ClaudetiteAs2O3
4.CB.45StibioclaudetiteAsSbO3
4.CB.50ArsenoliteAs2O3
4.CB.50SenarmontiteSb2O3
4.CB.55ValentiniteSb2O3
4.CB.60BismiteBi2O3
4.CB.65SphaerobismoiteBi2O3
4.CB.70SilléniteBi12SiO20
4.CB.75KyzylkumiteTi2V3+O5(OH)
4.CB.80TietaiyangiteFe43+Fe2+TiO9
7.9.1HongquiiteTiO
7.9.2RutileTiO2
7.9.3AnataseTiO2
7.9.4BrookiteTiO2
7.9.5GeikieliteMgTiO3
7.9.6PerovskiteCaTiO3
7.9.7KassiteCaTi2O4(OH)2
7.9.8TausoniteSrTiO3
7.9.9CrichtoniteSr(Mn,Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH)38
7.9.10Lucasite-(Ce)CeTi2O5(OH)
7.9.11Hibonite(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19
7.9.12Yttrocrasite-(Y)(Y,Th,Ca,U)(Ti,Fe)2(O,OH)6
7.9.14IwakiiteMn2+Fe23+O4
7.9.15IlmeniteFe2+Ti4+O3
7.9.16PseudobrookiteFe23+TiO5
7.9.17UlvöspinelFe22+TiO4
7.9.18PseudorutileFe23+Ti34+O9
7.9.19FreudenbergiteNa(Ti34+Fe3+)O8
7.9.20KennedyiteFe2TiO5
7.9.21Armalcolite(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5
7.9.22Högbomite(Mg,Fe)2(Al,Ti)5O10
7.9.23QandiliteMg2(Ti,Fe3+,Al)O4
7.9.24CafetiteCaTi2O5 · H2O
7.9.25Loveringite(Ca,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)2(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)18O38
7.9.26Lindsleyite(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
7.9.27PrideriteK(Ti74+Fe3+)O16
7.9.28Jeppeite(K,Ba)2(Ti,Fe3+)6O13
7.9.29AnkangiteBa(Ti,V3+,Cr)8O16
7.9.30EcandrewsiteZnTiO3
7.9.31Landauite(Na,Pb)(Mn2+,Y)(Zn,Fe)2(Ti,Fe3+,Nb)18(O,OH,F)O38

Other Names for Pyrophanite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Pyrophanit
Simplified Chinese:红钛锰矿
Spanish:Pirofanita

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Pyrophanite

Reference List:
Hamberg (1890), Geol. För. Förh.: 12: 598.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 535-541.

Canadian Mineralogist (1985): 23: 491.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (1995) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume II. Silica, Silicates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 904pp., 2 volumes: 460.

Internet Links for Pyrophanite

mindat.org URL:
https://www.mindat.org/min-3322.html
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Specimens:
The following Pyrophanite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Pyrophanite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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