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Quartz

This page kindly sponsored by Dragon Minerals
Formula:
SiO2
Colour:
Colorless, Purple, Rose, Red, Black, Yellow, Brown, Green, Blue, Orange, etc.
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
7
Specific Gravity:
2.65 - 2.66
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Name:
Quartz has been known and appreciated since pre-historic times. The most ancient name known is recorded by Theophrastus in about 300-325 BCE, κρύσταλλος or kristallos. The varietal names, rock crystal and bergcrystal, preserve the ancient usage. The root words κρύοσ signifying ice cold and στέλλειυ to contract (or solidify) suggest the ancient belief that kristallos was permanently solidified ice.

The earliest printed use of "querz" was anonymously published in 1505, but attributed to a physician in Freiberg, Germany, Ulrich Rülein von Kalbe (a.k.a. Rülein von Calw, 1527). Agricola used the spelling "quarzum" (Agricola 1530) as well as "querze", but Agricola also referred to "crystallum", "silicum", "silex", and silice". Tomkeieff (1941) suggested an etymology for quartz: "The Saxon miners called large veins - Gänge, and the small cross veins or stringers - Querklüfte. The name ore (Erz, Ertz) was applied to the metallic minerals, the gangue or to the vein material as a whole. In the Erzgebirge, silver ore is frequently found in small cross veins composed of silica. It may be that this ore was called by the Saxon miners 'Querkluftertz' or the cross-vein-ore. Such a clumsy word as 'Querkluftertz' could easily be condensed to 'Querertz' and then to 'Quertz', and eventually become 'Quarz' in German, 'quarzum' in Latin and 'quartz' in English." Tomkeieff (1941, q.v.) noted that "quarz", in its various spellings, was not used by other noted contemporary authors. "Quarz" was used in later literature referring to the Saxony mining district, but seldom elsewhere.

Gradually, there were more references to quartz: E. Brown in 1685 and Johan Gottschalk Wallerius in 1747. In 1669, Nicolaus Steno (Niels Steensen) obliquely formulated the concept of the constancy of interfacial angles in the caption of an illustration of quartz crystals. He referred to them as "cristallus" and "crystallus montium".

Tomkeieff (1941) also noted that Erasmus Bartholinus (1669) used the various spellings for "crystal" to signify other species than quartz and that crystal could refer to other "angulata corpora" (bodies with angles): "In any case in the second half of the XVIIIth century quartz became established as a name of a particular mineral and the name crystal became a generic term synonymous with the old term 'corus angulatum'."
Isostructural with:
Quartz is the most common mineral found on the surface of the Earth. If pure, quartz forms colorless, transparent and very hard crystals with a glass-like luster. A significant component of many igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, this natural form of silicon dioxide is found in an impressive range of varieties and colours.

Macro- and Cryptocrystalline Quartz


Quartz occurs in two basic forms:

1. The more common macrocrystalline quartz is made of visible crystals or grains. Examples are rock crystals, the grains in sandstone, but also massive quartz that is made of large crystallites without any crystal faces, like vein quartz.

Macrocrystalline Quartz: Smoky Quartz
Macrocrystalline Quartz: Rose Quartz
Macrocrystalline Quartz: Quartz Grains in a Sandstone
Macrocrystalline Quartz: Smoky Quartz
Macrocrystalline Quartz: Rose Quartz
Macrocrystalline Quartz: Quartz Grains in a Sandstone
Macrocrystalline Quartz: Smoky Quartz
Macrocrystalline Quartz: Rose Quartz
Macrocrystalline Quartz: Quartz Grains in a Sandstone
2. Cryptocrystalline quartz or microcrystalline quartz is made of dense and compact aggregates of microscopic quartz crystals and crystallites. Examples are agate and chert. The different types of cryptocrystalline quartz are colloquially subsumed under the term chalcedony, although that term has a more strict definition in scientific literature. It is worth mentioning that most chalcedony contains small amounts of another SiO2 polymorph, moganite, so it is not always pure quartz.

Cryptocrystalline Quartz: Flint
Cryptocrystalline Quartz: Agate
Cryptocrystalline Quartz: Radiolarite Chert
Cryptocrystalline Quartz: Flint
Cryptocrystalline Quartz: Agate
Cryptocrystalline Quartz: Radiolarite Chert
Cryptocrystalline Quartz: Flint
Cryptocrystalline Quartz: Agate
Cryptocrystalline Quartz: Radiolarite Chert


Quartz Varieties


Quartz crystals or aggregates that share certain peculiar physical properties have been classified as quartz varieties with specific "trivial names".
The best known examples are the colored varieties of quartz, like amethyst or smoky quartz, but there are also trivial names for specific crystal shapes, aggregates and textures, like scepter quartz, gwindel or quartzine. Because there are no canonical rules on naming or defining quartz varieties like they are for minerals, the definitions of some quartz varieties are precise and generally accepted, while the definitions of others vary considerably between different authors, or are rather fuzzy.

Mindat Classification of Quartz Varieties
On Mindat, macrocrystalline quartz and its varieties are listed as quartz and varieties of quartz.
Cryptocrystalline quartz and its varieties are listed as chalcedony, like "Quartz (Var: Chalcedony)", or as variety of chalcedony, like "Chalcedony (Var: Agate)".
More about the specific properties of chalcedony and its varieties can be found at the respective mineral pages.
Note that, contrary to minerals, the definitions of varieties are not mutually exclusive in the sense that no mineral can be another. A single specimen can be correctly classified as several varieties.


Structure of Quartz

Fig.2: Basic structural features of quartz
Fig.1: Threefold helix made of SiO4 groups. The child image is a video.
The structure of quartz was deciphered by Bragg and Gibbs in 1925 (for a review of the structure and symmetry features of quartz, see Heaney, 1994). Its basic building block is the SiO4 group, in which four oxygen atoms surround a central silicon atom to form a tetrahedron. Since each oxygen is member of two SiO4 groups, the formula of quartz is SiO2. The SiO4 tetrahedra form a three-dimensional network and many mineralogy textbooks classify quartz as a network silicate or tectosilicate.

Quartz can be thought of as being made of threefold and sixfold helical chains of SiO4 tetrahedra that run parallel to the c axis. Figure 1 shows two representations of a threefold SiO4 helix and its relationship to the quartz unit cell: to the right a ball model with red oxygen and white silicon atoms, to the left a tetrahedral model, with the corners of the tetrahedra at the position of the oxygen atoms.

Six of such helices are connected to form a ring that surrounds a central channel which runs parallel to the c-axis, sometimes called "c-channel". The SiO4 tetrahedra around the central c-channel form two independent sixfold helices. Figure 2 shows two views of the corresponding structure: looking in the direction of the c-axis in the top row, and looking in the direction of an a-axis in the bottom row. Like quartz crystals, the ring is six-sided but has a trigonal symmetry. The large channels are an important structural feature of quartz because they may be occupied by small cations.

You can explore the crystal structure of quartz with the interactive tool JSmol further down this page.

Handedness of Quartz Crystals

Fig.3: Handedness of Quartz Crystals

A helix is either turning clockwise (right-handed) or counter-clockwise (left-handed). Due to the helical arrangement of the SiO4 tetrahedra, the atomic lattice of quartz possesses the symmetry properties of a helix: Quartz forms left- and right-handed crystals, whose crystal structure and morphology are mirror-images of each other.

In a left-handed crystal with space group P3121, the sixfold helices turn counter-clockwise (left) and the threefold helices clockwise (right).
In a right-handed crystal with space group P3221, the sixfold helices turn clockwise (right) and the threefold helices counter-clockwise (left).
For a thorough review of the symmetry features of quartz, see Heaney (1994).

The crystallographic form of quartz that is characteristic for its symmetry properties is the trigonal trapezohedron, and the position of its faces on the crystal reflect the handedness of the structure of the crystal. The figure to the right visualizes the relationship between the handedness of the six-fold helices and the position of the faces of the trigonal trapezohedron (x - orange) and trigonal bipyramid (s - blue). Unfortunately, these faces are not present on all crystals, and often it is not possible to determine the handedness of a crystal from its morphology.

Quartz is optically active: the polarization of a light ray passing through a crystal parallel to the c-axis will be rotated either to the left or the right, depending on the handedness of the crystal (Arago, 1811; Biot, 1812; Herschel, 1822).

The following table lists how symmetry, morphology and optical behaviour are related:
Space GroupHandedness of
sixfold helix
Handedness of
threefold helix
Indices for
x- and s-forms
Position of
x- and s-face
Rotation of
polarization of light
Left-handed QuartzP3121left (counter-clockwise)right (clockwise)x {6 1 5 1}
s {2 1 1 1}
leftleft (counter-clockwise)
Right-handed QuartzP3221right (clockwise)left (counter-clockwise)x {5 1 6 1}
s {1 1 2 1}
rightright (counter-clockwise)

Morphology


Quartz is found as individual crystals and as crystal aggregates. Well crystallized quartz crystals are typically six-sided prisms with steep pyramidal terminations. They can be stubby ("short prismatic") or elongated and even needle-like. In most environments quartz crystals are attached to the host rock and only have one tip, but double-terminated crystals are also found.
As a rock-forming mineral quartz commonly occurs as sub-millimeter to centimeter-sized anhedral grains, well-formed crystals are uncommon. Secondary vein-fillings of quartz are typically massive.

Quartz crystals show about 40 different crystallographic forms in nature, but most of the crystals are composed of only a few basic forms that are frequently mentioned in discussions about quartz crystal morphology (Frondel, 1962; Rykart, 1995). It is convenient and common practice to designate them with Latin and Greek letter symbols instead of Miller-Bravais indices. The following figure illustrates the relation of the basic forms (sorted by abundance) to the faces found on quartz crystals. The most common combination of crystallographic forms in quartz crystals is r+m+z.

Fig.4: Basic Crystallographic Forms of Quartz


Fig.5: x and s Face Positions on Left- and Right-handed Crystals
The handedness of quartz crystals can be determined easily from the positions of x faces, which are at the lower left or lower right corner of the r face (orange faces in Fig.5). With some difficulty the handedness can be determined from the position of the s faces (blue faces in Fig.5), which lie between the r and z faces: the s face often shows a fine striation that runs parallel to the edge of the r-face.
The bottom row shows a top view of the crystals. It does not only show their trigonal symmetry but also the chirality of the position of the x faces.


Macroscopic Structure of Quartz Crystals

In response to lattice defects, and apparently reflecting their growth conditions, quartz crystals may develop two very distinct and mutually exclusive types of internal structure:
- Macromosaic Structure, sometimes called "Friedlaender Quartz"
- Lamellar Structure, sometimes called "Bambauer Quartz"

Individual crystals may possess both structural types, but the respective parts of the crystals grew at different developmental stages (Hertweck et al., 1998). It is sometimes claimed that all quartz occurs either as macromosaic or as lamellar structural type. This is not correct.

The lamellar structure was first described by Weil (1931). The crystals contain layers that show an optical anomaly: they are biaxial. The layers are stacked parallel to the crystal faces in an onion-like manner and were found to be associated with a relatively high hydrogen and aluminium content (Bambauer et al., 1961, 1962, 1963). Lamellar quartz cannot be safely recognized without studying the optical properties of the crystal in a thin section.

Macromosaic quartz crystals have been described by Friedlaender (1951) and are composed of slightly tilted and radially arranged wedge-shaped sectors. They are recognized by the presence of sutures on the crystal faces which are often confused with twin boundaries. Crystals with such a structure are found in pegmatite and miarole pockets and in hight-temperature alpine-type fissures.

Quartz Crystal Habits

Fig.6: Common Habits of Quartz Crystals
Strictly speaking, the term "habit" is used to designate the overall shape of individual crystals, regardless of the crystallographic forms (crystal faces) involved. Confusingly, the definitions of some habits of quartz crystals do include specific forms. Many of the trivial names of these habits have been introduced and popularized by rock hounds in the Alps (for a good overview, see Rykart, 1995). The most important habits with trivial names (with synonyms in different languages in braces) are:
a) Normal habit ("Maderaner Habitus", prismatic habit): "typical" quartz crystals that are not or only slightly tapered.
b) Trigonal habit: Crystals with obvious trigonal symmetry, for example, because of missing z faces, or because of a triangular cross section, like in crystals with a Muzo habit (h).
c) Pseudohexagonal habit: Crystals with an even development of rhombohedral and prism faces.
d) Cumberland habit: Crystals with very small or absent prism faces, often bipyramidal.
e) Pseudocubic quartz (pseudocubic habit, cubic habit, cube quartz, "Würfelquarz"): Crystals with a dominant r or z form that look like slightly distorted cubes.
f) Dauphiné habit: Crystal tips with a single very dominant rhombohedral face.
g) Tessin habit ("Abito Ticino", "Tessiner Habitus", "Rauriser Habitus", "Penninischer Habitus"): Crystals that are tapered by steep rhombohedral faces { h 0 _i 1 }, Tessin habit in the strict sense is dominated by { 3 0 3 1 } faces. At the original locality, they possess a macromosaic structure.
h) Muzo habit: Crystals with prism faces that are tapered under the z faces because these are made of a succession of alternating m and z faces, and who have a trigonal cross section at the crystal tips (Gansser, 1963).
Needle quartz (acicular habit): Crystals greatly elongated along the c-axis.

Normal Habit
Dauphiné habit
Tessin habit
Pseudocubic habit
Cumberland habit
Normal Habit
Dauphiné habit
Tessin habit
Pseudocubic habit
Cumberland habit
Normal Habit
Dauphiné habit
Tessin habit
Pseudocubic habit
Cumberland habit


Quartz Growth Forms

In addition to crystallographic forms and habits, many quartz crystals are characterized by peculiar morphological features that reflect different modes of growth during their development. Some of these "growth forms" are found at many different localities and - like habits - have been given "trivial names" (e.g., "cactus quartz", "gwindel"). Some of these are listed as varieties of quartz on Mindat. Among the more common and important growth forms are:
Sceptre quartz: Crystals with syntaxial overgrowth of a second generation tip.
Faden quartz: Crystals and crystal aggregates with a white thread running through the crystals. The thread is caused by repetitive cracking of the crystal during growth and consists of fluid inclusions.
Skeleton or Window or Fenster quartz: Crystals with frame-like, elevated edges of the crystal faces.
Phantom quartz: Crystals in which outlines of the shape of earlier developmental stages of the crystal are visible because of inclusions or color zones.
Sprouting quartz ("Sprossenquarz"): Crystals on which split-growth causes subparallel daughter crystals to sprout from the crystal faces
Artichoke quartz: A form of split-growth resulting in specimens with composite artichoke-like crystal tips.
Gwindel: Crystals elongated and twisted along an a-axis.
Cactus quartz or spirit quartz: Crystals whose prism faces are covered by small, roughly radially grown second-generation crystals.


Scepter quartz
Gwindel
Faden quartz
Cactus quartz
Artichoke quartz
Scepter quartz
Gwindel
Faden quartz
Cactus quartz
Artichoke quartz
Scepter quartz
Gwindel
Faden quartz
Cactus quartz
Artichoke quartz



Quartz Twins

Twinning is very common in quartz, but is often inconspicuous and difficult to recognize. Two types of twinning can be distinguished (data in tables from Jentzsch, 1867, 1868; Gault, 1949; Frondel, 1962):

1. Twins with parallel main crystallographic axes
Twinning AxisTwinning PlaneComposition PlaneTypeHandedness of Domains
Dauphiné Law[0 0 0 1]-{1 0 1 0}Penetration TwinR+R or L+L
Brazil Law-{1 1 2 0}{1 1 2 0}Penetration / Contact TwinL+R
Combined Law[0 0 0 1]{1 1 2 0}-Penetration TwinL+R

Dauphiné and Brazil law twins are very common. Most crystals, even if morphologically untwinned, contain at least small twin domains. Both types of twins can be found in a single crystal.

Dauphiné Law
Fig.7: Dauphiné Law Twin

Also called: Swiss Law, Alpine Law
Dauphiné law twins can be thought of as a merger of two crystals of equal handedness that are rotated by 60° around the c-axis relative to each other (Weiss, 1816, ). They are penetration twins composed of twin domains with irregular boundaries (Leydolt, 1855). The size and shape of the twin domains can vary and the shares of the twin domains in a crystal do not have to be equal. The degree of intergrowth of the domains may increase during growth, starting from roughly triangular sectors at the base to complex irregular patterns at the tip of the crystal (Friedlaender, 1951). Twin domains are only rarely visible in natural crystals and normally need to get visualized by etching the surface or a polished cross section (Leydolt, 1855; Judd, 1888). Electronmicroscopical studies reveal that on a small scale the twin domains look like complex polygons with straight boundaries (Lang, 1965; McLaren and Phakey, 1969).

Dauphiné twins can sometimes be recognised by the position and arrangement of crystal faces, in particular the x-faces. Because the rhombohedral faces are composites of r and z faces, they do not show the common size difference of the faces and the crystals assume a pseudohexagonal habit.

Rarely Dauphiné twinned crystals that lack one type of rhombohedral face (either r or z) - and that would display a trigonal habit if they were untwinned - show re-entrant angles at the tip that make them look like drill heads (for example, Schäfer, 1999).

Dauphiné twins are sometimes called electrical twins, because this kind of twinning reduces or even suppresses the piezoelectricity that is typical for untwinned quartz crystals, while their optical activity remains unaffected (Thomas, 1945; Donnay and Le Page, 1975).

Brazil Law
Fig.8: Brazil Law Twin

Also called: Optical Law
Brazil law twins can be thought of as a merger of a left- and right-handed crystal: they are penetration twins composed of left- and right-handed domains. Their twin boundaries are usually straight lines, resulting in a characteristic pattern made of straight lines and triangles (Leydolt, 1855). As with Dauphiné twins, the twin domains are usually not visible in natural crystals and need to be visualized by etching (Leydolt, 1855). The corresponding surface patterns on crystal faces are polygonal patches with straight boundaries, often triangular.

Brazil law twins that show the ideal arrangement of x and s crystal faces are very rare.

Many amethysts are twinned polysynthetically according to the Brazil Law: Parts of the amethyst crystals, in particular in zones under the r rhombohedral faces are composed of alternating layers of left- and right-handed quartz (Brewster 1823; McLaren and Pitkethly, 1982; Taijing and Sunagawa, 1990). The gauge of individual layers is normally less than 1 mm. The layered structure may be visible as a fingerprint-like pattern on rhombohedral faces.

Brazil law twins are sometimes called optical twins, because this kind of twinning reduces or even suppresses the optical activity typical for quartz crystals. Confusingly, and contrary to common belief, Brazil law twinning does also reduce or suppress the piezoelectricity of quartz crystals (Thomas, 1945; Donnay and Le Page, 1975).

Combined Law
Also called: Liebisch Law, Dauphiné-Brazil Law, Leydolt Law
It is not unusual for crystals to show Dauphiné and Brazil law domains in one crystal, and sometimes crystals show x or s faces at positions that would indicate a special type of twinning. However, electron microscopic studies indicate that left- and right-handed domains do not share boundaries when they are rotated with respect to each other (Van Goethem et al., 1977). Accordingly, some authors (e.g. Rykart, 1995) do not consider the Liebisch or Combined law to be a true twin law.


2. Twins with inclined main crystallographic axes (incomplete list)
Twinning PlaneComposition PlaneTypeInclination of c-axes
Japan Law{1 1 2 2}{1 1 2 2}Contact Twin84°33'
Zinnwald Law{2 0 2 1}{2 0 2 1}Contact Twin38°13'
Breithaupt Law[1 1 2 1]{1 1 2 1}Contact Twin48°17'
Reichenstein Grieserntal Law{1 0 1 1}{1 0 1 1}Contact Twin76°26'
Fig.9: Twins with Inclined Axes.
a) Japan Law
b) Breithaupt Law
c) Reichenstein-Grieserntal Law
d) Zinnwald Law
Of the twins with inclined main axes, only the Japan law twin is common and well established, while for some of the others (including some that are not listed here) only a few and sometimes only one specimen have been reported and the existence of a twin law is questionable. The Reichenstein-Grieserntal Law is sometimes erroneously called "Esterel Law", which is the equivalent for beta-quartz.

Japan Law
Also called: Weiss Law, La Gardette Law
Japan law twins are the only common quartz twins with inclined c axes. The law was first found and described by Weiss (1816) on crystals from La Gardette, France, but the name "Japan law" became more popular after a great number of them were found in Japan. The c-axis of two crystals meet at an angle of 84°33', with two of the m prism faces of both crystals being parallel. The twinning plane {1 1 2 2} of Japan law twins corresponds to the flat negative trigonal bipyramid ξ (the Greek letter xi).
Japan law twins are contact twins (Sunagawa and Yasuda, 1983). The twin junctions often look jagged on the crystal surface, but are perfectly straight in the interior of the crystals, and form a thin plane that runs from the base of the crystal to the V-shaped indentation between the branches (Sunagawa and Yasuda, 1983). Electron microscopic studies revealed that the twin boundary also forms a perfect plane parallel to {1 1 2 2} (Lenart et al. 2012; Momma et al. 2015), but appears to be restricted to the initial growth periods of the crystal, extending only a few hundred micrometers, which has been interpreted as an indication of a formation as a nucleation twin (Lenart et al. 2012). The cause of the twin formation is still not understood.

Most Japan law twins are flattened, and often they are larger than untwinned crystals that accompany them. Depending on the handedness of the two branches of a twin, one can distinguish 8 different basic twinning subtypes that are also twinned according to the Brazil or Dauphiné law (Frondel, 1962), but the pattern of Brazil and Dauphiné twin domains can be very complex (Kozu, 1952).

Right-handed Dauphiné law twin
Left-handed Dauphiné law twin
Typical irregular intergrowth of Dauphiné law twin domains
Dauphiné law twin with re-entrant angles (rare)
Japan law twin
Right-handed Dauphiné law twin
Left-handed Dauphiné law twin
Typical irregular intergrowth of Dauphiné law twin domains
Dauphiné law twin with re-entrant angles (rare)
Japan law twin
Right-handed Dauphiné law twin
Left-handed Dauphiné law twin
Typical irregular intergrowth of Dauphiné law twin domains
Dauphiné law twin with re-entrant angles (rare)
Japan law twin

Colored Quartz Varieties


Compared to many other minerals, quartz is chemically very pure, most crystals contain more than 99.5% SiO2. Nevertheless, varieties colored by impurities occur. These can be devided into two groups:

1. Quartz colored by trace elements built into the crystal lattice.
Only a few elements can replace silicon in the quartz lattice (substitutional positions) or are small enough to occupy free spaces in the lattice (interstitial positions). In natural quartz crystals, the most common ones to replace Si are Al, Fe, Ge and Ti, whereas Li, Na, Ca, Mg and Fe often occupy interstitial positions in the "c-channels" mentioned under "Structure of Quartz". Of the substitutional trace elements, only Al, Fe and more rarely P are found to play a role in natural colored varieties. There are only a handful of quartz varieties colored by trace elements built into the lattice, sorted by abundance, with the more common ones first:
- Smoky quartz
- Amethyst
- Citrine
- Pink Quartz / Euhedral Rose Quartz
- Prasiolite

With the possible exception of some prasiolites and citrines, the color of these varieties is based on color centers whose formation requires high energy irradiation from radioactive elements in the surrounding rocks (O'Brien, 1955; Lehmann and Moore, 1966; Maschmeyer et al., 1980; Maschmeier and Lehmann, 1983). Quartz varieties based on color centers are pleochroic, and their color centers can be destroyed by heat treatment.
Note that individual quartz crystals may contain several colored varieties, like an amethyst with smoky zones.

Smoky Quartz
Amethyst
Citrine
Pink Quartz/Euhedral Rose Quartz
Prasiolite
Smoky Quartz
Amethyst
Citrine
Pink Quartz/Euhedral Rose Quartz
Prasiolite
Smoky Quartz
Amethyst
Citrine
Pink Quartz/Euhedral Rose Quartz
Prasiolite


2. Quartz colored by inclusions of separate phases, for example minerals or fluids.
Because quartz crystals grow in many geological environments, they embed many different minerals during growth and assume the colors of the included minerals. Colors may also be caused by light scattering at finely distributed but colorless inclusions.
There are also trivial names for varieties colored by inclusions that have been found at many localities, like "prase", "ferruginous quartz" or "rose quartz". However, the definitions of these varieties are often rather fuzzy, and different authors use different definitions.

Milky Quartz
Blue Quartz
Ferruginous Quartz
Rose Quartz
Prase
Milky Quartz
Blue Quartz
Ferruginous Quartz
Rose Quartz
Prase
Milky Quartz
Blue Quartz
Ferruginous Quartz
Rose Quartz
Prase




Occurrence of Quartz


Quartz is one of the crystalline forms of silica, the essential building material for all silicates, and quartz can only form where silica is present in excess of what is consumed in the formation of other silicate minerals.
Quartz may also be consumed during the formation of new silicate minerals, in particular at higher temperatures and pressures, and certain geological environments are "incompatible" with free silica and hence quartz.

Quartz as a Rock-Forming Mineral
Silica has been enriched in the continental Earth's crust to about 60% (Rudnick and Gao, 2003) by processes like magmatic differentiation and the formation of silica-rich igneous rocks (mainly driven by plate tectonics) and the accumulation of the physically and chemically stable quartz in sediments and sedimentary rocks. The oceanic crust's silica content of about 50% (White and Klein, 2014) in its igneous rocks is too low for quartz to form in them.

The largest amount of quartz is found as a rock-forming mineral in silica-rich igneous rocks, namely granite-like plutonic rocks, and in the metamorphic rocks that are derived from them. Under conditions at or near the surface, quartz is generally more stable than most other rock-forming minerals and its accumulation in sediments leads to rocks that are highly enriched in quartz, like sandstones. Quartz is also a major constituent of sedimentary rocks whose high quartz content is not immediately obvious, like slates, as well as in the metamorphic rocks derived from such quartz-bearing precursor rocks.

Quartz Veins
At higher temperatures and pressures quartz is easily dissolved by watery fluids percolating the rock. When silica-rich solutions penetrate cooler rocks, the silica will precipitate as quartz in fissures, forming thin white seams as well as large veins which may extend over many kilometers (Bons, 2001; Wangen and Munz, 2004, Pati et al, 2007). In most cases, the quartz in these veins will be massive, but they may also contain well-formed quartz crystals. Phyllites and schists often contain thin lenticular or regular veins of so-called "segregation quartz" (Vinx, 2013) that run parallel to the bedding and are the result of local transport of silica during metamorphosis (Chapman, 1950; Sawyer and Robin, 1986). Silica-rich fluids are also driven out of solidifying magma bodies. When these hot brines enter cooler rocks, the solution gets oversaturated in silica, and quartz forms.

Along with the silica, metals are also transported with the brines and precipitate in the veins as sometimes valuable ore minerals. The association of gold and quartz veins is a well-known example. Quartz is the most common "gangue mineral" in ore deposits.

Quartz Crystals
Quartz crystals typically grow in fluids at elevated temperatures between 150°C and 600°C, but they also grow at ambient conditions (Mackenzie and Gees, 1971; Ries and Menckhoff, 2008).

Quartz is best known for the beautiful crystals it forms in all sorts of cavities and fissures. The greatest variety of shapes and colors of quartz crystals comes from hydrothermal ore veins and deposits, reflecting large differences in growth conditions in these environments (chemistry, temperature, pressure). Splendid, large crystals grow from ascending hot brines in large fissures, from residual silica-rich fluids in cavities in pegmatites and from locally mobilized silica in Alpine-type fissures. An economically important source of amethyst for the lapidary industry are cavities of volcanic rocks. Small, but well-formed quartz crystals are found in septarian nodules, and in dissolution pockets in limestones.

Well-formed quartz crystals that are fully embedded in sedimentary rocks and grew during diagenesis (so-called authigenic quartz crystals) are occasionally found in limestones, marls, and evaporites (e.g. Rykart, 1984).

Euhedral quartz crystals that are embedded in igneous rocks are uncommon. Quartz is among the last minerals that form during the solidification of a magma, and because the crystals fill the residual space between the older crystals of other minerals they are usually irregular. Euhedral, stubby bipyramidal quartz crystals are occasionally found in rhyolites. These are usually paramorphs after beta-quartz with hexagonal symmetry, quartz crystals whose trigonal habit shows that they grew as alpha-quartz are very rare in volcanic rocks (e.g. Flick and Weissenbach, 1978). Only rarely are euhedral quartz crystals seen embedded in metamorphic rocks (Kenngott, 1854; Tschermak, 1874; Heddle, 1901).



Identification


In most cases quartz is easy to identify by its combination of the following properties:
- hardness (easily scratches glass, also harder than steel)
- glass-like luster
- poor to indistinct cleavage
- conchoidal fracture in crystals, in massive specimens the fracture often looks irregular to the naked eye, but still conchoidal at high magnification.

Note that in macrocrystalline quartz the fracture surfaces have a vitreous to resinous luster, whereas in cryptocrystalline quartz (chalcedony) fractured surfaces are dull.

Crystals are very common and their usually six-sided shape and six-sided pyramidal tips are well-known. Intergrown crystals without tips can often be recognized by the presence of the characteristic striation on the prism faces.

Quartz as a rock-forming mineral, in particular as irregular grains in the matrix, occasionally poses problems and may require additional means of identification. It may be confused with cordierite (pleochroic, tendency to alteration) and nepheline (lower hardness, geological environment incompatible with quartz).

In thin sections macrocrystalline quartz appears clear and homogeneous, with blue-gray to white or bright yellow interference colors and a low relief. Quartz does not show alterations at grain boundaries. Strained quartz grains from metamorphic rocks show a so-called "undulatory extinction" (Blatt and Christie, 1963).

ID Requirements on Mindat


Quartz is one of the few minerals on Mindat where "visual identification" may be accepted as a method of identification for new locality entries and photos of well-formed crystals. In other cases, at least hardness should be checked, too.
For quartz as a rock-forming mineral visual identification is often insufficient.


Handling Quartz


Quartz normally does not require special attention when handled or stored. At ambient conditions, quartz is chemically almost inert, so it does not suffer from the problems seen in many other minerals. Crystals do not disintegrate or crumble, they do not oxidize or dissolve easily in water and they don't mind being touched. The only problem for the collector is dust, which will find and cover your crystals, no matter what you do.
Quartz crystals that contain large fluid or gas inclusions may crack when heated - skeleton quartz is the most sensitive variety in this respect - but most quartz specimens can take some heat, like cleaning in warm water, without being damaged.
Quartz is hard but quite brittle, and with some effort, one can damage a crystal even with things that are much softer. The edges of the crystals are very often slightly damaged because crystals were not kept separate from each other.

Colored quartz varieties can pale in sunlight, the most sensitive variety is euhedral rose quartz/pink quartz, which should be kept in the dark. Amethyst, smoky quartz and natural citrine will also pale, but it takes very long.

Mild ultrasonic cleaning is usually not a problem as long the crystals are not internally cracked, but some varieties may be damaged, in particular amethyst (due to its polysynthetic Brazil law twinning) and skeleton quartz with liquid and gas inclusions.

Rock Currier wrote a Mindat article on cleaning quartz that is worthwhile reading: http://www.mindat.org/article.php/403/Cleaning+Quartz

When cutting, grinding and polishing specimens, keep in mind that quartz dust will cause silicosis (for a review, see Goldsmith, 1994), do not cut or grind dry and wear an appropriate dust mask.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Quartz.


Classification of Quartz

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.DA.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
A : With small cations: Silica family
Dana 7th ed.:
75.1.3.1
75.1.3.1

75 : TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
1 : Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
7.8.1

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
8 : Oxides of Si

Physical Properties of Quartz

Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Colorless, Purple, Rose, Red, Black, Yellow, Brown, Green, Blue, Orange, etc.
Streak:
White
Hardness:
Hardness Data:
Mohs hardness reference species
Comment:
Some variability by direction.
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
The rhombohedral cleavage r{1011} is most often seen, there are at least six others reported.
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Comment:
Tough when massive
Density:
2.65 - 2.66 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.66 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Quartz

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.543 - 1.545 nε = 1.552 - 1.554
Birefringence:
0.009
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.009
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
low, 0.009
Comments:
Varieties colored by trace elements built into the crystal lattice, as opposed to varieties colored by inclusions, generally show dichroism: smoky quartz, amethyst, citrine, prasiolite, "rose quartz in crystals" (a.k.a. pink quartz), are pleochroic.

Chemical Properties of Quartz

Formula:
SiO2
Common Impurities:
H,Al,Li,Fe,Ti,Na,Mg,Ge,etc

Crystallography of Quartz

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3 2 - Trapezohedral
Space Group:
P31 2 1
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.9133 Å, c = 5.4053 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 1.1
Unit Cell V:
113.00 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
3
Twinning:
Dauphiné law.
Brazil law.
Japan law.
Others for beta-quartz...
Comment:
Space group is P3121 for left-handed crystals and P3221 for right-handed crystals

Crystallographic forms of Quartz

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Quartz no.5 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Quartz no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Quartz no.9 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Quartz no.10 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Quartz no.12 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Quartz no.23 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Quartz no.35 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Quartz no.46 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Quartz no.47 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Quartz no.96 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Quartz no.121 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Toggle
Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

X-Ray Powder Diffraction

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
4.257 (22)
3.342 (100)
2.457 (8)
2.282 (8)
1.8179 (14)
1.5418 (9)
1.3718 (8)

Synonyms of Quartz

Other Language Names for Quartz

Arabic:مرو
Bosnian (Latin Script):Kvarc
Bulgarian:Кварц
Catalan:Quars
Croatian:Kvarc
Czech:Křemen
Danish:Kvarts
Dutch:Kwarts
Esperanto:Kvarco
Estonian:Kvarts
Finnish:Kvartsi
French:Quartz
Galician:Cuarzo
Hebrew:קוורץ
Hungarian:Kvarc
Indonesian:Kuarsa
Irish Gaelic:Grian Cloch
Italian:Quarzo
Japanese:石英
水晶
Korean:석영
Latvian:Kvarcs
Lithuanian:Kvarcas
Luxembourgish:Quarz
Macedonian:Кварц
Malay:Kuarza
Norwegian (Bokmål):Kvarts
Persian:کوارتز
Polish:Kwarc
Portuguese:Quartzo
Romanian:Cuarţ
Russian:Кварц
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Кварц
Simplified Chinese:石英
水晶
Slovak:Kremeň
Slovenian:Kamena strela
Spanish:Cuarzo
Swedish:Kvarts
Traditional Chinese:石英
Turkish:Kuvars
Ukrainian:Кварц
Vietnamese:Thạch anh

Varieties of Quartz

"Herkimer-style" Quartz

This is a collective name to group together the many different local names for transparent, lustrous quartz crystals, usually doubly-terminated, often associated with inclusions of petroleum and/or associated with oil or coal deposits within sedimentary r...

Agate

A distinctly banded fibrous chalcedony. Originally reported from Dirillo river (Achates river), Acate, Ragusa Province, Sicily, Italy.

The banding in agate is based on periodic changes in the translucency of the agate substance. Layers appear darker when...

Agate-Jasper

A variety of Agate consisting of Jasper veined with Chalcedony.

Agatized coral

A variety of agate/chalcedony replacing coral.

Amarillo Stone

A figured variety of chalcedony.
May be the same as Alibates flint.

Amberine

Yellow to yellow-green chalcedony variety found in Death Valley, Inyo Co., California, USA.

Amethyst

A violet to purple variety of quartz that owes its color to gamma irradiation (Berthelot, 1906) and the presence of traces of iron built into its crystal lattice (Holden, 1925). The irradiation causes the iron Fe(+3) atoms that replace Si in the lattice t...

Ametrine

Ametrine crystals are made of alternating sectors of purple and yellow to orange color. Slabs cut perpendicular to the c axis of the crystal look a bit like a pinwheel. The purple sectors are situated under the positive rhombohedral faces (r), and the yel...

Apricotine

Reddish-yellow waterworn apricot-coloured Quartz pebbles.
Originally described from Sunset Beach, Cape May, Lower Township, Cape May Co., New Jersey, USA.

Aquaprase

A bluish green chalcedony, colored by chromium and nickel, is marketed under the trade name “Aquaprase.” Origin is an unspecified locality in Africa.
The colour is due to one or more Cr- and/or Ni-bearing phases on the grain boundaries of quartz.

Arkansas Candle

A cluster of clear Quartz crystals in a candle-like formation. Also single crystals that show a greater than 7 to 1 length to width ratio.

Aventurine

A variety of quartz containing glistening fragments (usually mica, such as fuchsite, but also hematite), which can be cut and polished as a gemstone. Most commonly when the general public encounter this stone it is in the form of green stone beads that ca...

Azurchalcedony

Chalcedony coloured by Chrysocolla, from Arizona, USA

Babel-Quartz

A variety of quartz named for the fancied resemblance of the crystals to the successive tiers of the Tower of Babel. The morphology is caused by growth inhibition by other minerals (later dissolved).

Originally described from Bere Alston, Tavistock Dist...

Beekite

A name given to Chalcedony pseudomorphs after coral or shells.
Originally described from Devon, England, UK.

Binghamite

Chatoyant chalcedony included with dense and parallel fibres of Goethite and/or Hematite. Similar to Tiger's Eye.

Originally described from Cuyuna North Range, Crow Wing Co., Minnesota, USA.

Bird's Eye Agate

A variety of eye agate where the eyes are supposed to resemble the eyes of a bird.

Blue Chalcedony
Blue Lace Agate

A pale blue banded variety of Agate (Chalcedony).

Blue Quartz

An opaque to translucent, blue variety of quartz, owing its colour to inclusions, commonly of fibrous magnesioriebeckite or crocidolite. The color may be caused by the color of the included minerals or by Rayleigh scattering of light at microscopic inclus...

Botswana Agate

A variety of agate from Botswana, banded with fine, parallel lines, often coloured pink blending into white.

Brecciated Agate

A naturally cemented matrix of broken agate fragments.

Buhrstone

A cellular flinty material used for millstones.

Bull Quartz

Milky to greyish, massive.

Burnt amethyst

Heated amethyst; the heating results in a yellow-orange, yellow-brown, or dark brownish colour. Often incorrectly sold as citrine.

Cactus Quartz

Quartz crystals encrusted by a second generation of smaller crystals grown on the prism faces. The small second generation crystals point away from the prism and their orientation is not related to the crystallographic orientation of the central crystal. ...

Cape May Diamond

Waterworn transparent quartz pebbles. A locally applied name to clear, colorless quartz beach pebbles occurring along the Delaware Bay beaches of Cape May County, New Jersey, USA. Cut stones from these pebbles are sold in tourist areas of the New Jersey s...

Capped Quartz

A variety of Quartz with seperable portions caused by thin films of clay seperating different growth phases in the crystals.

Carnelian

A reddish variety of Chalcedony.

Chalcedony

Depending on the context, the term "chalcedony" has different meanings.

1. A more general term for all varieties of quartz that are made of microscopic or submicroscopic crystals, the so-called microcrystalline varieties of quartz. Examples are the differe...

Chrome-Chalcedony

A variety of chalcedony colored deep green by Cr compounds. (Compare with the more common Chrysoprase variety of chalcedony, which is colored by nickel.) Chrome chalcedony found in an ancient Roman gem collection may have come from one of the chromium dep...

Citrine

A yellow to yellow-orange or yellow-green variety of quartz.


The cause of the color is still under debate. At...

Clear Lake Diamond

Quartz crystals from the Manke Ranch, Lake County, California.

Cloud Agate

Greyish agate with patches of blurry, foggy inclusions.

Cotterite

A variety of quartz with "metallic pearly lustre" coating normal quartz crystals.
Originally described from Rock Forest, Mallow, Co. Cork, Ireland.

Crazy Lace Agate

An agate composed of multicoloured twisting and turning bands.

Cubosilicite

Pseudomorphs of Chalcedonly after Fluorite - small blue cubes

Damsonite

Trade name for a light violet to dark purple chalcedony from Arizona.

Dendritic Agate

Chalcedony containing dendritic inclusions.

Diackethyst

A local name for translucent wine and amethystine coloured chalcedony pebbles.
Originally described from Craig, Montrose, Tayside (Angus), Scotland, UK.

Dotsero Diamond

Fanciful local name for quartz crystals enclosed in a geologically recent basalt flow. Being incompatible with basaltic lava, the quartz crystals are rounded by reaction with the surrounding lava. Apparently the crystals were detrital, and got picked up b...

Dragonite

A rounded quartz pebble representing a quartz crystal that has lost its brilliancy and angular form; in gravels, once believed to be a fabulous stone obtained from the head of a flying dragon.

Eisenkiesel

A quartz that is colored red, orange or brown by hematite inclusions. Translucent to almost opaque.
The term "eisenkiesel" is sometimes also used in a wider sense, as a synonym of ferruginous quartz, for any quartz with iron oxides and hydroxide mineral...

El Doradoite

Trade name for blue quartz or chalcedony.
Originally described from El Dorado Co., California, USA.

Enhydro Agate

An agate nodule partly filled with water.

Eye Agate

Agate with concentric ring pattern, looking like an eye.

Faden Quartz

"Faden quartz" is the anglicized version of the German "Fadenquarz". "Faden" (pronounced "fah-den") means "thread" and refers to a white line that runs through the crystal.

Faden quartz forms in fissures in the host rock that widen slowly and steadily.
...

Fairburn Agate

A unique and rare variety of Fortification Agate from Fairburn, Custer Co., South Dakota, USA.


The state gem of South Dakota.

Formed in Pennsylvanian-Permian carbonate sediments and weathered out since Oligocene around the Black Hills. Agates in Nebrask...

Fensterquarz

Literally "window quartz". Skeletal quartz which has rhombohedral faces appearing like windows.

Ferruginous Quartz

A variety of quartz colored red, brown, or yellow by inclusions of hematite or limonite, and usually massive and opaque.

Fire Agate

A variety of chalcedony containing inclusions of goethite or limonite, producing an iridescent effect or "fire."

Fortification Agate

Agate with sharp-angled bands which resemble the outlines of fortifications of a castle.

Fossil Agate

Agate as a replacement material in fossils.

Gwindel

Quartz crystals that grew along and are slightly rotated around a single a-axis. This results in twisted and tabular crystals. The twist reflects the handedness of the quartz crystals. With increasing distance from the base
- right-handed gwindels twist ...

Haema-ovoid-agates

Name proposed for a reddish agate with ovoidal patches of cacholong, etc.

Hair Amethyst

A name for acicular crystals of Amethyst.

Haytorite

Although the original specimens from Haytor Mine were pseudomorphs of quartz after datolite, the name has been frequently used in Cornwall also for quartz pseudomorphs after a veriety of other minerals, including calcite dolomite and siderite (see e.g. Co...

Herbeckite

A variety of Agate or Jasper impregnated with Iron Hydrate. [Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index"]
Originally described from Hrbek Mine, Svatá Dobrotivá (St Benigna), Beroun (Beraun), Central Bohemia Region, Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen), Czech Republic.

Iris Agate

An iridescent variety of agate - when sliced into a thin section it exhibits all the colours of the spectrum when viewed in transmitted light.

Iris Quartz

Quartz crystals displaying internal spectral colours under minor rhombohedral faces. This interference phenomenon is due to reflection and refraction on extremely thin parallel brazil-law twinning lamellae. The quartz crystals themselves are generally col...

Jacinto de Compostela Quartz

In Spanish mineralogical literature, the name is traditionally used exclusively for the red "floater" variety of authigenic quartzes from continental gypsum-bearing marls of the Triassic Keuper formation. (They may also be found occasionally in younger Te...

Keystonite Chalcedony

A local trade name for Chalcedony coloured blue by Chrysocolla.

Laguna Agate

A colourful agate variety.
Originally described from Ojo Laguna, Chihuahua, Mexico.

Lake Superior Agate

Believed to be the world's oldest agates, over 1 billion years old, these are found throughout the northern US having been spread from the original Lake Superior region by glaciation. It has generally pale colouring.

Landscape Agate

A variety of chalcedony with inclusions giving the appearance of a landscape scene.

Lithium Quartz

A name in common trade use for a pink/purple translucent to opaque variety of quartz, possibly containing inclusions of a lithium-rich mineral such as lepidolite - however it could equally be a misleading/incorrect name, and should be regarded a simply a ...

Mexican Lace Agate

Lacy or wavy agate from Mexico.

Milky Quartz

A semi-transparent to opaque white-coloured variety of quartz.

Mocha Stone

A variety of Agate (Chalcedony) containing inclusions of Pyrolusite.

Originally described from Mocha, Saudi Arabia.

Moss Agate

A variety of Chalcedony frequently containing green mineral inclusions (eg Chlorite, Hornblende, etc.) or brown to black dendrites of iron or manganese oxides.

Mutzschen Diamonds

Clear variety of quartz (rock crystal) from Mutzschen, Saxony.
Occurs in voids of Permian volcanic rocks (rhyolites).

Myrickite

Local name for Chalcedony with grey ground and red spots (cinnabar).

Originally described from Myrick Spring, San Bernardino Co., California, USA.

Nipomo Agate

Chalcedony with inclusions of Marcasite.

Originally described from Nipomo, San Luis Obispo Co., California, USA.

Oil Quartz

A variety of Quartz from Tyrol, Austria, which contains yellow stains in cracks. BM 1924,110 and 111 are two specimens in the Natural History Museum, London. [Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index"]

Onyx

In correct usage, the name refers to a black and white banded variety of Agate, or sometimes a monochromatic agate with dark and light bands (brown and white for example) - but traditionally the name was reserved for black and white banded agate, and brow...

Pietersite

Chalcedony with embedded fibers of amphibole minerals with varying degrees of alteration. Blue-gray, brown and yellow colors. The fibers cause a chatoyancy similar to that seen in tiger's eye, but tiger's eye is not made of chalcedony, it is macrocrystall...

Pigeon Blood Agate

A blood-red and white variety of agate from Utah.

Plasma

A microgranular or microfibrous form of chalcedony coloured in various shades of green by disseminated silicate particles (variously attributed to celadonite, chlorite, amphibole, etc.).

Various descriptions of Plasma include
of a dullish green color wit...

Plume Agate

A variety of chalcedony with contrasting colored, plume-like structures within the material.

Compare with moss agate.

Prase

Originally, the varietal name "prase" was applied to a dull leek-green colored quartzite (a rock, not a mineral); but over the years it has been also applied to other materials, particularly a green colored jasper of similar color. For perhaps more than ...

Prase-malachite

A term for Prase enclosing Malachite.

Prasiolite

A green variety of macrocrystalline quartz. Compare with prase and plasma.

Not to be confused with prasolite!

Pseudocubic Quartz

Crystals with a (pseudo)cubic appearance that are dominated by a single rhombohedral form (usually r, { 1 0 -1 1 }). Since the angles of the rhombohedron differ only very little from that of a perfect cube (85.2° and 94.8°, respectively, instead of 90°...

Quartzine

Quartzine is a fibrous variety of chalcedony. It is also called "length-slow chalcedony" and is usually intergrown with another, more common type of fibrous chalcedony, "length-fast chalcedony", that comprises most of the different varieties of chalcedony...

Riband Agate

According to Hey's 3rd Ed. this is 'a banded agate', which doesn't tell us much!

Rock Crystal

A transparent colourless variety of quartz.

Rose Quartz

Two varieties of quartz are commonly called "rose quartz".

1. One is found in translucent masses made of intergrown anhedral crystals. It occurs in different hues of pink, sometimes blueish, sometimes more reddish; irradiation may cause the formation of s...

Rutilated Quartz

Quartz shot through with needles of Rutile.

Sagenite (of Kunz)

A redefinition by Kunz in 1892 (possibly a misunderstanding) of the original name Sagenite as defined by Saussure to refer to a variety of quartz - see also Sagenite (of Saussure) and Rutilated Quartz - a more common modern name to refer to Quartz contain...

Sard

A brown to brownish-red translucent variety of Chalcedony. Pliny the Elder stated that it was named after Sardis, in Lydia, where it was first discovered; but the name probably came with the stone from Persia (Pers. sered, yellowish-red).

Sardonyx

A variety of Agate with reddish-brown and either black or white bands.

Sceptre Quartz

Scepter quartzes are crystals in which a second generation crystal tip grew on top of another quartz crystal. In a typical scepter quartz, the younger tip is larger than the first tip, but it may also be smaller (then sometimes called a "reverse scepter")...

Schwimmstein

Earthy quartz, as nodular to mamillary masses, as coating on flint.
Specific weight

Seftonite

A translucent, moss green variety of chalcedony.

Shocked Quartz

Quartz shocked under intense pressure (but limited temperature). During the pressure shock, the crystalline structure of quartz will be deformed along planes inside the crystal. These planes, which show up as lines under a microscope, are called planar de...

Smoky Quartz

A smoky-gray, brown to black variety of quartz that owes its color to gamma irradiation and the presence of traces of aluminum built into its crystal lattice (Griffiths et al, 1954; O'Brien, 1955). The irradiation causes the aluminum Al(+3) atoms that rep...

Snakeskin Agate

Chalcedony with snakeskin-like surface pattern.

Star Quartz

Refers to the shape of an aggregate of radiating crystals; not to be confused with the optical property "asterism".

Suttroper Quarz

Name used for biterminated, milky quartz crystals originally described from Suttrop, Warstein, Sauerland, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Generally used in the plural form, 'Suttroper Quarze', or more correctly (because Suttrop is not the only locality),...

Youngite

Local name for agate or jasper coated by druzy quartz crystals.
Found near Guernsey Wyoming in limestone rocks.

Common Associates

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Calcite7,530 photos of Quartz associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Fluorite6,595 photos of Quartz associated with Fluorite on mindat.org.
Pyrite5,989 photos of Quartz associated with Pyrite on mindat.org.
Sphalerite4,444 photos of Quartz associated with Sphalerite on mindat.org.
Chalcopyrite3,131 photos of Quartz associated with Chalcopyrite on mindat.org.
Siderite2,693 photos of Quartz associated with Siderite on mindat.org.
Dolomite2,689 photos of Quartz associated with Dolomite on mindat.org.
Galena2,635 photos of Quartz associated with Galena on mindat.org.
Hematite2,051 photos of Quartz associated with Hematite on mindat.org.
Rhodochrosite1,780 photos of Quartz associated with Rhodochrosite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping

4.DA.Carbon Dioxide IceCO2
4.DA.10OpalSiO2 · nH2O
4.DA.10TridymiteSiO2
4.DA.15CristobaliteSiO2
4.DA.20MogániteSiO2
4.DA.25Melanophlogite46SiO2 · 6(N2,CO2) · 2(CH4,N2)
4.DA.30LechatelieriteSiO2
4.DA.35CoesiteSiO2
4.DA.40StishoviteSiO2
4.DA.45KeatiteSiO2
4.DA.50SeifertiteSiO2

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals Grouping

7.8.2CoesiteSiO2
7.8.3TridymiteSiO2
7.8.4StishoviteSiO2
7.8.5CristobaliteSiO2
7.8.6LechatelieriteSiO2
7.8.7Silhydrite3SiO2 · H2O
7.8.8OpalSiO2 · nH2O
7.8.9MogániteSiO2

Other Information

Electrical:
piezoelectric, pyroelectric, may be triboluminescent.
Thermal Behaviour:
Transforms to beta-quartz at 573° C and 1 bar (100 kPa) pressure.
Health Risks:
Quartz is usually quite harmless unless broken or powdered. Broken crystals and masses may have razor-sharp edges that can easily cut skin and flesh. Handle with care. Do not grind dry since long-term exposure to finely ground powder may lead to silicosis.
Industrial Uses:
Ore for silicon, glassmaking, frequency standards, optical instruments, silica source for concrete setting, filtering agents as sand. Major component of sand.

Quartz in petrology

An essential component of (items highlighted in red)
Common component of (items highlighted in red)

References for Quartz

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Rülein von Calw, U. (1527) Querz. in: Ein nützlich Bergbüchlin: von allen Metallen / als Golt / Silber / Zcyn / Kupferertz / Eisenstein / Bleyertz / und vom Quecksilber, Loersfelt (Erffurd) 25, 38.
Agricola, G. (1530) Quarzum. in: Bermannus, Sive De Re Metallica, in aedibus Frobenianis (Basileae) 88, 129.
Agricola, G. (1546) Book V. Quartz. in: De Natura Fossilium, Froben (Basileae) 249-275.
Bras-de-Fer, L. (1778) (84) Terre (Élément). in: Explication Morale du Jeu de Cartes; Anecdote Curieuse et Interessante, (Bruxelles), 99-100.
Hoffmann, C.A.S. (1789) Mineralsystem des Herrn Inspektor Werners mit dessen Erlaubnis herausgegeben von C.A.S. Hoffmann. Bergmännisches Journal: 1: 369-398.
Berzelius, J.J. (1810) Zerlegung der Kieselerde durch gewöhnliche chemische Mittel. Annalen der Physik: 36: 89-102. [Discovery of silicon, quartz being made of silicon and oxygen]
Arago, F.J.D. (1811) Mémoire sur une modification remarquable qu'éprouvent les rayons lumineux dans leur passage à travers certains corps diaphanes et sur quelques autres nouveaux phénomènes d'optique. Mémoires de la classe des sciences mathématiques et physiques de l'Institut Impérial de France Année 1811. 1re partie: 92-134. [discovery of optical activity of quartz and of interference colors in polarized light]
Biot, J.B. (1812) Mémoire sur une nouveau genre d'oscillation, que les molecules de la lumiére éprouvent en traversant certains cristeaux. Mémoires de la classe des sciences mathématiques et physiques de l'Institut Impérial de France Année 1812. 1re partie: 1-371.
Weiss, C.S. (1816) Ueber den eigenthümlichen Gang des Krystallisations-systemes beim Quarz, und über eine an ihm neu beobachtete Zwillingskrystallisation. Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft Naturforschender Freunde, Berlin: 7: 163-181. [first description of Dauphiné twin law]
Herschel, J.F.W. (1822) On the rotation impressed by plates of rock crystal on the planes of polarization of the rays of light, as connected with certain peculiarities in its crystallization. Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society: 1: 43-51.
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Gratz, A.J., Fisler, D.K., Bohor, B.F. (1996) Distinguishing shocked from tectonically deformed quartz by the use of the SEM and chemical etching. Earth and Planetary Science Letters: 142: 513-521.
Plötze, M., Wolf, D. (1996) EPR- und TL-Spektren von Quartz: Bestrahlungsabhängigkeit der [TiO4 -/Li +] 0-Zentren. Bericht derJahrestagung der Deutschen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft: 8: 217 (abstr.).
Gaines, R.V., Skinner, C.H>W., Foord, E.E., Mason, B., Rosenzweig, A., King, V.T. (1997) Dana's New Mineralogy: The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, 8th. edition: 1573.
Carpenter, M.A., Salje, E.K.H., Gaeme-Barber, A., Wruck, B., Dove, M.T., Knight, K.S. (1998) Calibration of excess thermodynamic properties and elastic constant variations associated with the α ↔ β phase transition in quartz. American Mineralogist: 83: 2-22.
Gautier, J.-M., Schott, J., Oelkers, E.H. (1998) An experimental study of quartz precipitation and dissolution rates at 200°C. Mineralogical Magazine: 62: 509-510.
Hertweck, B., Beran, A., Niedermayr, G. (1998) IR-spektroskopische Untersuchungen des OH-Gehaltes alpiner Kluftquarze aus österreichischen Vorkommen. Mitteilungen der österreichischen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft: 143: 304-306.
Schäfer, K. (1999) Vogelschnäbel und Sterne - Quarz-Zwillinge: Kristallographische Schätze aus Idar-Oberstein. Lapis Mineralien Magazin: 24(10): 19-26.
Von Goerne, G., Franz, G., Robert, J.L. (1999) Upper thermal stability of tourmaline + quartz in the system MgO–Al2O3–SiO2–B2O3–H2O and Na2O–MgO–Al2O3–SiO2–B2O3–H2O–HCl in hydrothermal solutions and siliceous melts. The Canadian Mineralogist: 37: 1025-1039.
Bachheimer, J.-P. (2000) Comparative NIR and IR examination of natural, synthetic, and irradiated synthetic quartz. European Journal of Mineralogy: 12: 975-986.
Ghent, E.D., Stout, M.Z. (2000) Mineral equilibria in quartz leucoamphibolites (quartz—garnet—plagioclase—hornblende cacl-silicates) from southeastern British Columbia, Canada. The Canadian Mineralogist: 38: 233-244
Bons, P.D. (2001) The formation of large quartz veins by rapid ascent of fluids in mobile hydrofractures. Tectonophysics: 336: 1-17.
Götze, J., Plötze, M., Fuchs, H., Habermann, D. (2001) Origin, spectral characteristics and practical applications of the cathodoluminescence (CL) of quartz - a review. Mineralogy and Petrology: 71: 225-250.
Skála R., Hörz F. (2001) Unit-cell dimensions of experimentally shock-loaded quartz revisited. Meteoritics & Planetary Science: 36: 192-193.
Monger, H.C., Kelly, E.F. (2002) Silica minerals. in Soil Mineralogy with Environmental Applications, Soil Science Society of America (Madison Wisconsin, USA) 611-636.
Schlegel, M.L., Nagy, K.L., Fenter, P., Sturchio, N.C. (2002) Structures of quartz (1010)- and (1011)-water interfaces determined by X-ray reflectivity and atomic force microscopy of natural growth surfaces. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 66(17): 3037-3054.
Hyrsl, J., Niedermayr, G. (2003) Magic World: Inclusions in Quartz / Geheimnisvolle Welt: Einschlüsse in Quarz. Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. [in English and German]
Rodgers, K.A., Hampton, W.A. (2003) Laser Raman identification of silica phases comprising microtextural components of sinters. Mineralogical Magazine: 67: 1-13.
Rudnick, R.L., Gao, S. (2003) 3.01 Composition of the continental crust. Treatise On Geochemistry, Volume 3: The Crust. Elsevier Ltd. 1st Edition, 1-64.
Wangen, M., Munz, I.A. (2004) Formation of quartz veins by local dissolution and transport of silica. Chemical Geology: 209: 179-192.
Basile-Doelsch, I., Meunier, J.D., Parron, C. (2005) Another continental pool in the terrestrial silicon cycle. Nature: 433: 399-402.
Botis, S., Nokhrin, S.M., Pan, Y., Xu, Y., Bonli, T. (2005) Natural radiation-induced damage in quartz. I. Correlations between cathodoluminescence colors and paramagnetic defects. The Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 1565-1580.
de Hoog, J.C.M., van Bergen, M.J., Jacobs, M.H.G. (2005) Vapour-phase crystallisation of silica from SiF4-bearing volcanic gases. Annals of Geophysics: 48: 775-785.
Dove, P.M., Han, N., De Yoreo, J.J. (2005) Mechanisms of classical crystal growth theory explain quartz and silicate dissolution behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science: 102: 15357-15362.
Götze, J., Plötze, M., Trautmann, T. (2005) Structure and luminescence characteristics of quartz from pegmatites. American Mineralogist: 90: 13-21.
Choudhury, N., Chaplot, S.L. (2006) Ab initio studies of phonon softening and high-pressure phase transitions of α-quartz SiO2. Physical Review B: 73: 094304-11.
Grimmer, H. (2006) Quartz aggregates revisited. Acta Crystallographica Section A: 62: 103-108.
Enami, M., Nishiyama, T., Mouri, T. (2007) Laser Raman microspectrometry of metamorphic quartz: a simple method for comparison of metamorphic pressures. American Mineralogist: 92: 1303-1315.
Pati, J.K., Patel, S.C., Pruseth, K.L., Malviya, V.P., Arima, M., Raju, S., Pati, P., Prakash, K. (2007) Geology and geochemistry of giant quartz veins from the Bundelkhand craton, central India and their implications. Journal of Earth Systems Science: 116: 497-510.
Hebert L.B., Rossman G.R. (2008) Greenish quartz found at the Thunder Bay Amethyst Mine Panorama, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. The Canadian Mineralogist: 46: 111-124.
Ries, G., Menckhoff, K. (2008) Lösung und Neuwachstum auf Quarzkörnern eiszeitlicher Sande aus dem Hamburger Raum. Geschiebekunde aktuell: 24: 13-24.
Baur, W.H. (2009) In search of the crystal structure of low quartz. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 224: 580-592.
Botis, S.M., Pan, Y. (2009) Theoretical calculations of [AlO4/M+]0 defects in quartz and crystal-chemical controls on the uptake of Al. Mineralogical Magazine: 73: 537-550.
Korsakov, A.V., Perraki, M., Zhukov, V.P., De Gussem, K., Vandenabeele, P., Tomilenko, A.A. (2009) Is quartz a potential indicator of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism? Laser Raman spectroscopy of quartz inclusions in ultrahigh-pressure garnets. European Journal of Mineralogy: 21: 1313-1323.
Lehmann, K., Berger, A., Götte, T., Ramseyer, K., Wiedebeck, M. (2009) Growth related zonations in authigenic and hydrothermal quartz characterized by SIMS, EPMA-, SEM-CL- and SEM-CC-imaging. Mineralogical Magazine: 73: 633-643.
Sunagawa, I., Iwasaki, H., Iwasaki, F. (2009) Growth and Morphology of Quartz Crystals: Natural and Synthetic. Terrapub, Tokyo, 201pp.
Thompson, R.M., Downs, R.T. (2010) Packing systematics of the silica polymorphs: The role played by O-O nonbonded interactions in the compression of quartz. American Mineralogist: 95: 104-111.
Wagner, T. Boyce, A.J., Erzinger, J. (2010) Fluid-rock interactions during formation of metamorphic quartz veins: a REE and stable isotope study from the Rhenish Massif, Germany. American Journal of Science: 310: 645-682.
Seifert, W., Rhede, D., Thomas, R., Forster, H.-J., Lucassen, F., Dulski, P., Wirth, R. (2011) Distinctive properties of rock-forming blue quartz: inferences from a multi-analytical study of submicron mineral inclusions. Mineralogical Magazine: 75: 2519-2534.
Götte, T., Ramseyer, K. (2012) Trace element characteristics, luminescence properties and real structure of quartz. in: Götze, J., Möckel, R., editors. Quartz: Deposits, mineralogy and analytics. Springer Verlag, 265-285.
Götze, J. (2012) Classification, mineralogy and industrial potential of SiO2 minerals. in: Götze, J., Möckel, R., editors. Quartz: Deposits, mineralogy and analytics. Springer Verlag, 1-27.
Götze, J. (2012) Mineralogy, geochemistry and cathodoluminescence of authigenic quartz from different sedimentary rocks. in: Götze, J., Möckel, R., editors. Quartz: Deposits, mineralogy and analytics. Springer Verlag, 287-306.
Haus, R., Prinz, S., Priess, C. (2012) Assessment of high purity quartz resources. in: Götze, J., Möckel, R., editors. Quartz: Deposits, mineralogy and analytics. Springer Verlag, 29-51.
Henn, U., Schultz-Guettler, R. (2012) Review of some current coloured quartz varieties. Journal of Gemmology: 33(1-4): 29-43.
Kempe, U., Götze, J., Dombon, E., Monecke, T., Poutivtsev, M. (2012) Quartz regeneration and its use as a repository of genetic information. in: Götze, J., Möckel, R., editors. Quartz: Deposits, mineralogy and analytics. Springer Verlag, 331-355.
Li, Z., Pan, Y. (2012) First-principles calculations of the E'1 center in quartz: structural models, 29Si hyperfine parameters and association with Al impurity. in: Götze, J., Möckel, R., editors. Quartz: Deposits, mineralogy and analytics. Springer Verlag, 161-175.
Müller, A., Wanvik, J.E., Ihlen, P.M. (2012) Petrological and chemical characterization of high-purity quartz deposits with examples from Norway. in: Götze, J., Möckel, R., editors. Quartz: Deposits, mineralogy and analytics. Springer Verlag, 71-118.
Plötze, M., Wolf, D., Krbetschek, M.R. (2012) Gamma-irradiation dependency of EPR and TL-spectral of quartz. in: Götze, J., Möckel, R., editors. Quartz: Deposits, mineralogy and analytics. Springer Verlag, 177-190.
Rusk, B. (2012) Cathodoluminescence textures and trace elements in hydrothermal quartz. in: Götze, J., Möckel, R., editors. Quartz: Deposits, mineralogy and analytics. Springer Verlag, 307-329.
Scholz, R., Chaves, M.L.S.C., Krambrock, K., Pinheiro, M.V.B., Barreto, S.B., de Menezes, M.G. (2012) Brazilian quartz deposits with special emphasis on gemstone quartz and its color treatment. in: Götze, J., Möckel, R., editors. Quartz: Deposits, mineralogy and analytics. Springer Verlag, 139-159.
Deer, W.A., Howie, R.A., Zussman, J. (2013) An introduction to the rock-forming minerals. Mineral Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 510pp.
Pabst, W., Gregorová, E. (2013) Elastic properties of silica polymorphs - a review. Ceramics - Silikáty: 57: 167-184.
White, W.M., Klein, E.M. (2014) 4.13 Composition of the oceanic crust. Treatise On Geochemistry, Volume 4: The Crust. Elsevier Ltd. 2nd Edition, 1-64.
Zhang, S., Liu, Y. (2014) Molecular-level mechanisms of quartz dissolution under neutral and alkaline conditions in the presence of electrolytes. Geochemical Journal: 48(2): 189-205.
Eder, S.D., Fladischer, K., Yeandel, S.R., Lelarge, A., Parker, S.C., Søndergård, E., Holst, B. (2015) A giant reconstruction of α-quartz (0001) interpreted as three domains of nano Dauphine twins. Nature, Scientific Reports: 5: 14545. doi: 10.1038/srep14545
Frelinger, S.N., Ledvina, M.D., Kyle, J.R., Zhao, D. (2015) Scanning electron microscopy cathodoluminescence of quartz: Principles, techniques and applications in ore geology. Ore Geology Reviews: 65: 840-852.
Momma, K., Nagase, T., Kuribayashi, T., Kudoh, Y. (2015) Growth history and textures of quartz twinned in accordance with the Japan law. European Journal of Mineralogy: 27: 71-80.
Skalwold, E.A., Bassett, W.A. (2015) Quartz: a bull’s eye on optical activity. Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, VA, 16 pages. ISBN 978-0-939950-00-3 [booklet, abstract and free download on the MSA website: http://www.minsocam.org/msa/openaccess_publications/#Skalwold_02]
Skalwold, E.A., Bassett, W.A. (2015) Double trouble: navigating birefringence. Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, VA, 20 pages. ISBN 978-0-939950-02-7 [booklet, abstract and free download on the MSA website: http://www.minsocam.org/msa/openaccess_publications/#Skalwold_01]
Vinx, R. (2015) Gesteinsbestimmung im Gelände. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, 480pp.
Calvo, M. (2016) Minerales y Minas de España. Vol VIII. Cuarzo y otros minerales de la sílice. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid. Fundación Gómez Pardo. 399pp. [in Spanish]

Internet Links for Quartz

mindat.org URL:
https://www.mindat.org/min-3337.html
Please feel free to link to this page.
Specimens:
The following Quartz specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Significant localities for Quartz

Showing 212 significant localities out of 73,926 recorded on mindat.org.

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Afghanistan
 
  • Ghazni Province (Gazni Province)
    • Muqur District
Ikram Mineralogy
Argentina
 
  • Tucumán
    • Graneros Department
      • Cerro Quico
[var: Citrine] Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry´s collection.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Clive Co.
      • Torrington
[var: Citrine] Patrick Gundersen
  • South Australia
    • Mt Lofty Ranges
      • South Mt Lofty Ranges (Adelaide Hills)
        • Ashton
Bottrill (unpub)
  • Tasmania
    • Central Coast Municipality
[var: Smoky Quartz] M Latham collection
    • Dorset municipality
[var: Smoky Quartz] Bottrill, R.S. & Baker, W.E. (2008) A Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. Bull. 73. Tasmanian Geological Survey
R Bottrill, unpub data; Bottrill, R.S. & Baker, W.E. (2008) A Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. Bull. 73. Tasmanian Geological Survey
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Hohe Tauern
      • Ankogel group
        • Ankogel area
[var: Rock Crystal] Rudolf Hasler Collection
[var: Rock Crystal] G. Niedermayr: Carinthia II 184./104.:254-255 (1994)
[var: Rock Crystal] G. Kandutsch, M. Wachtler (2000) Die Kristallsucher. Band2; Christian Weise Verlag, München.
        • Mallnitz
[var: Rock Crystal] G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
        • Seebach valley
[var: Rock Crystal] G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
      • Goldberg group
        • Große Fleiß valley
          • Hocharn
[var: Smoky Quartz] Wachtler, Kandutsch, Die Kristallsucher, Christian Weise Verlag, Bozen 2000
[var: Smoky Quartz] G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
Rudolf Hasler; Rudolf Hasler Collection
[var: Rock Crystal] Heinz Weniger, Die alpinen Kluftmineralien der österreichischen Ostalpen, Heidelberg 1974
        • Zirknitz
          • Große Zirknitz valley
[var: Amethyst] Kandutsch, Wachtler (2000), Die Kristallsucher, Band 2, Athesiadruck Bozen
      • Reißeck group
        • Pusarnitz
[var: Amethyst] Dr. H. Weninger (1976) Mineral-Fundstellen Steiermark und Kärnten
    • Koralpe
      • Steinweißwald
[var: Rock Crystal] G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
  • Styria
    • Koralpe
      • Deutschlandsberg
        • Warnblick
          • Schwemmhoisl farm
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
Belgium
 
  • Luxembourg Province
    • Bastogne
[var: Rock Crystal] Harjo Neutkens collection
  • Walloon Brabant Province
    • Rebecq
      • Bierghes
[var: Rock Crystal] Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M. & van der Meersche, E. (2002): Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Ed., 304 p.
      • Quenast
Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M. & van der Meersche, E. (2002): Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Ed., 304 p.
Bolivia
 
  • Cochabamba Department
    • Ayopaya Province
Collections of Alfredo Petrov and Dr. Jaroslav Hyrsl.
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
    • Galiléia
      • Laranjeiras
[var: Rose Quartz] Natural History Museum Vienna collection
Canada
 
  • Manitoba
Ann P. Sabina Rocks and Minerals for the collector 1991
  • Nova Scotia
    • Guysborough Co.
Robinson, G.W., et al., "What's New in Minerals", Mineralogical Record, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 428, Sept-Oct 1992.
  • Nunavut
    • Baffin Island
      • Nanisivik
[MinRec 21:533]
  • Ontario
    • Hastings Co.
      • Carlow Township
[var: Amethyst] Matthew Neuzil Collection
    • Thunder Bay District
      • McTavish Township
Ontario Gem Company
China
 
  • Jiangsu Province
    • Nanjing Prefecture
[Chalcedony var: Agate] Rob Woodside collection
Colombia
 
  • Boyacá Department
    • Vasquez-Yacopí Mining District
      • Mun. de San Pablo de Borbur
Saenz, L. D. (2005): PETROGRAFÍA Y GEOTERMOMETRÍA DE LOS YACIMIENTOS DE ESMERALDA DE PEÑA BLANCA (SAN PABLO DE BORBUR, BOYACÁ, COLOMBIA)
Ecuador
 
  • Guayas Province
    • Guayaquil Canton
      • Guayaquil
        • Pascuales
          • La Germania
[var: Prase] Alejandro Félix Gutiérrez
France
 
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Haute-Savoie
      • Chamonix
G. Signorelli
    • Loire
      • Montbrison
        • Essertines-en-Châtelneuf
[var: Smoky Quartz] F. Gonnard (1906) - Minéralogie des départements du Rhône et de la Loire, pp: 6 & 36
[var: Smoky Quartz] F. GONNARD (1906) - Minéralogie des départements du Rhône et de la Loire
    • Puy-de-Dôme
      • Jumeaux
        • La Chapelle-sur-Usson
[var: Amethyst] 207433; Jonathan Plasse collection S. Berger Collection
    • Rhône
      • Beaujeu
        • Les Ardillats
Favreau G., Legris J-R., Dardillac M. (1996), La Verrière (Rhône): Histoire et Minéralogie, Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°3, pp:3-28
  • Grand Est
    • Ardennes
      • Charleville-Mézières
Harjo
    • Bas-Rhin
      • Bruche valley (Breuch valley)
        • Schirmeck
Alain Steinmetz and Thierry Brunsperger Collection
      • Villé Valley
        • Urbeis
Aufschluss 1/85
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Alpes-de-Haute-Provence
Rostan P. (2002), Cristaux de quartz d'habitus fenestré dans les Alpes du Sud, Le Règne Minéral, n°45, pp: 5-17
    • Hautes-Alpes
      • Gap
Thierry JEAN
    • Var
      • Tanneron
Mari G., Consorti A. (2004), Les filons de fluorite de la mine de Maraval (Var), Le Règne Minéral, 60, 20-25
Ireland
 
  • Co. Cork
    • Mizen Peninsula
      • Ballydehob
        • Audley Mines
Barry Flannery (Personal Communication)
  • Co. Galway
    • Renville
O’Reilly, C., Feely, M., McArdle, P., Mc Dermot, C. Geoghegan, M. & Keary, R. (1997). Mineral localities in the Galway Bay Area. Geol. Surv. Ireland. Special Report Series. RS/97/1(Mineral Resources) ISSN0790-0279, 70p. & 1:150,000 Geological and Mineral Localities Map of the Galway Bay Area.
  • Co. Mayo
    • Achill Island
[var: Amethyst] Nicholson, A. (1847). Ireland's welcome to the stranger: or An excursion through Ireland, in 1844 & 1845, for the purpose of personally investigating the condition of the poor. By A. Nicholson. Baker and Scribner.
  • Co. Sligo
    • Aughamore
Barry Flannery collection
    • Ballysadare
Stephen Moreton
  • Co. Tipperary
    • Silvermines District
Moreton, S. (1999) Mineralogical Record, 30, 99-106. Barry Flannery (Personal Observation)
Italy
 
  • Aosta Valley
    • Courmayeur
      • Monte Bianco Massif (Mont Blanc Massif)
        • Veny Valley
  • Emilia-Romagna
    • Bologna Province
      • Reno Valley
        • Alto Reno Terme
Natural History Museum Vienna Collection
  • Lombardy
    • Bergamo Province
      • Seriana Valley
De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
  • Piedmont
    • Cuneo Province
      • Gesso Valley
        • Valdieri
          • Terme di Valdieri
[var: Amethyst] Piccoli, Maletto, Bosio, Lombardo - Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta - Gian Carlo Piccoli editore 2007
  • Sardinia
    • Sassari Province
      • Osilo
[var: Amethyst] No reference listed
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Elba Island
        • Campo nell'Elba
          • San Piero in Campo
Alessandro Genazzani collection
Barsotti, G., & Nannoni, R. (2006). Rocce, minerali e miniere delle isole dell'Arcipelago Toscano. Pacini editore, 152 pp.; F. Millosevich (1914) - I 5000 Elbani del Museo di Firenze - R. Ist. Studi Sup. Prat. Perf. Firenze; Giuliano bettini collection
          • Sant'Ilario in Campo
    • Lucca Province
      • Apuan Alps
        • Minucciano
          • Gorfigliano
Orlandi P., Dini A., Gemignani E., Pierotti L., Quilici U., Romani U., 2002. Paragenesi alpine nelle Alpi Apuane: I minerali delle vene di quarzo della Valle dell'Acqua Bianca, Gorfigliano (LU) Riv. Mineral. It., 26, 4: 216-223
        • Pietrasanta
          • Valdicastello Carducci
[var: Smoky Quartz] Baldi M., 1982. La miniera del Pollone a Valdicastello. Riv. Miner. Ital., 6: 46-58.
    • Massa-Carrara Province
      • Apuan Alps
Aloisi, P. (1909) Il quarzo dei marmi di Carrara. Atti della Società Toscana de Scienze Naturali di Pisa: 25: 87-125. Orlandi P., Franzini M. (1994) I minerali del marmo di Carrara. Amilcare Pizzi S.p.A., Milano. Orlandi, P. & Criscuolo, A. (2009) Minerali del marmo delle Alpi Apuane. Pacini editore, Pisa, 180 pp.
Mexico
 
[var: Amethyst] MinRec 31:4 and opening spread
    • Mun. de Zumpango del Rio
[var: Amethyst] Min Rec 35:6 pp29-37
Namibia
 
  • Erongo Region
    • Brandberg Area
      • Messum Igneous Complex
[var: Amethyst] Peter Seroka collection
Norway
 
  • Vestfold
    • Holmestrand
      • Kjeksrød
[var: Amethyst] Nordrum, F.S., Larsen, A.O., Bergstrøm, T. & Larsen, S. (1997): Die Zeptheramethyste von Holmestrand. Mineralien Welt. 8 (4): 45-50
Peru
 
  • Ancash Department
    • Bolognesi Province
      • Huallanca District
        • Huallanca
Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254.; Econ Geol (1985) 80:416-478
    • Pallasca Province
      • Pampas District
Mineralogical Record 28, No. 4 (1997); collections of Rock Currier, Jack Crowley, Jaroslav Hyrsl and Alfredo Petrov.; Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254.; Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254.
    • Recuay Province
      • Ticapampa District
Mi.Rec. 28, no.4 (1997)
Portugal
 
  • Viana do Castelo District
    • Ponte da Barca
      • São Lourenço de Touvedo
Leal Gomes, C., Azevedo, A., Lopes Nunes, J., & Dias, P. A. (2009). Phosphate fractionation in pegmatites of Pedra da Moura II claim–Ponte da Barca–Portugal. Estudos Geológicos, 19(2), 172.
Russia
 
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Primorskiy Kray
      • Kavalerovo Mining District
[var: Ferruginous Quartz] Amir Akhavan
  • Urals Region
    • Middle Urals
[World of Stones 2:93]; Pavel M. Kartashov data
      • Sverdlovskaya Oblast'
        • Ekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk)
          • Berezovskii (Berezovskii Zavod)
[var: Rock Crystal] [World of Stones 2/93 p.35]
Slovakia
 
  • Košice Region
    • Rožňava Co.
      • Dobšiná (Dobschau; Topschau)
[Chalcedony var: Agate] Ozdín D. & Števko M., 2010: Unikátny výskyt achátov v serpentinizovaných peridotitoch v Dobšinej. Minerál, 18, 4, 331-335.
  • Trenčín Region
    • Partizánske Co.
      • Veľký Klíž
Slavomír ŠIMKO
Slovenia
 
  • Škofja Loka
Matija Vukovski Collection
Spain
 
  • Castile and Leon
    • Salamanca
      • Villasbuenas
[var: Citrine] Arroyo, A. and Calvo, M. (1995). El cuarzo citrino de Villasbuenas (Salamanca). Revista de minerales. 1: 86-89.
  • Valencian Community
    • Valencia
      • Chella
[var: Jacinto de Compostela Quartz] Calvo, M. (2016). Minerales y Minas de España. Vol VIII.Cuarzo y otros minerales de la sílice. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid. Fundación Gómez Pardo. 399 págs.
      • Chelva
        • Domeño
[var: Eisenkiesel] Casanova Honrubia, Juan Miguel & Canseco Caballé, Manuel, 2002, Minerales de la Comunidad Valenciana : 237 p. Ed. Caja de Ahorros del Mediterráneo. Alicante
Switzerland
 
  • Grischun (Grisons; Graubünden)
    • Vorderrhein Valley
      • Tujetsch (Tavetsch)
Jahn, S. (2004) Klassische Weltfundstelle: Val Giuv. Mineralien Welt, 15 (1): 34-61
Turkey
 
  • Marmara Region
    • Istanbul Province
[Chalcedony] Agricola (1546) De Natura Fossilium, p. 466
UK
 
  • Wales
    • Caerphilly
      • Risca
[Chalcedony] No reference listed
USA
 
  • Alaska
    • Prince of Wales-Outer Ketchikan Borough
      • Ketchikan District
        • Prince of Wales Island
Min Rec 35:5 pp383-404, 419-420
  • California
    • Calaveras Co.
      • Valley Springs area
Jake Harper: Field work, 1990 - 2110.
    • San Luis Obispo Co.
      • Santa Lucia Mts (Santa Lucia Range)
        • San Simeon
Ron Layton collection
  • Colorado
[Chalcedony] Personally collected by Donald Gilbert Garcia in 2016
    • Ouray Co.
      • San Juan Mts
        • Ouray District
          • Ouray
            • "Amphitheater" glacial cirque
[var: Milky Quartz] Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
  • Connecticut
    • Hartford Co.
      • Avon
Rowan M. Lytle; Harold Moritz collection
      • Canton
        • Rattlesnake Mountain
[var: Amethyst] Kenneth Holt specimen (locality info corrected courtesy of John Betts); Mineralogical Record (1990) 21:203-213; Rocks & Minerals (1995) 70:396-409
      • East Granby
Wolfe, C. W. and Vilks, I. (1960): Pseudomorphs after Datolite, Prehnite and Apophyllite from East Granby, Connecticut. Am. Mineral. 45, 443-447.
      • New Britain
Harold Moritz collection
Januzzi, Ronald E. (1976), Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
      • Newington
Harold Moritz collection
    • Litchfield Co.
      • Morris
Januzzi, Ronald E. and David Seaman. (1976), Mineral Localities Connecticut and Southeastern New York State and Pegmatite Minerals of the World. The Mineralogical Press, Danbury, Connecticut.
    • Middlesex Co.
      • East Hampton (Chatham)
        • Airline Railroad
Rowan M. Lytle Collection
      • Haddam
        • Haddam Neck
[var: Smoky Quartz] Davis, James W. (1901): The Minerals of Haddam, Conn. Mineral Collector, v. 8, no. 4, pp. 50-54, and no. 5, pp. 65-70.; Scovil, Jeffrey A. (1992): Famous Mineral Localities: the Gillette Quarry, Haddam Neck, Connecticut. (Mineralogical Record, 23(1):19-28.); Schooner, Richard. (1958) THE MINERALOGY OF THE PORTLAND-EAST HAMPTON-MIDDLETOWN-HADDAM AREA IN CONNECTICUT (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough).
Seaman, David (1976): "Pegmatite Minerals of the World" in: Januzzi, Ronald E. and David Seaman.(1976): Mineral Localities of Connecticut and Southeastern New York State and Pegmatite Minerals of the World. (The Mineralogical Press: Danbury, Connecticut).; Harold Moritz field observations.
Williams (circa 1945 and 1899); Harold Moritz collection
      • Portland
        • Collins Hill
          • Strickland pegmatite (Strickland-Cramer Quarry; Strickland-Cramer Mine; Strickland-Cramer Feldspar-Mica Quarries)
Schooner, Richard. (1955): 90 Minerals from 1 Connecticut Hill. Rocks & Minerals: 30(7-8): 351-8.; Cameron, Eugene N., Larrabee, David M., McNair, Andrew H., Page, James T., Stewart, Glenn W., and Shainin, Vincent E. (1954): Pegmatite Investigations 1942-45 New England; USGS Professional Paper 255: 333-338.; Schooner, Richard. (1958): The Mineralogy of the Portland-East Hampton-Middletown-Haddam Area in Connecticut (With a few notes on Glastonbury and Marlborough). Published by Richard Schooner; Ralph Lieser of Pappy’s Beryl Shop, East Hampton; and Howard Pate of Fluorescent House, Branford, Connecticut.
    • New Haven Co.
      • Beacon Falls
Specimens collected by Jeremy Zolan in Feb., 2006; Harold Moritz collection
[var: Smoky Quartz] Harold Moritz collection
      • East Haven
Powell, Richard C. and Wolfgang Vogt. (1987), Cinque Quarry, A Suburban Site in Connecticut Makes Collecting a Cinch. Rock and Gem: (6): 36-39.
[var: Smoky Quartz] Vener, Herm. (1987): Report on the Road Cut [Mclay Avenue] off Grannis St [Laurel Street] Just Past the Cinque Quarry. Triassic Valley Bulletin.
[var: Amethyst] Brace, John P. (1823), Miscellaneous Localities of Minerals. American Journal of Science: s.1, 6: 250-1.
Bill Barrett collection
Bill Barrett Coll.; Garabedian, James A. (1998), Secondary Mineralization of Half-Moon Vesicles in the Mesozoic Basalt of the O&G#2 Quarry, Woodbury, Connecticut. University of Connecticut Master of Science Thesis.
    • New London Co.
      • North Stonington
Weber, Marcelle H. and Earle C. Sullivan. (1995): Connecticut Mineral Locality Index. Rocks & Minerals (Connecticut Issue): 70(6): 407.
      • Salem
[var: Amethyst] Mickey Marks Collection; Henderson and Haritos (1989)
    • Tolland Co.
      • Stafford
Zodac, Peter (1948), Diamond Ledge, West Stafford, Conn. Rocks & Minerals: 23: 611.
      • Willington
        • West Willington
Ague, J. J. (1995): Deep Crustal Growth of Quartz, Kyanite and Garnet into Large-Aperature, fluid-filled fractures, northeastern Connecticut, USA. Journal of Metamorphic Geology: 13: 299-314.; Horowitz, Irving L. (2003): The Remarkable Quartz Crystals of West Willington, Tolland County, Connecticut. Rocks & Minerals: 78(4): 257-261.
[var: Amethyst] Harold Moritz collection
      • Plainfield
        • Moosup
[var: Amethyst] Harold Moritz collection
[var: Amethyst] Clark, Bill. (2001). Connecticut Quartz: Interesting Specimens from a former Collecting Site. Rock & Gem: 31(8).
      • Windham
        • Willimantic
[var: Smoky Quartz] Wells, H. L. (1887), Bismutosphaerite from Willimantic and Portland. American Journal of Science: s. 3, 34: 271-4.
  • Georgia
    • Wilkes Co.
      • Jacksons Crossroads
[var: Amethyst] Min Rec 36:3 pp 288-289 [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
  • Idaho
    • Boise Co.
[var: Smoky Quartz] Ted Johnson Collection
  • Kentucky
T. Kennedy collection
  • Maine
    • Oxford Co.
      • Albany
[var: Rose Quartz] Barry Heath and Frank Perham; King, V. (ed.), 2009, Maine feldspar, Families, and Feuds.
[var: Rose Quartz] King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, King, V. Maine Feldspar, Families, and Feuds.; Cameron, Eugene N.; and others (1954) Pegmatite investigations, 1942-45, in New England. USGS Professional Paper 255.
      • Greenwood
Rocks & Min.: 62: 443; King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine.; Mineral News (1993) 9:2 p. 8
      • Hebron
[var: Rose Quartz] Stan Perham personal communication, 1963.
      • Newry
[var: Rose Quartz] King, V. T., 2006, Minerals of Halls Ridge and Plumbago-Puzzle Mountain, Newry, ... Maine, Mineral News, v. 22(6): p. 1-3.
[var: Rose Quartz] King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, v. 1.; Mineralogical Record 22:382
      • Paris
King, V. T. and Foord, E. E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, Descriptive Mineralogy, volume 1, Maine Geological Survey, Augusta, Maine, USA, pp. 418 + 88 plates. "Maine Mineral Localites, 3rd Ed." by Thompson, W.B., et.al. , 1998 Mineralogical Record 22:382
      • Rumford
[var: Rose Quartz] King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, v. 1.
    • Sagadahoc Co.
      • Topsham
Edith Trebilcock
  • Massachusetts
    • Bristol Co.
      • Acushnet
No reference listed
    • Essex Co.
William Prescott (1852) Journal of the Essex County Natural History Society: containing various Communications to the Society pp 78-91
    • Norfolk Co.
      • Bellingham
[var: Amethyst] Harvard Museum of Natural History, no.119196; Mineralogical Record (1990) 21:203-213
Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
      • Wrentham
[var: Amethyst] Michael W. Kieron collection; Mineralogical Record (1990) 21:203-213
    • Worcester Co.
      • Southborough
[var: Amethyst] [www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
  • Michigan
    • Houghton Co.
      • Calumet Township
        • Calumet
          • Calumet & Hecla Mine
[Chalcedony var: Agate] Rosemeyer, T. 2011 New from the Keweenaw: Part 4 - Recent Mineral Finds in Michigan's Copper Country. Rocks & Minerals 86:205-227
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
      • Houghton
yalmer primeau
    • Marquette Co.
      • Negaunee
        • Goose Lake
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
  • Montana
    • Custer Co.
[Chalcedony var: Moss Agate] The River Runs North - the Story of Montana Moss Agate by Tom Harmon (author)
    • Jefferson Co.
      • Boulder Batholith
        • Toll Mountain
[var: Amethyst] Rocks & Minerals 47:3 pp160-164; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
  • New Mexico
    • Lincoln Co.
      • Sacramento Mts
        • White Mountain Wilderness
Min Rec 22:5 pp359-366 The Smoky Bear Quartz Claims Lincoln County New Mexico
  • New York
    • Ulster Co.
      • Wawarsing
        • Ellenville
Dana 7:I:592.; Econ Geol (1990) 85:182-196
        • Spring Glen
Econ Geol (1990) 85:182-196
  • North Carolina
    • Lincoln Co.
      • Iron Station
[var: Amethyst] www.grandfather.com/museum/amethyst.htm Genth,F.A.,1891,The Minerals Of North Carolina;USGS Bulletion No.74
  • Pennsylvania
    • Philadelphia Co.
      • Hestonville
Samuel S. Gordon (1922) Mineralogy of Pennsylvania.; pg. 234
  • Rhode Island
    • Bristol Co.
      • Bristol
[var: Amethyst] Miller, C. E. (1971) Rhode Island Minerals and Their Locations, O. D. Hermes, Ed., University of Rhode Island, Kingston
    • Providence Co.
      • Burrillville
        • Harrisville
[var: Amethyst] Mineralogical Record (1990) 21:203-213
      • Cumberland
[www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]; Rocks & Minerals (1986) 61:264-275
      • Lincoln
        • Lime Rock
Miller, C. E. (1971) Rhode Island Minerals and Their Locations, O. D. Hermes, Ed., University of Rhode Island, Kingston; Rocks & Min.: 17:51; 20:463-464.; Rocks & Minerals (1986) 61:264-275; Rocks & Minerals (1986): 61: 286-289
    • Washington Co.
      • South Kingstown
Miller, C. E. (1971) Rhode Island Minerals and Their Locations, University of Rhode Island, Kingston
  • South Dakota
    • Custer Co.
      • Custer District
        • Custer
[var: Rose Quartz] Rocks & Min.: 10:145; 16:360-363; 57:54.
[var: Rose Quartz] R&M 75:3 pp 156-169
  • Vermont
    • Bennington Co.
Matthew Lambert
  • Washington
    • Chelan Co.
      • Wenatchee District
        • Wenatchee
          • Squillchuck Creek
Huntting, M. (1956): Inventory of Washington Minerals, Part II, Metallic Minerals, Vol. 1, p. 113; Lasmanis, R. Et Al (1990): Metal Mines of Washington-Preliminary Report, p.14; Linda D. Gill, 2008; Collected at 1800 level
    • King Co.
      • Denny Mountain
[var: Amethyst] UBC specimen
      • Goldmyer Hot Springs
Cannon, B. (1975): Minerals of Washington, p.71
[var: Amethyst] Bob Jackson, mine owner; Rocks & Minerals (1991) 66:466-476
      • North Bend
Min Record:20(5):390; Minerals of Washington, B. Cannon, 1975; Rocks and Minerals 66:6, p.469
Minerals of Washington, Bart Cannon, 1975; Rocks and Minerals 66:6, p.469
Vietnam
 
  • Ba Ria-Vung Tau Province
"Mario Lazzerini Denchi' Collection"
Mineral and/or Locality  
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