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Hydrokenoralstonite

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Formula:
Na0.5(Al,Mg)2(F,OH)6•H2O
Colour:
Colourless, white
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
2.56 - 2.62
Crystal System:
Isometric
Name:
Named after Rev. J. Grier Ralston (December 28, 1815 - November 10, 1880), of Norristown, Pennsylvania, USA, who first observed the mineral.
Renamed from ralstonite after being moved into the Pyrochlore Supergroup (IMA July 2016; Atencio et al., 2017).
The earlier reported "AHF" phase (hydrated aluminum hydroxy-fluoride) and the "ralstonite-like mineral" (Desborough & Rostad, 1980; Keith, 1991; Rosenberg 2006) are also hydrokenoralstonite.

Compare UM1990-21-F:AlCaHMgNa and UM1941-01-F:AlCaHMgNa.


Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of HydrokenoralstoniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
3.CF.05

3 : HALIDES
C : Complex halides
F : Tekto-aluminofluorides
11.6.12.1

11 : HALIDE COMPLEXES
6 : Aluminofluorides - Isolated Octahedra
8.6.9

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
6 : Halides of Al

Physical Properties of HydrokenoralstoniteHide

Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Colourless, white
Streak:
White
Hardness:
4½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Imperfect/Fair
On {111}.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
2.56 - 2.62 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Optical Data of HydrokenoralstoniteHide

Type:
Isotropic
RI values:
n = 1.399 - 1.427
Birefringence:
Frequently exhibits weak anomalous birefringence, with the crystals divided into eight uniaxial (or biaxial) sectors, or otherwise.
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.000 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:
Moderate

Chemical Properties of HydrokenoralstoniteHide

Formula:
Na0.5(Al,Mg)2(F,OH)6•H2O
IMA Formula:
2Al2F6(H2O)

Crystallography of HydrokenoralstoniteHide

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:
Fd3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.91(4) Å
Unit Cell V:
973.24 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
8
Morphology:
Crystals octahedral, often with small {001}; less often cubo-octahedral, or cubic with small {111}.
Comment:
SG Fd-3m. Atencio et al. (2017) give a = 9.8455(7) Å.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
5.74 (100)
1.765 (86)
2.88 (75)
3.01 (53)
1.508 (40)
1.923 (38)
2.29 (32)

Type Occurrence of HydrokenoralstoniteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
octahedral crystals to 1.5mm
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA, 1.4437.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of HydrokenoralstoniteHide

Other Language Names for HydrokenoralstoniteHide

German:Ralstonit
Simplified Chinese:氟钠镁铝石
Spanish:Ralstonita
Traditional Chinese:氟鈉鎂鋁石

Relationship of Hydrokenoralstonite to other SpeciesHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Thomsenolite45 photos of Hydrokenoralstonite associated with Thomsenolite on mindat.org.
Siderite15 photos of Hydrokenoralstonite associated with Siderite on mindat.org.
Quartz15 photos of Hydrokenoralstonite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Limonite11 photos of Hydrokenoralstonite associated with Limonite on mindat.org.
Pachnolite9 photos of Hydrokenoralstonite associated with Pachnolite on mindat.org.
Prosopite9 photos of Hydrokenoralstonite associated with Prosopite on mindat.org.
Wulfenite6 photos of Hydrokenoralstonite associated with Wulfenite on mindat.org.
Cryolite3 photos of Hydrokenoralstonite associated with Cryolite on mindat.org.
Chiolite3 photos of Hydrokenoralstonite associated with Chiolite on mindat.org.
Cassiterite3 photos of Hydrokenoralstonite associated with Cassiterite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

3.CF.10UM1941-01-F:AlCaHMgNaNaCaMgAl3F14 · 4H2O
3.CF.15BøgvaditeNa2SrBa2Al4F20Mon. 2/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

8.6.1ZharchikhiteAlF(OH)2Mon.
8.6.2ChloraluminiteAlCl3 · 6H2OTrig.
8.6.3CadwaladeriteAlCl(OH)2 · 4H2OAmor.
8.6.4CryolithioniteNa3Li3[AlF6]2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
8.6.5CryoliteNa2NaAlF6Mon. 2/m
8.6.6ChioliteNa5Al3F14Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/mnc
8.6.7ElpasoliteK2NaAlF6Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
8.6.8WeberiteNa2Mg[AlF6]FOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Immm
8.6.10KoeneniteNa4Mg9Al4Cl12(OH)22Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
8.6.11 Chlor-manasseiteMgxAl(OH)2x+2Cl · (x-0.8)H2O
x about 1.75
8.6.12GearksutiteCa[Al(F,OH)5(H2O)]Tric. 1 : P1
8.6.13ProsopiteCaAl2(F,OH)8Mon. 2/m : B2/b
8.6.14YaroslaviteCa3Al2F10(OH)2 · H2OOrth.
8.6.15CarlhintzeiteCa2[AlF6]F · H2OTric.
8.6.16ColquiriiteCaLi[AlF6]Trig.
8.6.17ThomsenoliteNaCa[AlF6] · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
8.6.18PachnoliteNaCa[AlF6] · H2OMon. 2/m
8.6.19Zirklerite(Fe,Mg,Ca)9Al4Cl18(OH)12 · 14H2O (?)Trig.

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Decomposed by HF with evolution of HF.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for HydrokenoralstoniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Brush (1871) American Journal of Science: 2: 30.
Bertrand (1881) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 4: 34.
Brandl (1882) Ann. Chem.: 213: 1.
Penfield and Harper (1886) American Journal of Science: 32: 380.
Brauns (1891) Die opt. Anom. der Kryst., Leipzig: 242.
Jimbo (1899) Journal of Science College Imperial University Tokyo: 11: 234
Bøggild (1912) Meddelelser om Grønland: 50: 121.
Moyd in: Gordon (1939) Academy of Sciences Philadelphia, Not. Nat., no. 11.
Pabst, A. (1939) Formula and structure of ralstonite. American Mineralogist: 24: 566-576.
Ferguson (1949) American Mineralogist: 34: 383.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 126-127.
Pauly, H. (1965) Ralstonite from Ivitut, South Greenland. American Mineralogist: 50: 1851-1864.
Di Girolamo, P. and Franco, E. (1968) Ralstonite nelle fratture fumarolizzate del tufo campano di S. Prosco (Caseria). Atti. ccad. Sci. Fis. Mat. Napoli: 7: 1-18.
Hitchon, B., Holloway, L.R., and Bayliss, P. (1976) Formation of ralstonite during low-temperature acid digestion of shales. Canadian Mineralogist: 14: 391-392.
Heinrich, E.W. (1977) Aluminofluoride minerals of the Goldie carbonatite, Fremont County, Colorado. Mountain Geol.: 14: 33-46.
Effenberger, H. and Kluger, F. (1984) Ralstonit: ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis von Zusammensetzung und Kristallstructur. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1984): 97-108.
Rosenberg, P.E. (1990) Stability relations of ralstonite in the system aluminum fluoride-aluminum oxide-water. Geological Society of America, Abstract Programs: 22: 340.
Mineralogical Magazine (1990): 54: 599.
Rosenberg, P.E. (2006): Stability relations of aluminum hydroxy-fluoride hydrate, a ralstonite-like mineral, in the system AlF3-Al2O3-H2O-HF. Can. Mineral. 44, 125-134.
Rosenberg, P.E. (2008): Stability relations of aluminum hydroxy-fluoride hydrate, a ralstonite-like mineral, in the system AlF3-Al2O3-H2O-HF: Erratum. Can. Mineral. 46, 541-542.

Internet Links for HydrokenoralstoniteHide

Localities for HydrokenoralstoniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Antarctica
 
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Victoria Land
      • Ross Island
Rosenberg, P.E. (1988) Aluminum fluoride hydrates, volcanogenic salts from Mount Erebus, Antarctica. American Mineralogist: 73: 855-860.
  • Western Antarctica
    • Antarctic Peninsula
      • South Shetland Islands
Viramonte, J.G., Sureda, R.J., Bossi, G.E., Fourcade, N.H., Omarini, R.H., Geochemical and mineralogical study of the high temperature fumaroles from Decepcion Island, South Shetland, Antarctica. Inst. Assoc. of Volc. and chemistry of the erath interior. Symposium Andean and Antarctic Volcanology Problems. Chile (1974).
Australia
 
  • South Australia
    • Mt Lofty Ranges
      • North Mt Lofty Ranges
        • Kapunda
Peter Elliott
  • Tasmania
    • Waratah-Wynyard municipality
      • Heazlewood district
        • Luina
Am Min 85:231-235; Birch, W. D., & Pring, A. (1990). A calcian ralstonite-like mineral from the Cleveland Mine, Tasmania, Australia. Mineralogical Magazine, 54(377), 599-602.
      • Waratah district
        • Waratah
Bottrill
Bolivia
 
  • La Paz Department
    • Inquisivi Province
      • Colquiri
Walenta, K., Lehmann, B., & Zwiener, M. (1980). Colquiriit, ein neues Fluoridmineral aus der Zinnlagerstätte von Colquiri in Bolivien. Tschermaks mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, 27(4), 275-281.
Brazil
 
  • Amazonas
    • Presidente Figueiredo
Minuzzii, O.R.R., Ferroni, J.M.T.M., Bastos Netoi, A.C. & Pereira, V. P. (2003) : Primeira Notícia da Descoberta de Waimirita e Atroarita, Dois Novos Minerais na Mina de Pitinga, AM, Brasil. Pesquisas em Geociências, 30 (1): 99-101
  • Paraíba
    • Borborema mineral province
      • Pedra Lavrada
R. Wegner, H. Pöllmann, T. Witzke, & W. Schuckmann (1998): Colquiriite, carlhintzeite, ralstonite and pachnolite from Serra Branca-Pegmatite/Brazil.- Proceedings 17th General Meeting, IMA, August 1998, Toronto, A151
Cape Verde
 
  • Sotavento Islands
    • Fogo Island
Universidade de Evora
Finland
 
  • Southern Finland Region
    • Kotka
Ilkka Mikkola collection
Lahti Seppo I. 2011. Kotkan topaasilouhoksesta ja sen mineraaleista. Kivi-lehti 4.
Germany
 
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Aachen
      • Alsdorf
Witzke, T., de Wit, F., Kolitsch, U. and Blaß, G. (2015): Mineralogy of the Burning Anna I Coal Mine Dump, Alsdorf, Germany. Chapter 7, pp. 203-240, in: Stracher, G. B., Prakash, A. and Sokol, E. V.: Coal and Peat Fires: A Global Perspective, Volume 3: Case Studies - Coal Fires, Elsevier, 786 pp.
Greece
 
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
      • Lavrion District Mines
        • Agios Konstantinos [St Constantine] (Kamariza)
          • Kamariza Mines (Kamareza Mines)
            • Hilarion area
J. Gröbner und U. Kolitsch (2002): Neufunde von Laurion aus den Jahren 2001 und 2002. Aufschluss 53 (5-6), 363-371.
Greenland (TL)
 
  • Sermersooq
    • Arsuk Fjord
      • Ivittuut (Ivigtut)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 127; Pauly, 1965 - "Ralstonite from Ivigtut, South Greenland", American Mineralogist: 50: 1851-1864.; Petersen, O.V. and Secher, K. (1993): The minerals of Greenland. Mineralogical Record 24 (2): 1-65 (p.36)
Iceland
 
  • Southern Region
Garavelli, A., Balić-Žunić, T., Mitolo, D., Acquafredda, P., Leonardsen, E., Jakobson, S.P. (2010): Heklaite, KNaSiF6, a new fumarolic mineral from Hekla volcano, Iceland. Mineralogical Magazine, 74, 147-157.
    • Vestmannaeyjar archipelago (Westman islands)
      • Heimaey island
        • Heimaey
Mitolo, D., Garavelli, A., Pedersen, L., Balić-Žunić, T., Jakobsson, S.P., Vurro, F. (2008): Mineralogy of actually forming sublimates at Eldfell Volcano, Heimaey (Vestmannaeyjar archipelago), Iceland. Plinius, 34, 322.; Balić-Žunić, T., Garavelli, A., Acquafredda, P., Leonardsen, E., & Jakobsson, S. P. (2009). Eldfellite, NaFe (SO4) 2, a new fumarolic mineral from Eldfell volcano, Iceland. Mineralogical Magazine, 73(1), 51-57.
      • Surtsey Island
Jacobsson et al (1992) Encrustations from Lava Caves in Surtsey, Iceland. A Preliminary Report: Surtsey Research Progress Report X: 73-78 Reykjevik, Iceland.
Italy
 
  • Campania
    • Naples Province
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
Russo, M., Punzo, I. (2004): I minerali del Somma-Vesuvio, AMI
    • Phlegrean Volcanic Complex
      • Caserta Province
Di Girolamo, P. (1968): Ralstonite nelle fratture fumarolizzate del tufo campano di San Prisco (Caserta), Rend. Acc. Sc. Fis. Mat., serie 4, Vol. 35, pp.70, Napoli
  • Piedmont
    • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
      • Ossola Valley
        • Antigorio Valley
          • Devero Valley
            • Baceno
              • Devero Alp
Guastoni A., Gentile P., Zorzi F., Soldani V. (2013): Ralstonite del Monte Cervandone, Valle Devero, Verbano-Cusio-Ossola. Riv. Mineral. Ital., XXXVII, 2, 146-148.
  • Tuscany
    • Siena Province
      • Chiusdino
Brizzi G., Ciselli I, Santucci A. (1988) - Cetineite ed altre novità dalle Cetine di Cotorniano - Riv. Miner. Ital., Milano, fasc. 3, pp.73-82; Menchetti, S., Batoni, M., Batacchi, C., Borselli, G., Brogi, A., Ceccantini, L., Fassina, B., Marchesini, M., Rossellini, A. & Ruggieri, G. (2015): Le Cetine di Cotorniano. Miniera e minerali. Associazione Micro-Mineralogica Italiana, Cremona, 354 p.
Japan
 
  • Hokkaido
    • Iburi Province
Africano & Bernard (2000), Jour. Volcanology & Geothermal Research: 97: 475-495.
Africano, F., & Bernard, A. (2000). Acid alteration in the fumarolic environment of Usu volcano, Hokkaido, Japan. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 97(1), 475-495.
  • Honshu Island
    • Kinki Region
      • Shiga Prefecture
        • Otsu City
Jimbo (1899) Journal of Science College Imperial University Tokyo: 11: 234; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 127.
Nigeria
 
  • Kaduna State
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
Norway
 
  • Oppland
    • Lunner
      • Nordmarka
Raade, G. & Haug, J. (1980): Rare Fluorides from a soda granite in the Oslo Region, Norway. Mineralogical Record, 11, 83-91
Poland
 
  • Upper Silesia (Śląskie)
    • Upper Silesian Coal Basin
      • Rybnik Coal Area
        • Radlin
Łukasz Kruszewski (2012) Unique chloride assemblage of exhalative origin from burning coal-mining dump in Radlin (Rybnik Coal Area, S Poland). Mineralogical Society of Poland Special Papers 40
Réunion Island
 
Vlastélic, I., Staudacher, T., Deniel, C., Devidal, J. L., Devouard, B., Finizola, A., & Telouk, P. (2013). Lead isotopes behavior in the fumarolic environment of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Reunion Island). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 100, 297-314.
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Buriatia (Buryatia)
        • Mama River Basin
          • Maigunda River
Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
    • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
      • Chitinskaya Oblast'
P.M. Karashov data
Ripp, G. S., Bulnaev, K. B. & Zyablishchev, A. Yu. (1996): Alumofluorides of Zharchikhinskoe molybdenum deposit (western Transbaikalia). Zap. Vseross. Mineral. O-va. 125, 72-79. (in Russian) ; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    • Tuva Republic
P.M. Kartashov data
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Kamchatka Oblast'
      • Tolbachik volcano
        • Great Fissure eruption (Main Fracture)
          • Northern Breakthrough (North Breach)
Vergasova, L. P., Filatov, S. K., & Dunin-Barkovskaya, V. V. (2007). Posteruptive activity on the First Cone of the Great Tolbachik Fissure Eruption and recent volcanogenic generation of bauxites. Journal of Volcanology and Seismology, 1(2), 119-139.
Pekov, I. V., Zubkova, N. V., Britvin, S. N., Yapaskurt, V. O., Chukanov, N. V., Lykova, I. S., ... & Pushcharovsky, D. Y. (2015). New zinc and potassium chlorides from fumaroles of the Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka, Russia: mineral data and crystal chemistry. III. Cryobostryxite, KZnCl3· 2H2O. European Journal of Mineralogy, 27(6), 805-812
L. P. Vergasova, S. V. Krivovichev, S. K. Filatov, S. N. Britvin, P. C. Burns & V. V. Ananyev (2006): Parageorgbokiite, beta-Cu5O2(SeO3)2Cl2 – a new mineral from volcanic exhalation (Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia). Proceedings of the Russian Mineralogical Society 135(4), 24–28.
    • Primorskiy Kray
      • Voznesenskii ore District
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
  • Northern Caucasus Region
    • Kabardino-Balkarian Republic
      • Elbrus Mt
Gurbanov, A.G., Bogatikov, O.A., Dokuchaev, A.Y., Gazeev, V.M., Abramov, S.S., Groznova, E.O., and Shevchenko, A.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(3), 199-217.
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
        • Ilmen Mts
          • Ilmen Natural Reserve
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
Saint Helena
 
Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980
Switzerland
 
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Binn Valley
      • Kriegalp Valley (Chriegalp Valley)
Kolitsch, U. (1998): Neue Mineralfunde vom Wannigletscher im Binntal, Schweiz. Mineralien-Welt 9 (3), 45-53. (in German)
Ukraine
 
  • Zhytomyr Oblast' (Zhitomir Oblast')
Yurk Yu.Yu., Gurov E.P., Gurova E.P. (1973) Pecularities of fluorin mineralogy of Ukrainian crystalline shield, - Naukova Dumka, Kiev, pp.184 (in Russian).; Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
USA
 
  • Alaska
    • Dillingham Borough
Keith, T.E.C. (1991) Fossil and activefumaroles in the 1912 eruptive deposits, Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes, Alaska. Journal Volcanol. Geotherm Res.: 45: 227-254.
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
      • Mule Mts
        • Warren District
Mineralogical Record: 24: 421.
Mineralogical Record 24:421-436
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 351; Graeme, R. (1993), Bisbee revisited, Min.Rec.: 24: 421-436.
    • Coconino Co.
      • San Franciscan volcanic field (San Francisco Peaks; San Francisco Mts)
Hanson, S. L., A. U. Fastner, W. B. Simmons (2008) Mineralogy of the Fumerole deposits at Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument, Northern Arizona. Rocks & Mnerals 83:6 pp 534-544.
  • Colorado
    • El Paso Co.
      • Cheyenne District (St. Peters Dome District)
Cross and Hillebrand, 1883 - "On minerals of the Cryolite group recently found in Colorado"; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 127.
Am Min 51:299-323
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data, material of Dean Allum
Am Min 51:299-323
    • Fremont Co.
"Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 16, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; Armbrustmacher, T. J. (1988) Geology and resources of thorium and associated elements in the Wet Mountains area, Fremont and Custer counties, Colorado. USGS Professional Paper: 1049-F
  • Hawaii
    • Hawaii Co. (Hawaii Island)
Naughton, J.J., Greenberg, V.A., and Goguel, R. (1976) Incrustations and fumarolic condensates at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii: field, drill hole and laboratory observations. Journal Volcanol. Geotherm. Res.: 1: 149-165.
Hon, K., Bove, D.J., Lee, L., and Thornber, C., 2009, The origin and zonation of sublimates and precipitates in active Hawaiian lava tubes: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 41, no. 7, p.193.
  • Idaho
    • Butte Co.
Desborough & Rostad (1980), American Mineralogist: 65: 1057-1058.
  • Nevada
    • Churchill Co.
      • Lake District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Lander Co.
      • Iowa Canyon District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Mineral Co.
      • Fitting District
        • Gillis Range
Mineralogical Record: 31: 204.
  • Texas
    • Hudspeth Co.
      • Sierra Blanca Peaks
American Mineralogist: 72: 1122-1130.
  • Utah
    • Juab Co.
      • Honeycomb Hills
Rocks & Minerals: 73(3): 196-201.
  • Virginia
    • Amelia Co.
      • Winterham
[Kearns, 1995- "Alumino-Fluorides from the Morefield Pegmatite", MinRec 26:551-557]; Richards, R. P., Kearns, L. E., & Cook, W. R. (1998). Morphology of Chiolite twins from the Morefield mine, Amelia County, Virginia. Canadian mineralogist, 36, 1009-1016.
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